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Ailmemts & Remedies

Frequent urination

Alternastive Name:Urgency (the need to pass water); Urinary frequency or urgency

Definition:
Frequent urination means needing to urinate more often than usual. Urgent urination is a sudden, compelling urge to urinate, along with discomfort in your bladder.This  is  due to bladder spasms or contractions.

A frequent need to urinate at night is called nocturia. Most people can sleep for 6 to 8 hours without having to urinate. Middle aged and older men often wake to urinate once in the early morning hours.

Symptoms:
•Frequent urination, in the daytime and at night
•Involuntary loss of urine
•Sudden and urgent need to urinate (urinary urgency)

Causes:
A person’s ability to hold urine depends on normal function of the lower urinary tract, kidneys, and nervous system. The person must also have the physical and mental ability to recognize and respond to the urge to urinate.

click & see
The bladder’s ability to fill and store urine requires a working sphincter muscle (which controls the flow of urine out of the body) and a stable bladder wall muscle (detrusor).

The process of urination involves two phases:

•Filling and storage
•Emptying
During the filling and storage phase, the bladder stretches so it can hold the increasing amount of urine. The bladder of an average person can hold 350 ml to 550 ml of urine. Generally, a person feels like they need to urinate when there is approximately 200 ml of urine in the bladder.

The nervous system tells you that you need to urinate. It also allows the bladder to continue to fill.

The emptying phase requires the detrusor muscle to contract, forcing urine out of the bladder. The sphincter muscle must relax at the same time, so that urine can flow out of the body.

You may clicl & Watch this video about: Bladder function – neurological control :

The bladder of an infant automatically contracts when a certain volume of urine is collected in the bladder. As the child grows older and learns to control urination, part of the brain (cerebral cortex) helps prevent bladder muscle contraction. This allows urination to be delayed until the person is ready to use the bathroom.

Undesired bladder muscle contractions may occur from nervous system (neurological) problems and bladder irritation.

URGE INCONTINENCE

Urge incontinence is leakage of urine due to bladder muscles that contract inappropriately. Often these contractions occur regardless of the amount of urine that is in the bladder.

Together, frequent and urgent urination are classic signs of a urinary tract infection.

Diabetes, pregnancy, and prostate problems are other common causes of these symptoms.

Other causes include:

•Anxiety
•Enlarged prostate
•Interstitial cystitis
•Medicines such as diuretics
•Overactive bladder syndrome
•Prostatitis (infection of the prostate gland)
•Stroke and other brain or nervous system diseases
•Tumor or mass in the pelvis
•Urinary incontinence
•Vaginitis
•Infection
•Neurological diseases (such as multiple sclerosis)
•Neurological injuries (such as spinal cord injury or stroke)

Less common causes:
•Bladder cancer
•Bladder dysfunction
•Radiation therapy to the pelvis, used to treat certain cancers

Drinking too much before bedtime, especially caffeine or alcohol, can cause frequent urination at nighttime. Frequent urination may also simply just be a habit.
Risk Factors:
You should also think about being tested for diabetes, particularly if you’re feeling very thirsty, tired or have diabetes in the family.

Complications:
Physical complications are rare. However, psychological and social problems may arise, particularly if you are unable to get to the bathroom when you feel the urge.
Diagnosis:
Your health care provider will take a medical history and perform a physical examination. Medical history questions may include:

•When did the increased urinary frequency start?
•How many times each day are you urinating?
•Is there more frequent urination during the day or at night?
•Do you have an increased amount of urine?
•Has there been a change in the color of your urine? Does it appear lighter, darker, or more cloudy than usual? Have you noticed any blood?
•Do you have pain when urinating, or a burning sensation?
•Do you have other symptoms? Increased thirst? Pain in your abdomen? Pain in your back? Fever?
•Do you have difficulty starting the flow of urine?
•Are you drinking more fluids than usual?
•Have you had a recent bladder infection?
•Are you pregnant?
•What medications are you taking?
•Have you had any previous urinary problems?
•Have you recently changed your diet?
•Do you drink beverages containing alcohol or caffeine?

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Tests that may be done include:

•Urinalysis
•Urine culture and sensitivity tests
•Cystometry (a measurement of the pressure within the bladder)
•Cystoscopy
•Neurological tests (for some urgency problems)
•Ultrasonography (such as an abdominal ultrasound or a pelvic ultrasound)
Treatment is determined by the cause of the urgency and frequency. Antibiotics and medicine may be prescribed to lessen the discomfort, if needed.

Treatment:
The choice of treatment will depend on how severe the symptoms are, and how much they interfere with your lifestyle. There are three main treatment approaches for urge incontinence: medication, retraining, and surgery.

MEDICATION

If evidence of infection is found in a urine culture, your doctor will prescribe antibiotics.

Medications used to treat urge incontinence relax the involuntary bladder contractions and help improve bladder function. There are several types of medications that may be used alone or in combination:

•Anticholinergic medicines help relax the muscles of the bladder. They include oxybutynin (Oxytrol, Ditropan), tolterodine (Detrol), darifenacin (Enablex), trospium (Sanctura), solifenacin (Vesicare)
•These are the most commonly used medications for urge incontinence and are available in a once-a-day formula that makes dosing easy and effective.
•The most common side effects of these medicines are dry mouth and constipation. The medications cannot be used by patients with narrow angle glaucoma.
Flavoxate (Urispas) is an antispasmodic drug. However, studies have shown that it is not always effective at controlling symptoms of urge incontinence.

Tricyclic antidepressants (imipramine, doxepin) have also been used to treat urge incontinence because of their ability to “paralyze” the bladder smooth muscle. Possible side effects include:

•Blurred vision
•Dizziness
•Dry mouth
•Fatigue
•Insomnia
•Nausea
DIET

Drink plenty of water:

•Drinking enough water will help keep odors away.
•Drinking more water may even help reduce leakage.
Some experts recommend controlling fluid intake in addition to other therapies for managing urge incontinence. The goal of this program is to distribute fluids throughout the course of the day, so the bladder does not need to handle a large volume of urine at one time.

Do not drink large quantities of fluids with meals. Limit your intake to less than 8 ounces at one time. Sip small amounts of fluids between meals. Stop drinking fluids approximately 2 hours before bedtime.

It also may be helpful to eliminate foods that may irritate the bladder, such as:

•Caffeine
•Carbonated drinks
•Highly acidic foods such as citrus fruits and juices
•Spicy foods

.
BLADDER RETRAINING

Managing urge incontinence usually begins with a program of bladder retraining. Occasionally, electrical stimulation and biofeedback therapy may be used with bladder retraining.

A program of bladder retraining involves becoming aware of patterns of incontinence episodes. Then you relearn skills necessary for bladder storage and proper emptying.

Bladder retraining consists of developing a schedule of times when you should try to urinate. You try to consciously delay urination between these times.

One method is to force yourself to wait 1 to 1 1/2 hours between trips to the bathroom, despite any leakage or urge to urinate in between these times. As you become skilled at waiting, gradually increase the time intervals by 1/2 hour until you are urinating every 3 – 4 hours.

KEGEL EXERCISES……..click & see

Pelvic muscle training exercises called Kegel exercises are primarily used to treat people with stress incontinence. However, these exercises may also be beneficial in relieving the symptoms of urge incontinence.

The principle behind Kegel exercises is to strengthen the muscles of the pelvic floor to improve the function of the urethral sphincter. The success of Kegel exercises depends on proper technique and sticking to a regular exercise program.

Another approach is to use vaginal cones to strengthen the muscles of the pelvic floor. A vaginal cone is a weighted device that is inserted into the vagina. The woman contracts the pelvic floor muscles in an effort to hold the device the place. The contraction should be held for up to 15 minutes and should be performed twice daily. Within 4 – 6 weeks, about 70% of women trying this method had some improvement in symptoms.
You may click to see :1.Kegel Exercises For Men.….2.Kegel Exercises For Women

BIOFEEDBACK AND ELECTRICAL STIMULATION

Biofeedback and electrical stimulation can help identify the correct muscle group to work, to make sure you are performing Kegel exercises correctly.

Some therapists place a sensor in the vagina (for women) or the anus (for men) to assess contraction of the pelvic floor muscles. A monitor will display a graph showing which muscles are contracting and which are at rest. The therapist can help you identify the correct muscles for performing Kegel exercises.

Electrical stimulation involves using low-voltage electric current to stimulate the correct group of muscles. The current may be delivered using an anal or vaginal probe. The electrical stimulation therapy may be performed in the clinic or at home. Treatment sessions usually last 20 minutes and may be performed every 1 – 4 days.

SURGERY

Surgery can increase the storage ability of the bladder and decrease the pressure within the bladder. It is reserved for patients who are severely affected by their incontinence and have an unstable bladder (severe inappropriate contraction) and a poor ability to store urine.

Augmentation cystoplasty is the most often performed surgical procedure for severe urge incontinence. In this surgery, a segment of the bowel is added to the bladder to increase bladder size and allow the bladder to store more urine.

Possible complications are those of any major abdominal surgery, including:

•Blood clots
•Bowel obstruction
•Infection
•Pneumonia
There is a risk of developing abnormal tubelike passages (urinary fistulae) that result in abnormal urine drainage, urinary tract infection, and difficulty urinating. Augmentation cystoplasty is also linked to a slightly increased risk of developing tumors.

Sacral nerve stimulation is a newer surgical option that consists of an implanted unit that sends small electrical pulses to the sacral nerve. The electrical pulses can be adjusted to each patient’s symptoms.

ACTIVITY

People with urge incontinence may find it helpful to avoid activities that irritate the urethra and bladder, such as taking bubble baths or using harsh soaps in the genital area.

MONITORING

Urinary incontinence is a long-term (chronic) problem. Although you may be considered cured by treatment, you should continue to see your health care provider to evaluate the progress of your symptoms and monitor for possible treatment complications.
Home Care:
Follow the therapy recommended by your doctor to treat the underlying cause of your urinary frequency or urgency. It may help to keep a diary of times and amounts of urine voided to bring with you to the doctor.

In some cases, you may experience some urinary incontinence for a period of time. You may need to take steps to protect your clothing and bedding.

Prevention:
For nighttime urination, avoid excessive fluid before going to bed, particularly coffee, other caffeinated beverages, and alcohol.

Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.This is purely for educational purpose

Resources:
http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/001270.htm
http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003140.htm
http://hubpages.com/hub/Benefits-of-Kegal-Exercises
http://www.urogynics.org/pages/pops/seif/uui.html
http://www.healthcentral.com/incontinence/treatment-000050_12-145.html

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Ailmemts & Remedies

Urinary incontinence

Definition:
Urinary incontinence is the loss of bladder control. This means that you can’t always control when you urinate. Urinary incontinence can range from leaking a small amount of urine (such as when coughing or laughing) to having very strong urges to urinate that are difficult to control.
CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES
It is a common and distressing problem, which may have a profound impact on quality of life. Urinary incontinence almost always results from an underlying treatable medical condition but is under-reported to medical practitioners. There is also a related condition for defecation known as fecal incontinence.

Incontinence affects up to 20 per cent of the older female population. One factor is declining oestrogen levels after the menopause.

Urinary incontinence is less common in men but still occurs, especially if the man has any sort of prostate disease or is frail and weak.

It’s more frequent in people with reduced mobility and other medical problems, as they’re less able to get to the toilet when necessary.

It’s a common problem among people living in residential or nursing homes.

If you leak a small amount of urine when you cough, laugh or move (or without any obvious trigger), it’s worth talking to your doctor. Incontinence isn’t an inevitable part of growing older and you don’t have to accept it.

Faecal incontinence is even more abnormal and usually requires investigation.

Physiology of continence:
Continence and micturition involve a balance between urethral closure and detrusor muscle activity. Urethral pressure normally exceeds bladder pressure, resulting in urine remaining in the bladder. The proximal urethra and bladder are both within the pelvis. Intraabdominal pressure increases (from coughing and sneezing) are transmitted to both urethra and bladder equally, leaving the pressure differential unchanged, resulting in continence. Normal voiding is the result of changes in both of these pressure factors: urethral pressure falls and bladder pressure rises.

Causes:
*Polyuria (excessive urine production) of which, in turn, the most frequent causes are: uncontrolled diabetes mellitus, primary polydipsia (excessive fluid drinking), central diabetes insipidus and nephrogenic diabetes insipidus.  Polyuria generally causes urinary urgency and frequency, but doesn’t necessarily lead to incontinence.

*Caffeine or cola beverages also stimulate the bladder.

*Enlarged prostate is the most common cause of incontinence in men after the age of 40; sometimes prostate cancer may also be associated with urinary incontinence. Moreover drugs or radiation used to treat prostate cancer can also cause incontinence.

*Brain disorders like multiple sclerosis, Parkinson’s disease, strokes and spinal cord injury can all interfere with nerve function of the bladder.

Types:
*TypesStress incontinence, also known as effort incontinence, is due essentially to insufficient strength of the pelvic floor muscles.

*Urge incontinence is involuntary loss of urine occurring for no apparent reason while suddenly feeling the need or urge to urinate.

*Overflow incontinence: Sometimes people find that they cannot stop their bladders from constantly dribbling, or continuing to dribble for some time after they have passed urine. It is as if their bladders were like a constantly overflowing pan, hence the general name overflow incontinence.

*Mixed incontinence is not uncommon in the elderly female population and can sometimes be complicated by urinary retention, which makes it a treatment challenge requiring staged multimodal treatment.

*Structural incontinence: Rarely, structural problems can cause incontinence, usually diagnosed in childhood, for example an ectopic ureter. Fistulas caused by obstetric and gynecologic trauma or injury can also lead to incontinence. These types of vaginal fistulas include most commonly, vesicovaginal fistula, but more rarely ureterovaginal fistula. These may be difficult to diagnose. The use of standard techniques along with a vaginogram or radiologically viewing the vaginal vault with instillation of contrast media.

*Functional incontinence occurs when a person recognizes the need to urinate, but cannot physically make it to the bathroom in time due to limited mobility. The urine loss may be large. Causes of functional incontinence include confusion, dementia, poor eyesight, poor mobility, poor dexterity, unwillingness to toilet because of depression, anxiety or anger, drunkenness, or being in a situation in which it is impossible to reach a toilet.  People with functional incontinence may have problems thinking, moving, or communicating that prevent them from reaching a toilet. A person with Alzheimer’s Disease, for example, may not think well enough to plan a timely trip to a restroom. A person in a wheelchair may be blocked from getting to a toilet in time. Conditions such as these are often associated with age and account for some of the incontinence of elderly women and men in nursing homes.  Disease or biology is not necessarily the cause of functional incontinence. For example, someone on a road trip may be between rest stops and on the highway; also, there may be problems with the restrooms in the vicinity of a person.

*Bedwetting is episodic UI while asleep. It is normal in young children.
Transient incontinence is a temporary version of incontinence. It can be triggered by medications, adrenal insufficiency, mental impairment, restricted mobility, and stool impaction (severe constipation), which can push against the urinary tract and obstruct outflow.

*Giggle incontinence is an involuntary response to laughter. It usually affects children.

Diagnosis:
Patients with incontinence should be referred to a medical practitioner specializing in this field. Urologists specialize in the urinary tract, and some urologists further specialize in the female urinary tract. A urogynecologist is a gynecologist who has special training in urological problems in women. Gynecologists and obstetricians specialize in the female reproductive tract and childbirth and some also treat urinary incontinence in women. Family practitioners and internists see patients for all kinds of complaints and can refer patients on to the relevant specialists.

A careful history taking is essential especially in the pattern of voiding and urine leakage as it suggests the type of incontinence faced. Other important points include straining and discomfort, use of drugs, recent surgery, and illness.

The physical examination will focus on looking for signs of medical conditions causing incontinence, such as tumors that block the urinary tract, stool impaction, and poor reflexes or sensations, which may be evidence of a nerve-related cause.

A test often performed is the measurement of bladder capacity and residual urine for evidence of poorly functioning bladder muscles.

Other tests include:
*Stress test – the patient relaxes, then coughs vigorously as the doctor watches for loss of urine.

*Urinalysis – urine is tested for evidence of infection, urinary stones, or other contributing causes.

*Blood tests – blood is taken, sent to a laboratory, and examined for substances related to causes of incontinence.

*Ultrasound – sound waves are used to visualize the kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra.

*Cystoscopy – a thin tube with a tiny camera is inserted in the urethra and used to see the inside of the urethra and bladder.

*Urodynamics – various techniques measure pressure in the bladder and the flow of urine.

Patients are often asked to keep a diary for a day or more, up to a week, to record the pattern of voiding, noting times and the amounts of urine produced

Treatment:
The treatment options range from conservative treatment, behavior management, medications and surgery. In all cases, the least invasive treatment is started first. The success of treatment depends on the correct diagnoses in the first place.

Most treatment options are most appropriate for a specific underlying cause of the incontinence (though these can overlap if there is a mixed component to the incontinence.) However, some approaches (such as use of absorbent products) address the problem symptomatically, and can be applicable to more than one type. It is also sometimes possible to use a treatment for the pathophysiology of one type of incontinence to provide relief for an unrelated type of incontinence.

The Doctor may also suggest self-help techniques you can try before resorting to medication.

For example :-
Kegel exercises:
•To locate the right muscles, try stopping or slowing your urine flow without using your stomach, leg or buttock muscles. When you’re able to slow or stop the stream of urine, you’ve located the right muscles.
•Squeeze your muscles. Hold for a count of 10. Relax for a count of 10.
•Repeat this 10 to 20 times, 3 times a day.
•You may need to start slower, perhaps squeezing and relaxing your muscles for 4 seconds each and doing this 10 times, 2 times a day. Work your way up from there.

….

Bladder training:...CLICK & SEE
Some people who have urge incontinence can learn to lengthen the time between urges to go to the bathroom. You start by urinating at set intervals, such as every 30 minutes to 2 hours (whether you feel the need to go or not). Then gradually lengthen the time between when you urinate (for example, by 30 minutes) until you’re urinating every 3 to 4 hours.

You can practice relaxation techniques when you feel the urge to urinate before it is time to go to the bathroom. Breathe slowly and deeply. Think about your breathing until the urge goes away. You can also do Kegel exercises if they help control your urge.

After the urge passes, wait 5 minutes and then go to the bathroom even if you don’t feel you need to go. If you don’t go, you might not be able to control your next urge. When it’s easy to wait 5 minutes after an urge, begin waiting 10 minutes. Bladder training may take 3 to 12 weeks.

•Retraining the bladder with regular trips to the toilet can help, especially when the bladder has been overstretched by ‘holding on’ or failing to empty it completely.

•Bowel retraining can help some forms of faecal incontinence. It’s also important to make motions as formed and regular as possible, using dietary changes and medication as necessary.

•Exercises can help women to strengthen pelvic floor muscles that have been damaged or stretched during childbirth.

•Some women find it hard to become aware of, and so exercise, their pelvic floor muscles. There are a number of devices that doctors, incontinence nurses or physiotherapists can recommend which can help. These are put in the vagina where they either mechanically or electrically trigger the muscles to contract automatically. They are fairly simple to use, very discreet and have been shown to improve continence.

•It can be helpful to treat any problems that increase pressure on the bladder, such as constipation and fibroids. Losing excess weight may also help.

•Drugs are available to treat urinary incontinence, depending on the cause. Most improve the muscle tone of the bladder. These may have to be taken for at least several months.

Urinary incontinence isn’t a serious disease or life-threatening, but it can seriously disrupt quality of life. With the appropriate treatment it may be cured or improved dramatically. There’s no need for anyone to suffer in silence.

Faecal incontinence may require surgery.

Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.This is purely for educational purpose

Resources:
http://www.bbc.co.uk/health/physical_health/conditions/incontinence.shtml
http://familydoctor.org/online/famdocen/home/women/gen-health/189.html
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Urinary_incontinence
http://www.lifespan.org/adam/indepthreports/10/000050.html

http://www.doh.state.fl.us/Family/wh/lifespan/Middleage/urinary.html

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Ailmemts & Remedies

Glomerulonephritis

Alternative Names: Glomerulonephritis – chronic; Chronic nephritis; Glomerular disease; Necrotizing glomerulonephritis; Glomerulonephritis – crescentic; Crescentic glomerulonephritis; Rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis

Definition:
Glomerulonephritis is a type of kidney disease in which the part of your kidneys that helps filter waste and fluids from the blood is damaged.

It is an inflammation of the tiny filters in your kidneys (glomeruli). Glomeruli remove excess fluid, electrolytes and waste from your bloodstream and pass them into your urine.


You may click to see the picture

The inflammation can be caused by many different conditions. but is usually due to an overactivity of the immune system.

Glomerulonephritis can be acute — a sudden attack of inflammation — or chronic — coming on gradually.

If glomerulonephritis occurs on its own, it’s known as primary glomerulonephritis. If another disease, such as lupus or diabetes, is the cause, it’s called secondary glomerulonephritis. If severe or prolonged, the inflammation associated with glomerulonephritis can damage your kidneys. Treatment depends on the type of glomerulonephritis you have.

Symptoms:
There are seven different types of glomerulonephritis, that present in very different ways. For some types, symptoms can include ankle swelling that develops over months or years. For others, shortness-of-breath over days or weeks (due to water in the lungs) causing a rapid onset of kidney failure.

The outlook is also variable, from complete recovery with no treatment, to end-stage renal failure (ESRF), requiring dialysis and/or a transplant. Some types of glomerulonephritis can return in a transplant.

The various symptoms of the different types also include:
*Swelling of the face, eyes and legs
*Reduction in urine volume
*Dark urine (containing blood which may not be visible)
*Headaches and visual disturbances
*Drowsiness
*Tiredness and general malaise (feeling ill)
*Nausea
*Loss of appetite
*Rashes and itchy skin
*Pink or cola-colored urine from red blood cells in your urine (hematuria)
*Foamy urine due to excess protein (proteinuria)
*High blood pressure (hypertension)
*Fluid retention (edema) with swelling evident in your face, hands, feet and abdomen
*Fatigue from anemia or kidney failure

Tests for the condition show protein, blood cells, and kidney cells in the urine, while a high concentration of the body’s waste products (such as urea and creatinine) may be found in the blood.

Swabs of the throat may show there’s been a streptococcal infection, while blood tests may be used to check for antibodies to streptococci or other infections, or signs of an abnormal immune response.

All patients will need a kidney biopsy (removal of a piece of kidney with a needle) to make a definite diagnosis.

Sometimes when there are no symptoms, the problem is picked up by a routine blood test, or during investigation of high blood pressure

Causes:
Primary causes are ones which are intrinsic to the kidney, whilst secondary causes are associated with certain infections (bacterial, viral or parasitic pathogens), drugs, systemic disorders (SLE, vasculitis) or diabetes.

Glomerulonephritis may be caused by specific problems with the body’s immune system. Often, the precise cause of glomerulonephritis is unknown.

Damage to the glomeruli causes blood and protein to be lost in the urine.

The condition may develop quickly, with loss of kidney function occurring over weeks and months (called rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis).

In about a quarter of people with chronic glomerulonephritis there is no history of kidney disease and the disorder first appears as chronic renal failure.

Risk Factors:
The following increase your risk of developing this condition:
•History of cancer
•Blood or lymphatic system disorders
•Exposure to hydrocarbon solvents
•Infections such as strep infections, viruses, heart infections,or abscesses
•Diabetes
Many conditions are known to cause or increase the risk for glomerulonephritis, including:
•Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis
•Goodpasture syndrome
•Membranoproliferative GN
•IgA nephropathy
•Lupus nephritis or Henoch-Schonlein purpura
•Anti-glomerular basement membrane antibody disease
•Blood vessel diseases such as vasculitis or polyarteritis
•Amyloidosis

In most cases, no cause is found. Though in a few patients, they may be ‘set off’ by an infection or a cancer. Post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis is now extremely rare

There is also a very serious type called ’rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis’ (RPGN), which can follow a flu-like illness in the month before symptoms start in 50 per cent of patients. This can cause kidney failure in days or weeks and can be linked to bleeding from the lungs, causing blood to be coughed up.

Diagnosis:
Specific signs and symptoms may suggest glomerulonephritis, but the condition often comes to light when a routine urinalysis is abnormal. Because symptoms develop gradually, the disorder may be discovered when there is an abnormal urinalysis during a routine physical or examination for unrelated disorders.

Glomerulonephritis can cause high blood pressure. It may only be discovered as a cause of high blood pressure that is difficult to control.

Laboratory tests may reveal anemia or show signs of reduced kidney functioning. A kidney biopsy confirms the diagnosis.

Later, signs of chronic kidney failure may be seen, including swelling (edema), polyneuropathy, and signs of fluid overload, including abnormal heart and lung sounds.

Imaging tests that may be done include:
•Abdominal CT scan
•Abdominal ultrasound
•Chest x-ray
•IVP

Urinalysis and other urine tests include:
•Examination of the urine under a microscope
•Creatinine clearance
•Total protein
•Uric acid, urine
•Urine concentration test
•Urine creatinine
•Urine protein
•Urine RBC
•Urine specific gravity

This disease may also affect the results of the following blood tests:
•Albumin
•Anti-glomerular basement membrane antibody test
•Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCAs)
•BUN and creatinine
•Complement component 3
•Complement levels

Treatment:
Treatment varies depending on the cause of the disorder, and the type and severity of symptoms. High blood pressure may be difficult to control, and it is generally the most important aspect of treatment.

Medicines that may be prescribed include:
•Blood pressure medications are often needed to control high blood pressure. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers are most commonly prescribed.
•Corticosteroids may relieve symptoms in some cases.
•Medications that suppress the immune system may also be prescribed, depending on the cause of the condition.

A procedure called plasmapheresis may be used for some cases of glomerulonephritis due to immune-related causes. The fluid part of the blood containing antibodies is removed and replaced with intravenous fluids or donated plasma (without antibodies). Removing antibodies may reduce inflammation in the kidney tissues.

Dietary restrictions on salt, fluids, protein, and other substances may be recommended.

Persons with this condition should be closely watched for signs that they are developing kidney failure. Dialysis or a kidney transplant may eventually be necessary.

Lifestyle and home remedies:-
Your doctor may recommend lifestyle changes, including:

*Restricting salt intake to prevent or minimize fluid retention, swelling and hypertension

*Cutting back on protein and potassium consumption to slow the buildup of wastes in your blood

*Maintaining a healthy weight

*Controlling your blood sugar level if you have diabetes

Possible Complications:
•Nephrotic syndrome
•Acute nephritic syndrome
•Chronic kidney failure
•End-stage kidney disease
•Hypertension
•Malignant hypertension
•Fluid overload — congestive heart failure, pulmonary edema
•Chronic or recurrent urinary tract infection
•Increased susceptibility to other infections
•Hyperkalemia

Prognosis:
Glomerulonephritis may be a temporary and reversible condition, or it may get worse. Progressive glomerulonephritis may lead to chronic kidney failure and end-stage kidney disease.

If you have nephrotic syndrome and it can be controlled, other symptoms may also be controlled. If it can’t be controlled, end-stage kidney disease may result.

Prevention:
There is no specific way to prevent most cases of glomerulonephritis. Some cases may be prevented by avoiding or limiting exposure to organic solvents, mercury, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs).

Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.This is purely for educational purpose.

Resources:
http://www.bbc.co.uk/health/physical_health/conditions/in_depth/kidneys/glomerulonephritis1.shtml
http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000484.htm
http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/glomerulonephritis/DS00503
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glomerulonephritis

http://www.marvistavet.com/html/body_glomerulonephritis.html

http://www.butler.org/body.cfm?id=125&chunkiid=96731

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Study Supports Cranberry Dose Levels for Urinary Health

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The effect of cranberry proanthocyanidins (PACs) is dependent on the dose. Higher doses are significantly more effective at maintaining urinary health.

A new study supports the theory that at least 36 milligrams of proanthocyanidins (PAC) are needed to reduce the adhesion of E. coli bacteria to urinary tract walls. A lower dose proved to be less effective.

However, according to NutraIngredients:

“On the other hand, a higher dose of 72 mg was even more efficient at protecting against bacterial adhesion in the urinary tract, according to findings published in the open-access journal BMC Infectious Diseases.”

Source: NutraIngredients June 1, 2010

Posted By Dr. Mercola | April 20 2011

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How To Recognize The Signs And Symptoms Of Prostate Problems

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It’s embarrassing. It’s annoying. It’s exasperating. And it’s controllable. We’re talking about the distressing inconvenience of the side effects associated with prostate problems. This often means midnight treks to the bathroom to pee, pain when you start and end urination and dribbling when you’re done. It can be frustrating when nothing you do seems to help, no matter how careful you try to be.

The key to controlling these symptoms is understanding what causes them, so you can learn how to cope and prevent them in the future.

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The walnut-sized prostate gland is situated at the base of the bladder. The urethra runs from the bladder through the prostate and through the penis. As the prostate gets bigger, it constricts the flow of fluid through the urethra, contributing to several unpleasant and annoying symptoms:

*A need to urinate frequently during the night
*Urinating more often during the day
*Urinary urgency—a strong and sudden urge to pee
*Slow-to-start urine stream
*Lack of force in the urinary stream
*A slight stinging at the beginning and end of urination
*Urine “dribbling” some time after urination ends
*The sensation that the bladder hasn’t been emptied entirely
*The need to urinate again only a few minutes later
For the most part, these symptoms by themselves don’t require medical attention. They can often be controlled by certain urination management techniques that you can practice on your own. If the symptoms are particularly bothersome to you, consult a healthcare professional for help. In particular, you should seek medical care if you experience these symptoms:

*Inability to urinate
*Painful urination
*Blood in the urine
*Discharges from the penis other than urine
*Continuous or severe urinary incontinence
More often than not, using self-help management techniques and natural supplements such as saw palmetto, pumpkin seed, lycopene, red clover and nettle can help manage your prostate health. It’s important to remember that frequent urination, stinging and dribbling are often not a threat to your health or your life, although they can be awkward and embarrassing.

You may click to see :Prostrate Problems Blog

Non-Cancerous Prostate Problems:-

The following are some of the most common non-cancerous prostate problems, their symptoms, and treatment options:

1. Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH)

This problem occurs when the prostate gets enlarged. The prostate then blocks the urethra making it difficult to urinate. It causes a person to have a frequent urge to urinate and may cause urine to dribble. You need to see a doctor who will then conduct a rectal examination to diagnose the problem.

If your condition is not causing any problems, the doctor may advise annual checkups only. Treatment will be prescribed only if your situation gets worse later on. There are medications that can cause you prostate to shrink or can relax the muscles near the prostate. However, these medicines can cause side effects such as sexual problems, headaches, dizziness, or fatigue.

Surgery is usually advised only when the medications are not effective. Radio waves, Microwaves, and Lasers are used to treat BPH-related problems.

2. Acute Prostatitis

This condition is caused due to a bacterial infection of the prostate. It causes fever, chills, pain in the lower back, pain between legs, or pain while urinating. A host of medications are available to treat Prostatitis, but hey will be prescribed by your doctor. Do not take over the counter drugs.

3. Chronic Bacterial Prostatitis

This is a chronic condition caused by a bacterial infection. You may need to take antibiotics for a long time for the situation to improve. Even then, this infection may recur again and a recurrence is usually quite difficult to treat.

4. Chronic Abacterial Prostatitis

This condition is also known as Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome (CPPS). It causes pain in the lower back, at the tip of the penis, or between the legs. You may also have pain during sex or may need to urinate frequently. This situation is also hard to treat and may require more than one form of treatment.

Reources :

Better Health Research
Posts Tagged ‘Prostate

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