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Artemisia maritima

Botanical Name : Artemisia maritima
Family: Asteraceae
Genus: Artemisia
Species:A. maritima
Kingdom : Plantae
Order: Asterales

Synonyms:
*Artemisia pseudogallica (Rouy) A.W.Hill
*Artemisia salina Willd.

Common Names: Sea wormwood and Old woman.

Habitat : Artemisia maritima is native to coastal regions of France, the United Kingdom, Italy, Belgium, Germany, Sweden and Russia.It grows on the drier parts of salt marshes in sand and shingle.

Description:
Artemisia maritima is a deciduous Shrub growing to 0.6 m (2ft). It is in flower from Aug to September. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Wind.Suitable for: light (sandy) and medium (loamy) soils, prefers well-drained soil and can grow in nutritionally poor soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils and can grow in saline soils.

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It cannot grow in the shade. It prefers dry or moist soil and can tolerate drought. The plant can tolerate maritime exposure.
Cultivation:
Succeeds in any soil but prefers a poor dry soil with a warm aspect. Easily grown in a well-drained circumneutral or slightly alkaline loamy soil, preferring a sunny position. Plants are longer lived, more hardy and more aromatic when they are grown in a poor dry soil. Tolerates a pH in the range 6.0 to 7.6. Dislikes shade. Established plants are very drought tolerant. Tolerates maritime exposure. The whole plant has a sweet aromatic smell. Plants in this genus are notably resistant to honey fungus. Members of this genus are rarely if ever troubled by browsing deer.
Propagation:
Seed – surface sow from late winter to early summer in a greenhouse, making sure that the compost does not dry out. When large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on in the greenhouse for their first winter. Plant out in late spring or early summer. Cuttings of half-ripe wood, July/August in a frame. Division in spring or autumn.

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Edible Uses: Condiment….The leaves are occasionally used as a flavouring. Some caution is advised, see the notes below on toxicity.

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Medicinal Uses:

Anthelmintic; Antiseptic; Antispasmodic; Carminative; Cholagogue; Emmenagogue; Febrifuge; Stimulant; Stomachic; Tonic; Vermifuge.
Sea wormwood is not much used in herbal medicine, though it is often used domestically. Its medicinal virtues are similar to wormwood, A. absinthum, though milder in their action. It is used mainly as a tonic to the digestive system, in treating intermittent fevers and as a vermifuge[4]. The leaves and flowering shoots are anthelmintic, antiseptic, antispasmodic, carminative, cholagogue, emmenagogue, febrifuge, stimulant, stomachic, tonic and vermifuge. The plant is harvested as it comes into flower and is dried for later use. The unexpanded floral heads contain the vermicide ‘santonin’.

Other Uses:
Repellent; Strewing.

The growing shoots are said to repel insects and mice, they have also been used as a strewing herb. An infusion is said to discourage slugs and insects

Known Hazards: The following notes are from a report on the closely related A. absinthum, they quite possibly also apply to this species. The plant is poisonous if used in large quantities. Even small quantities have been known to cause nervous disorders, convulsions, insomnia etc. Just the scent of the plant has been known to cause headaches and nervousness in some people.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Artemisia_maritima
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Artemisia+maritima

Althea (Althea officinalis)/Mallow

Botanical Name: Althaea officinalis
Family:    Malvaceae
Genus:    Althaea
Specis:    A. officinalis
Kingdom:    Plantae
Order:    Malvales

Common Name: Marshmallow,Althaea officinalis,Althaea,althea,Althea Root,Althaeae folium,althaea leaf, Althaea officinalis L. var robusta,althaeae radi,althaea radix,Althea, althea leaf, althea root, Altheia, Apothekerstockmalve (German),bismalva (Italian), buonvischio (Italian), cheeses, Eibischwurzel (German),Guimauve (French), gul hatem (Turkish), Herba Malvae, hitmi (Turkish),Hock Herb,kitmi (Turkish),march mallow,Marsh mallow,Mortification Root,Mallards,Sweetweed,sweet weed, mallards, guimauve, mortification plant,Malvaceae (family), malvacioni (Italian), malvavisco (Spanish), malve, mucilage, Racine De Guimauve, sweet weed, witte malve, Schloss Tea,schloss tea,Wymote, wymote

Other Names: Mallards, Marshmallow, Schloss Tea, Mortification Root,  Sweet Weed, Hock Herb, Wymote, Mauls, Cheeses.Jaba

Habitat: Althea’s original habitat was in salty marshes or wet, brackish uncultivated ground in southern Europe, but it is now established throughout southern Britain and Europe, Australia and eastern North America. It is cultivated in Belgium, France and Germany.

Description:
Mallows are perennial and annual growing wild along road sides and in waste places throughout most of North America and in cultivation. Most are native and easily cultivated in well drained soil and likes full sun to partial shade. In Low mallow the stem is more like a vine but has upright leaves and flowers. Fruits are round and flat and look like a sliced round cheese, hence the name cheeses or cheese plant. Low mallow has rounded, 5 to 7 lobed leaves that have rounded or scalloped teeth along the edge and long leaf stems. The leaves of Marsh mallow are more pointed and heart shaped, stems are upright and grow to about 4 feet. Both of these plants are covered with a fine down or hair. Rose mallow is a much larger plant with larger flowers and leaves are slightly to 3 lobes, not covered with down. The flowers in all are white to light purple or pink (dark purple center in rose mallow) with five petals and grow from the leaf axils (the point the leaf stalk attaches to the stem). Blooming from May to November. Low Mallow is gathered while in full bloom the above ground plant (best used fresh), collect roots of Marsh mallow in fall (used fresh or dried). Gather flowers, leaves and young buds from Rose mallow in bloom and roots in the fall.

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The leaves are simple and alternately arranged with toothed margins.
The flowers are large and trumpet-shaped with five or more petals, ranging from white to pink, red, purple or yellow. Kenaf, species of Hibiscus is extensively used in paper making. While roselle is used as a vegetable and to make herbal teas and jams. The popular jamaican drink in Mexico is made from calyces of the roselle plant. In Egypt and Sudan, the roselle petals are used to make a tea called karkade.The Hibiscus is used as an offering to Goddess Kali and Lord Ganesha in Hindu worship. Hibiscus, especially white hibiscus is considered to have medicinal properties in the Indian traditional system of medicine, Ayurveda. Roots are used to make various decoctions believed to cure various ailments.

Althea is an erect perennial herb, reaching a height of up to 2 to 4 feet. The leaves are stalked, three to five lobed, pale green, and velvety with stellate gray hairs. In the first year it grows a non-flowering stem. The light red to pale pink or white flowers appear from June to September in the second year. Red united stamens grow on short stalks in the upper axils. The sepals are ovate, curving over the hairy fruit. The flower petals are sometimes shallowly notched, and have purplish anthers.

History: The name Althea is derived from the Greek Altho, meaning to heal, and its medicinal qualities have been recognized since Ancient Egyptian times. Theophrastus reported that the root could be added to sweet wine to relieve coughs. Horace and Martial mentioned the laxative properties of the leaves and root; and Pliny wrote that “whosoever shall take a spoonful of the Mallows shall that day be free from all diseases that may come to him”. Marshmallow is mentioned in the Bible and in Arabic and Chinese history as a valuable food during times of famine.

Collection: The leaves are collected in summer during the flowering period. The root is unearthed in late autumn from plants which are at least two years old; it should be cleaned of root fibres and cork and dried immediately

Constituents and Phytochemicals: Asparagin, mucilage, pictin, fixed oil, sugar, starch, salts.Marshmallow root contains about 37% starch, 11-35% mucilage(consisting largely of xylan and glucoseans), 11% pectin, flavonoid glycosides, phenolic acids, sucrose,asparagine,oil,pectin,tannins,sugar,phosphate of lime, glutinous matter,cellulose,polysaccharides, phytosterols, fatty acid esters and a lecithin.

Mucilage, l8-35%; consisting of a number of polysaccharides; one is composed of L-rhamnose, D-galactose, D-galacturonic acid and D-glucuronic acid in the ratio 3:2:3:3, another a highly branched L-arabifurranan, another a trisaccharide structural unit and one with a high proportion of uronic acid units.

The constituents in marshmallow are large carbohydrate (sugar) molecules which make up mucilage. This smooth, slippery substance can soothe and protect irritated mucous membranes. Although marshmallow has primarily been used for the respiratory and digestive tracts, its high mucilage content may also provide some relief for the urinary tract and skin.

Marshmallow leaves contains:Up to 10% mucilage,including a low molecular weight D-glucan.Flavanoids such a kaempferol, quercitin and diosmetin glucosides.Scopoletin, a coumarin.Polyphenolic acids, including syringic, caffeic, salicyclic, vanillic, p-coumaric etc.

General Properties
The flowers are edible and make an attractive addition to a salad. The leaves and roots abound in mucilage, Okra is also a family member. See more recipes for Marshmallow below. The proven active constituents in these plants are Asparagine, Althein, Ascorbic-acid, flavonol glycosides (including gossypin-3-sulfate), Malvin, Pectin, Phenolic-acids, Quercetin, Salicylic-acid, and Sucose.
Medicinal Uses and Indications:

Medicinal virtues:Bodily Influence of Marshmallow Root

Pessional herbalists may recommend marshmallow for the following health problems based on its long history of use in traditional healing systems, as well as results of laboratory and animal studies.

The primary use of Marshmallow herb is to relieve digestive and respiratory problems, such as coughs, colds, sore throats, and asthma, but is also recommended for Crohn’s disease or ulcers in reducing discomfort, diarrhea, fluid retention, and skin inflammation.

Asthma,Antitussive;Bronchitis,Common cold/sore throat ,Cough Demulcent;Crohn’s disease,Diuretic;Diarrhea,Emollient; Laxative;Gastritis,Odontalgic,Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD),Indigestion,Pap smear (abnormal),Peptic ulcer,Ulcerative colitis.

Astringent: This herb has a constricting or binding effect, for example: one that checks hemorrhages or secretions by coagulation of proteins on a soft surface.
Cooling soother to mucous membranes. For bronchitis and irritating coughs. externally useful in varicose veins.
Demulcent: This herb softens and soothes damaged or inflamed surfaces such as the gastric mucous membranes.
Diuretic: This herb increases the secretion and flow of urine.
Eases gastrointestinal irritation.
Emollient: This herb softens and soothes inflamed tissue; softens and protects the skin.
Energetic Functions: Transforms hot phlegm, Nourishes Lung yin, Tonifies Stomach yin and clears Stomach fire, Clears damp heat in the lower burner, Promotes lactation, Stops bleeding.
Galactogogue: This herb promotes the flow of milk.
Inflammatory bowel diseases such as Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis.May reduce certain kinds of inflammation, such as that of the urinary tract.
Intestines:A Gentle Supportive Agent to the Intestines.
Laxative: This herb stimulates bowel movements.
Lithotriptic: This herb dissolves urinary calculi (stones).
May reduce certain kinds of inflammation, such as that of the urinary tract.
Mucilant: This herb protects mucous membranes and inflamed tissues.
Mucosal Tissue:Promotes Healthy Mucosal Tissue.
Nutritive: This herb helps with the process of assimilating food and has the property of nourishing.
Stomach ulcers.
Strengthens the mucous membranes as well as the respiratory system.
Supports the kidneys and bladder.
Tonic: This herb restores, nourishes, and supports the entire body; it exerts a gently strengthening effect on the body
Weight loss aid (marshmallow swells with fluid and gives a sense of fullness).
Western Functions: Demulcent, nutritive, alterative,diuretic, emollient, vulnerary, laxative
Wound healing.
Vulnerary: This herb assists in the healing of wounds by protecting against infection and stimulating cell growth

Traditional Applications in Herbal Medicine:
Marshmallow has been used in traditional European medicines for more than two thousand years. Its therapeutic use was first recorded in the ninth century B.C.E.; it was widely used in Greek medicine. Eaten as food, its non-absorbable polysaccharides coat mucous membranes and absorb toxins.

Valuable and handsome herb with a long tradition of use in medicine and cosmetics, and as a vegetable and confection. Cultivated by the Romans.Marshmallow (Althaea officinalis) originated in central Asia but now has spread westward to Europe and eastward to China. The plant has been used since the time of the Romans when it was a vegetable delicacy. The leaves, root, and flowers are all used medicinally. Marshmallow contains mucilage polysaccharides. Mucilage can inhibit mucociliary transport, stimulate phagocytosis, suppress cough, increase the anti-inflammatory effects of desamethasone, and have hypoglycemic activity. Mucilage may also have antimicrobial, spasmolytic, antisecretory, diuretic, and wound-healing effects. In traditional folk medicines, marshmallow has been used for broncitis, cough, as well as inflammation of the mouth, throat, urinary tract, skin, and digestive system.

Even though Marshmallow herb was the inspiration behind sweet campfire treats, its medicinal uses date back to ancient Grecian times. Hippocrates used it for the treatment of bruises and blood loss. Subsequent Roman physicians recommended it for toothaches, insect bites, chilblains, and irritated skin. Medieval European herbalists also used Marshmallow for coughs, sore throats, indigestion, and diarrhea. Today Marshmallow is used to aid the body in expelling excess fluid and mucus, and soothes and heals skin and mucous membranes.

Marshmallow (Althea officinalis):the herb, not the white puffy confection roasted over a campfire,has been used for centuries as both a food and a medicine. Its botanical name comes from the Greek word “altho,” which means “to cure.” The Romans, Chinese, Egyptians, and Syrians used marshmallow as a source of food, while the Arabs made poultices from its leaves and applied this to the skin to reduce inflammation. The mucilage, or gummy secretion, in the leaves and particularly the root is helpful for soothing sore throats, chapped skin, and minor wounds.

The below uses are based on tradition or scientific theories. They often have not been thoroughly tested in humans, and safety and effectiveness have not always been proven. Some of these conditions are potentially serious, and should be evaluated by a qualified healthcare provider.

Abscesses (topical), antidote to poisons, aphrodisiac, arthritis, bee stings, boils (topical), bronchitis, bruises (topical), burns (topical), cancer, chilblains, colitis, congestion, constipation, cough, Crohn’s disease, cystitis, demulcent, dermatitis (topical), diarrhea, diuretic, diverticulitis, duodenal ulcer, emollient, enteritis, expectorant, gastroenteritis, gum health, inflammation of the small intestine, immunostimulant, impotence, indigestion, inflammation, insect bites, irritable bowel syndrome, kidney stones, laxative, minor wounds, mouthwash, mucilage, muscular pain, pap smear (abnormal), peptic ulcer disease, polyuria, soothing agent, sore throat, sprains, skin ulcers (topical), toothache, ulcerative colitis, urethritis, urinary tract infection, urinary tract irritation, varicose ulcers (topical), vomiting, whitening agent, whooping cough, wound healing.

Demulcent, emmolient, diuretic, anti-inflammatory, expectorant, mucilaginous.
Its abundance of mucilage makes Marshmallow an excellent demulcent that is indicated wherever such an action is called for. The roots have been used for the digestive system whilst the leaves are used for the urinary system and lungs. All inflammatory conditions of the gastro-intestina tract will benefit from its use, e.g. inflammations of the mouth, gastritis, peptic ulceration, colitis etc.. The leaves help in cystitis, urethritis and urinary gravel as well as bronchitis, respiratory catarrh, irritating coughs.
Externally the herb is often used in drawing ointments for abscesses and boils or as an emollient for varicose veins and ulcers.
For many years marshmallow plants have been used to relieve coughs and sore throats, as well as for chapped skin and minor wounds.

Combinations: For pulmonary problems, Althaea herba may be combined with Marrubium, Glycyrrhiza and/or Tussilago. In ulcerative conditions, both internal or external, Althaea radix may be combined with Symphytum. It may also be used with Glycyrrhiza, Marrubium and/or Lobelia for coughs, and with Ulmus as a poultice or ointment for wounds, ulcers, boils and eczema.

Marshmallow (not to be confused with confectionery marshmallows, which are a product of the modern food industry) has long been used to treat coughs and sore throats.Because of its high mucilage content, this plant is soothing and healing to inflamed mucous membranes. Additionally, it was used to treat chapped skin, chilblains, and even minor wounds.

Althaea root is used primarily for digestive problems and topically on the skin, whilst the leaf is used particularly to treat the lungs and the urinary system, although both root and leaf have similar properties.

The leaves and roots boiled in water, with Parsley or Fennel roots and applied warm to the belly, helps to open the body and cool hot agues. It gives abundance of milk to nursing mothers. The decoction of the seed in milk or wine helps pleurisy and other diseases of the chest and lungs.

The juice drank in wine helps women to a speedy and easy delivery. The leaves bruised and laid to the eyes with a little honey, takes away the imposthumations of them. For stings of bees or wasps, the leaves bruised and rubbed into the place will take away the pain, inflammation and swelling.

A poultice made of the leaves with some Bean or Barley-flour, and Oil of Roses, is an especial remedy against all hard tumours and inflammations, imposthumes, or swellings of the testicles. The juice boiled in oil takes away roughness of the skin, scurf or dry scabs in the head. An excellent gargle to heal sore throat or mouth is made by boiling the flowers in oil or water and adding a little honey and Alum. The roots boiled in wine or honeyed water and drank is of special use for coughs, hoarseness, shortness of breath and wheezing.

The roots and seeds boiled in wine or water are profitable against ruptures, cramps or convulsions of the sinews, and boiled in white wine for kernels that rise behind the ears, and inflammations or swellings in women’s breasts. The mucilage of the roots, with Linseed and Fenugreek, is much used in poultices, ointments and plasters to mollify and digest hard swellings and to ease pains in any part of the body.

History and folklore:
Used in 200 Bc under the Greek name Althea of “to heal”.
The family name, Malvaceae comes from the Greek word malake or “soft” referring to the soft mucilaginous character of the plant.
Theophrastus (c. 372-286 BC) reported that it was taken in sweet wine for coughs.
Greek physician Hippocrates described the value of althea in the treatment of wounds.
Dioscorides, another Greek physician, prescribed a vinegar infusion as a cure for toothaches and recommended a preparation of the seeds to soothe insect stings.
Roman poet Horace, claimed the root and leaves had laxative properties.
Renaissance period herbalists used althea for sore throats, stomach problems, gonorrhea, leukorrhea, and as a gargle for infections of the mouth.
In medieval times if a person was accused of something, to prove innocence the accused had to hold a red-hot iron bar. He/she was considered innocent if the person suffered no serious burns. Accounts from the Middle Ages state that anointing the palms with an ointment made from marshmallow would allow the accused, innocent or guilty, to remain unburned.
“Whosoever shall take a spoonful of the Mallows shall that day be free from all diseases that may come to him.”Pliny the Elder
The common name Mortification Plant records the use of althea for treating wounds.
Use a mallow ointment to protect against evil and cast out demons.
Marshmallow creme derives its name from the edible use of the plants.
Mallows are cited in the book of Job in the Bible as used in times of famine by the Egyptians.
Root of marshmallow used to create the sweet marshmallow candies.

The whole plant, particularly the root, abounds with a mild mucilage, which is emollient to a much greater degree than the common Mallow. The generic name, Althaea, is derived from the Greek, altho (to cure), from its healing properties. The name of the order, Malvaceae, is derived from the Greek, malake (soft), from the special qualities of the Mallows in softening and healing.

Most of the Mallows have been used as food, and are mentioned by early classic writers in this connexion. Mallow was an esculent vegetable among the Romans, a dish of Marsh Mallow was one of their delicacies.

The Chinese use some sort of Mallow in their food, and Prosper Alpinus stated (in 1592) that a plant of the Mallow kind was eaten by the Egyptians. Many of the poorer inhabitants of Syria, especially the Fellahs, Greeks and Armenians, subsist for weeks on herbs, of which Marsh Mallow is one of the most common. When boiled first and fried with onions and butter, the roots are said to form a palatable dish, and in times of scarcity consequent upon the failure of the crops, this plant, which fortunately grows there in great abundance, is much collected for food.

In France, the young tops and tender leaves of Marsh Mallow are eaten uncooked, in spring salads, for their property in stimulating the kidneys, a syrup being made from the roots for the same purpose.

This plant is native to Europe and parts of Asia and is part of the Malvaceae family. The garden varieties are called HollyHocks. The whole plant contains a tacky, slimy substance known as mucilage but the root of 2-3 year old plants contains the highest percentage, older woody roots were considered ¡°valueless¡±. The root was dried, sliced into discs sold and then powdered to support healthy gastrointestinal function where inflammation and irritation were present. It was used to support all mucosal membranes especially in the bronchioles, mouth, and intestines. It has also been used as an antiputrifaecant, which means to help aid the removal of putrifying wastes from the intestines. In the authors experience it has proven effective given powdered in warm water to support gentle passing of urinary calculi.

Therapeutics and Pharmacology:
Marshmallow is helpful in support of respiratory irritation, cuts, wounds, and gastric ulcers. It is also an immune booster. Marshmallow, a mild herb, has been used as a food as well as a medicine for more than 2,000 years. Dioscorides, Pliny the Elder, Horace, Virgil and Culpepper have all written about Marshmallow and its virtues. Inflammations whether internal or external were treated with Marshmallow. Almost all mucous membrane afflictions have, at one time or another, been treated with this plant.

Anti-Inflammatories: Marshmallow (Althaea Officinalis) soothes inflamed tissues in the digestive system, it may also help with gastrointestinal upset, lung congestion, dry coughs, sore throat, colitis, and urinary tract infections.

The root is indicated in all inflammations of the digestive tract including mouth ulcers, hiatus hernia, gastritis, peptic ulcer, enteritis and colitis. Althaea contains large amounts of mucilage, making it an excellent demulcent which coats the gastrointestinal mucosa, particularly in the mouth and pharynx, thus protecting them from local irritation, and it counters excess stomach acid. It is also mildly laxative. Externally, the root is indicated in varicose veins and ulcers as well as in abscesses and boils, and it is used in cosmetics for weather-damaged skin. The peeled root may be given to teething babies to chew on. In vivo experiments have shown the anti-inflammatory effect of an ointment containing 20% aqueous root extract against skin irritation. In vitro experiments have shown a cold macerate of the root to inhibit mucociliary transport, while extracts of the root stimulate phagocytosis and the release of oxygen radicals and leukotrienes from human neutrophils. Potential anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects have also been reported. Antimicrobial activity towards Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus vulgaris and Staphylococcus aureus has been documented.

Antitussive; Demulcent; Diuretic; Emollient; Laxative; Odontalgic.: Marsh mallow is a very useful household medicinal herb. Its soothing demulcent properties make it very effective in treating inflammations and irritations of the mucous membranes such as the alimentary canal, the urinary and the respiratory organs. The root counters excess stomach acid, peptic ulceration and gastritis. It is also applied externally to bruises, sprains, aching muscles, insect bites, skin inflammations, splinters etc. The whole plant, but especially the root, is antitussive, demulcent, diuretic, highly emollient, slightly laxative and odontalgic. An infusion of the leaves is used to treat cystitis and frequent urination. The leaves are harvested in August when the plant is just coming into flower and can be dried for later use. The root can be used in an ointment for treating boils and abscesses. The root is best harvested in the autumn, preferably from 2 year old plants, and is dried for later use.

Anti-infective: Marshmallow may also have mild anti-infective and immune-boosting properties, but further study is needed to confirm these possible effects.

Marshmallow Root is known for its demulcent properties due to its content of muco-polysaccharides, often referred to as mucilage. It has anti-tussive properties as well. Marshmallow, like most demulcents, are very soothing to inflamed mucus membrane linings of the digestive tract, especially for gastritis and ulcers.

Bronchitis, respiratory catarrh and irritating coughs:
The leaf is an effective treatment for bronchitis, respiratory catarrh and irritating coughs. Its demulcent action helps to relieve dry coughs, bronchial asthma and pleurisy and soothes sore throats. Taken as a warm infusion, the leaves help to relieve cystitis and urinary frequency.

Clears damp heat in the lower burner: Cystitis, UTI,Enteritis, dysentery.

Cough and sore throat: Marshmallow Root’s high mucilage content makes it an appropriate supplement for the respiratory system and, thus, it aids the body in expelling excess fluid and mucus and will soothe the mucous membranes and a dry, hacking cough. It is an oldtime remedy for bladder infection, digestive upsets, fluid retention, intestinal disorders, kidney problems, sinusitis and sore throat.

Connective tissue protection:i
nhibitory effect in hyaluronidase,reducing skin aging and diminishing inflammation. Marshmallow also has an inhibitory effect in hyaluronidase, which is an enzymatic action in which the hyaluronic acid and other muco-polysaccharides in the connective tissue are degraded.An inhibition and reduction in hyaluronidase leads to better moisture levels in the skin as well as boosting the dermal structure and improving wound healing processes, while at the same time reducing skin aging and diminishing inflammation.

Chronic Constipation: Eases gastrointestinal irritation.”Amazing results I have been suffering from constipation and bloating/ gas for a decade or more, due to pain meds and a sluggish colon (lazy bowel). I’ve had to take increasing amounts of laxatives with very little benefit. I tried 1 tsp in water a couple of evenings ago, and within 4 hrs, was able to easily empty at least 3 feet of stool from my colon ! I have since been taking the same dose morning and night with positive effect. My belly is flatter and I have very little gas now. I’m very excited about this simple solution to years of agony! I will keep you informed over the longer term, how my condition improves.”

Cystitis and hiatus hernia: The root is of value to treat cystitis and hiatus hernia.

Demulcent and emollient properties: The great demulcent and emollient properties of Marsh Mallow make it useful in inflammation and irritation of the alimentary canal, and of the urinary and respiratory organs. The dry roots boiled in water give out half their weight of a gummy matter like starch. Decoctions of the plant, especially of the root, are very useful where the natural mucus has been abraded from the coats of the intestines, The decoction can be made by adding 5 pints of water to 1/4 lb. of dried root, boiling down to 3 pints and straining: it should not be made too thick and viscid. It is excellent in painful complaints of the urinary organs, exerting a relaxing effect upon the passages, as well as acting curatively. This decoction is also effective in curing bruises, sprains or any ache in the muscles or sinews. In haemorrhage from the urinary organs and in dysentery, it has been recommended to use the powdered root boiled in milk. The action of Marsh Mallow root upon the bowels is unaccompanied by any astringency.

Detoxifying: Helps to remove the hardened phelgm in the intestinal tract as well as other parts of the body.A powerful anti-inflammatory and anti-irritant for the whole body, especially the gastrointestinal tract.

Digestive problems: Marshmellow root is an important herb for anyone with digestive problems. Marshmellow root is a demulcent which means it can sooth irritated or damaged tissues within the body. Torn ligaments, an irritated bowel lining, strained muscles – these can all benefit from incorporating marshmallow root into your regiman.

Immune system: Marshmallow is also believed to have a limited ability to fight infection and boost the immune system.Marshmallow stimulates the production of white blood cells and enhances the immune system.marshmallow are mucilages which soothe irritated tissue such as mucous membranes,absorb irritants from the digestive tract. Marshmallow enhances white blood cells which feed on disease microbes.Marshmallow not only has good anti-inflammatory properties, but also seem to boost the immunity at cellular level.

Inflammatory skin conditions (eczema, psoriasis): Marshmallow extracts have traditionally been used on the skin to treat inflammation. Several laboratory experiments, mostly in the 1960s, reported marshmallow to have anti-inflammatory activity. There was one human research study done in 1968. Safety, dosing, and effectiveness compared to other anti-inflammatory agents have not been examined.

Inflammation and ulceration of the digestive tract: Marshmallow leaf is used internally to treat inflammation and ulceration of the digestive tract, oral and pharyngeal mucosa with associated dry cough. It relieves irritation of the mucus membranes of the mouth, throat and gastrointestinal tract and helps with respiratory complaints including bronchitis and asthma.

Irritated skin: Topically, marshmallow is used to soothe and soften irritated skin. A commercial ointment that contains up to 10% of powdered marshmallow leaf or root may be applied to chapped skin or insect bites.

Kidney Healing:
Marshmallow used a lot in many formula healing to the kidneys, a very soothing herb, high in vitamin A.Supports the kidneys and bladder.

Lactation Promoting: Insufficient breast milk

Mucilage-containing substances: Marshmallow root and marshmallow leaf both contain significant percentages of mucilage, a natural gummy substance that does not dissolve in water. Like other mucilage-containing substances, marshmallow swells up and becomes slick when it is exposed to fluids. The resulting slippery material coats the linings of the mouth, throat, and stomach to relieve irritation and control coughing associated with respiratory or stomach conditions. For example, marshmallow has been used to treat sore throats and to alleviate heartburn.

Mucosal tissue protection: The polysaccharides form a protective film over inflamed and irritated mucosal tissue.

Nourishes Lung yin: Tuberculosis, pertussis, pneumonia, dry cough, night sweats, five heart heat, small rapid pulse.

Nourishes Stomach yin and clears Stomach fire: Acid reflux, large appetite, mouth ulcers, stomatitis, gingivitis, night sweats, constipation.

Pet urinary tract problems: Marshmellow root is an important herb for anyone with digestive problems. Marshmellow root is a demulcent which means it can sooth irritated or damaged tissues within the body. Torn ligaments, an irritated bowel lining, strained muscles – these can all benefit from incorporating marshmallow root into your regiman.Some friends use marshmallow root for my cat with urinary tract problems.”I have the whole root and crush it to powder with a morter and pestal (I do suggest buying the powder to save time). I take a pinch and sprinkle this in his meal every morning and evening. He has been plagued mostly by urinary crystals which can cause an irritated bladder lining, so the marshmallow root may help this inflammation decrease and become less painful.”

Pill excipient: Althaea extract has been used as a pill excipient. Marshmallow has also been used as an aid to radiologic examination of the esophagus.

Note: Not to be confused with mallow leaf and mallow flower. Not to be confused with confectionery marshmallows; although confectionery marshmallows were once made from the Althaea officinalis plant, they now contain mostly sugar.

Respiratory system: Strengthens the mucous membranes as well as the respiratory system.Marshmallow’s (some people spell it marshmellow) high mucilage content and demulcent and emollient properties make it a soothing supplement for an irritated respiratory system.

Respiratory infections treatment: Marshmallow is an excellent choice for dry hacking coughs that accompany respiratory infections due to its soothing effects on the respiratory tract mucosa. It can also be helpful for the pain associated with mucous membrane inflammation such as that which accompanies sore throats. Its main traditional uses include coughs and sore throats.Marshmallow contains an abundance of mucilage to which its soothing effects may be ascribed. Mucilage-containing herbs also have excellent effects on the gastrointestinal mucosa as well because of this action.Mucilage polysaccharides form a protective layer on top of the mucous membranes, causing a soothing and protective effect.Interestingly, mucilage seems to inhibit mucociliary transport; this may be part of how mucilage can also inhibit coughs as well.Mucilage is also of benefit in respiratory infections because of its antimicrobial, spasmolytic, wound healing and other effects; all of this contributes towards the healing and recovery of the lungs.Marshmallow has little if any known toxicity and is therefore considered very safe.

Skin problems: It is used externally for localized irritations, boils, abscesses, burns, sores, ulcers and minor injuries.It helps to minimize skin inflammatory processes and is therefore also useful for fighting any skin degeneration, as well as cellular oxidation.It has very beneficial effects on skin problems and diseases and helps in healing wounds, burns and irritation.

Soothing effect: Useful whenever a soothing effect is needed, marshmallow protects and soothes the mucous membranes. The root counters excess stomach acid, peptic ulceration, and gastritis. Marshmallow is also mildly laxative and beneficial for many intestinal problems, including regional ileitis, colitis, diverticulitis, and irritable bowel syndrome. Taken as a warm infusion, the leaves treat cystitis and frequent urination. Marshmallow’s demulcent qualities bring relief to dry coughs, bronchial asthma, bronchial congestion, and pleurisy. The flowers, crushed fresh or in a warm infusion, are applied to help soothe inflamed skin. The root is used in an ointment for boils and abscesses, and in a mouthwash for inflammation. The peeled root of marshmallow may be given as a chewstick to teething babies.

Both the root and the leaf of the marshmallow plant contain a substance known as mucilate, a mucusy substance that does not dissolve in water. It is this substance that causes marshmallow to swell up and become slippery when wet. This attribute of the marshmallow plant gives it the ability to soothe irritation of the mouth, throat and stomach, as well as to relieve coughing.An emollient and soothing agent which has a relaxing effect on the body’s internal passages. It is mainly used for inflammation and irritation of the alimentary canal, urinary and respiratory organs. It is available from herbalists as a fluid extract, tincture, concentrated decoction or syrup. The powdered root can be combined with Slippery Elm powder for use in poultices. For domestic use an infusion of the leaves is excellent for most purposes where a soothing agent is required. Use 1 oz (28 g) of the leaves to 1 pt (568 ml) of boiling water and take three or four times a day in doses of 2 fl Oz (56 rnl). The syrup is helpful in pericarditis.

Stops bleeding: Kidney stones, blood in fluids.

Transforms hot phlegm: Bronchitis with sticky yellow phlegm, pneumonia.

Urinary tract infections: has been known to relieve indigestion, kidney problems, urinary tract infections, and even external skin wounds such as boils and abscesses. Marshmallow root and herb is a soothing, healing plant.

Marshmallow Syrup: Boiled in wine or milk, Marsh Mallow will relieve diseases of the chest, constituting a popular remedy for coughs, bronchitis, whooping-cough, etc., generally in combination with other remedies. It is frequently given in the form of a syrup, which is best adapted to infants and children.

Adhesive,Fibre,Oil,Teeth: The dried root is used as a toothbrush or is chewed by teething children. It has a mechanical affect on the gums whilst also helping to ease the pain. The root is also used as a cosmetic, helping to soften the skin. A fibre from the stem and roots is used in paper-making. The dried and powdered root has been used to bind the active ingredients when making pills for medicinal use. A glue can be made from the root]. The root is boiled in water until a thick syrup is left in the pan, this syrup is used as a glue. An oil from the seed is used in making paints and varnishes.

Actions: Root: Demulcent, diuretic, emollient, vulnerary. Leaf: Demulcent, expectorant, diuretic, emollient, antilithic. Flowers: expectorant

Mechanism of Theraputic Action : As stated above this plant is high in mucilage which has unfortunately not been the focus of much pharmacological research. With gastrointestinal disorders so common in the United States and the ability of this substance to provide soothing support there more focus should be directed to this plant. There have been some studies conducted on the effect of this plant in combination with others to support healthy respiratory function while challenged with a cough.

Indications of Leaf : bronchitis, respiratory catarrh, cystitis, urethritis, urinary gravel or calculi; locally for abscesses, boils and ulcers. Specifically indicated in respiratory catarrh associated with digestive weakness.

Indications of Root : Gastritis, gastric or peptic ulceration, ulcerative colitis, enteritis, inflammation of the mouth or pharynx, respiratory catarrh with irritating dry cough, cystitis; locally for varicose veins and thrombotic ulcers. Specifically indicated in gastric or duodenal ulcer.

Additional Comments: The name Althaea is derived from the Greek altho, meaning to heal, and its medicinal qualities have been recognised since Ancient Egyptian times. Theophrastus reported that the root could be added to sweet wine to relieve coughs; Horace and Martial mentioned the laxative properties of the leaves and root; and Pliny wrote that ‘whosoever shall take a spoonful of the Mallows shall that day be free from all diseases that may come to him’. Marshmallow is mentioned in the Bible and in Arabic and Chinese history as a valuable food during times of famine. In rural France, the young tops and leaves are eaten in salads for their kidney-stimulating effects. All members of the mallow family, such as the hollyhock and common mallow, have similar properties and can be used medicinally.

Famous Use and functions of Marshmallow Root:
Wound healer:This herb has been used for years as a wound healer with excellent results. Due to its drawing power it is added to many formulas. It is used externally for varicose veins, skin abscesses and dermatitis.
Demulcent:Marshmallow’s highest medicinal acclaim is as a demulcent. Internally it has a soothing effect on inflamed and irritated tissues of the alimentary canal, and urinary and respiratory organs. It is suppose to ease the passage of kidney stones and is used in combination with other diuretic herbs for kidney treatments which assist in the release of gravel and stones. It works very well for urinary problems.
Body to cleanse:Marshmallow has factors which combine with and eliminate toxins, helping the body to cleanse. This makes marshmallow an excellent herb to add to other formulas to help neutralize toxins that are the causative factors of arthritis.
Soothing:Marshmallow is also very soothing to any sore or inflamed part(s) of the body. As well as the urinary tract, this herb will sooth an irritated digestive tract and help with diarrhea or dysentery. And it will soothe the lungs and throat, too Try using it in your own home made cough syrup or in you home made cough drops!
This herb will also help to increase a mothers milk flow and it is high in Calcium and Vitamin A as well as many other nutrients.
For every cup of water put in one teaspoon of root (cut). (Four teaspoons for 1 quart.) Simmer for 10-20 minutes and let stand until it is cool. Drink 2-4 cupfuls a day.

Therapeutics and Pharmacology:
Althaea root is used primarily for digestive problems and topically on the skin, whilst the leaf is used particularly to treat the lungs and the urinary system, although both root and leaf have similar properties.

The root is indicated in all inflammations of the digestive tract including mouth ulcers, hiatus hernia, gastritis, peptic ulcer, enteritis and colitis. Althaea contains large amounts of mucilage, making it an excellent demulcent which coats the gastrointestinal mucosa, particularly in the mouth and pharynx, thus protecting them from local irritation, and it counters excess stomach acid. It is also mildly laxative. Externally, the root is indicated in varicose veins and ulcers as well as in abscesses and boils, and it is used in cosmetics for weather-damaged skin. The peeled root may be given to teething babies to chew on. In vivo experiments have shown the anti-inflammatory effect of an ointment containing 20% aqueous root extract against skin irritation. In vitro experiments have shown a cold macerate of the root to inhibit mucociliary transport, while extracts of the root stimulate phagocytosis and the release of oxygen radicals and leukotrienes from human neutrophils. Potential anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects have also been reported. Antimicrobial activity towards Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus vulgaris and Staphylococcus aureus has been documented.

The leaf is an effective treatment for bronchitis, respiratory catarrh and irritating coughs. Its demulcent action helps to relieve dry coughs, bronchial asthma and pleurisy and soothes sore throats. Taken as a warm infusion, the leaves help to relieve cystitis and urinary frequency.

Combinations:
For pulmonary problems, Althaea herba may be combined with Marrubium, Glycyrrhiza and/or Tussilago. In ulcerative conditions, both internal or external, Althaea radix may be combined with Symphytum. It may also be used with Glycyrrhiza, Marrubium and/or Lobelia for coughs, and with Ulmus as a poultice or ointment for wounds, ulcers, boils and eczema.

Marshmallow in an herbal form might sound unusual to someone unfamiliar with herbology. But long before the white squishy balls were sitting in supermarket stores, the plant was growing in marshes. The plant is a member of the mallow family, which prefers wet places such as marshes for its habitat – hence the name. Its high mucilage content makes it an appropriate supplement for the respiratory system.

Remedy Uses:
Demulcent, emmolient, diuretic, anti-inflammatory, expectorant, mucilaginous.

Its abundance of mucilage makes Marshmallow an excellent demulcent that is indicated wherever such an action is called for. The roots have been used for the digestive system whilst the leaves are used for the urinary system and lungs. All inflammatory conditions of the G-I tract will benefit from its use, e.g. inflammations of the mouth, gastritis, peptic ulceration, colitis etc.. The leaves help in cystitis, urethritis and urinary gravel as well as bronchitis, respiratory catarrh, irritating coughs.

Externally the herb is often used in drawing ointments for abscesses and boils or as an emollient for varicose veins and ulcers.

Available Forms:
Dried leaves may be used in infusions, fluid extracts, and tinctures. Marshmallow roots are available dried, peeled, or unpeeled in extracts (dry and fluid), tinctures, capsules, ointments/creams, and cough syrups.

Suggestions and Administrations:

How much should I take?
Marshmallow can be made into a hot or cold water tea. Make a tea by adding roots and/or leaves and letting it steep. Drink three to five cups a day. Herbal extracts in capsules and tablets providing 5-6 grams of marshmallow per day can also be used, or it may be taken as a tincture in the amount of 5-15 ml, three times daily.

A recommended dose of marshmallow is 1 1/-4 teaspoons (6 grams) of the root per day. Marshmallow can be prepared as a tea to be taken 5 times a day. Herbal extracts in capsule and tablet form providing 5-6 grams of marshmallow per day can also be used, or it may be taken as a tincture-1-3 teaspoons (5-15 ml) three times daily.

Pediatric:Adjust the recommended adult dose to account for the child’s weight. Most herbal dosages for adults are calculated on the basis of a 150 lb (70 kg) adult. Therefore, if the child weighs 50 lb (20 to 25 kg), the appropriate dose of marshmallow for this child would be 1/3 of the adult dosage.

Adult: The following are the recommended adult doses for marshmallow:
Leaf infusion: 1 to 2 tsp in 5 ounces boiled water, two to three times daily
Leaf tincture: 1 to 2 tsp (1:5 in 25% ethanol), two to three times daily
Root infusion or cold-water maceration (2% to 5%): 5 ounces (1 to 2 tsp) taken to soothe cough and sore throat
Dried root: 2 to 6 g or equivalent preparations daily (cold infusion three times per day)
Marshmallow cough syrup (from root): 2 to 10 g per single dose (syrup contains sugar, so people with diabetes should use with caution)
Root topical preparations: 5% to 10% drug in ointment or cream base
Dried herb/root: 2-5g or by infusion/cold aqueous maceration
Liquid Extract: 1:1 in 25% alcohol, 2-5ml
Ointment: 5% powdered leaf/root in ointment base
Root Syrup (BPC 1949) 2-10ml

The German Commission E monograph suggests 1 1/4 teaspoon (6 grams) of the root per day.3 Marshmallow can be made into a hot or cold water tea. Often 2¨C3 teaspoons (10¨C15 grams) of the root and/or leaves are used per cup (250 ml) of water. Generally, a full day¡¯s amount is steeped overnight when making a cold water tea, 6¨C9 teaspoons (30¨C45 grams) per three cups (750 ml) of water, or for fifteen to twenty minutes in hot water. Drink three to five cups (750¨C1250 ml) a day. Since the plant is so gooey, it does not combine well with other plants. Nevertheless, it can be found in some herbal cough syrups. Herbal extracts in capsules and tablets providing 5¨C6 grams of marshmallow per day can also be used, or it may be taken as a tincture¡ª1¨C3 teaspoons (5¨C15 ml) three times daily.

Both the leaves and roots of marshmallow may be found in commercial oral dosage forms that include extracts and syrups. Dosing varies according to the type and concentration of the product and the condition being treated. Individuals who decide to use marshmallow should follow the directions on the package that is purchased.

Teas made from marshmallow may be taken up to three times a day. Marshmallow leaf tea may be made by adding 2 teaspoons to 5 teaspoons of dried leaf to about 5 ounces of hot (but not boiling) water, allowing it to soak for 10 minutes, and then straining out the solid particles. For marshmallow root tea, 2 teaspoons to 5 teaspoons of the dried powdered root may be added to about 5 ounces of warm water and allowed to soak for at least an hour before straining out the solids. The resulting tea may be heated or consumed cold.

For use on the skin, shredded or powdered marshmallow root may be mixed with enough warm water to form a thick paste, which is often spread onto a soft, clean cloth. The resulting poultice may be heated or simply applied to irritated skin as often as needed. If the skin at the area where marshmallow is applied blisters or becomes more irritated, the marshmallow preparation should be washed off with warm water and it should not be re-applied.

Standardization:
Standardization involves measuring the amount of certain chemicals in products to try to make different preparations similar to each other. It is not always known if the chemicals being measured are the “active” ingredients. Pharmacopoeia grade marshmallow must be properly identified by the naked eye and by microscope. The British Pharmacopoeia requires marshmallow leaf to be harvested before the flowering period, and to pass identification by specific scientific tests.

Adults (18 years and older):
Skin inflammatory conditions (eczema, psoriasis): Historically, 5-10 grams of marshmallow in ointment or cream base or 5% powdered marshmallow leaf has been applied to the skin three times daily. Daily oral doses of 5 grams of marshmallow leaf, or 6 grams of marshmallow root have been suggested by mouth.
Oral and pharyngeal irritation: A dose of 2 grams of marshmallow in 1 cup of cold water, soaked for 2 hours then gargled has been used, but is not supported by scientific evidence.

Children (younger than 18 years):
There is not enough scientific data to recommend marshmallow for use in children.

Side Effects and Warnings:
Marshmallow is very safe. There have been extremely rare reports of allergic reactions.Although there are no known reports or studies about marshmallow allergy, allergic reactions to marshmallow may occur.
Marshmallow is generally regarded as safe, and literature review reveals no documented adverse case-reports. However, the potential for marshmallow to cause allergic reactions or low blood sugar has been noted anecdotally.
It is believed that Marshmallow is entirely safe; however, one study suggests it can affect blood sugar levels, therefore, people with diabetes should use caution when taking this product. Safety in young children, pregnant or nursing women, or those with severe liver or kidney disease is not known at this time.

Historically, marshmallow is generally regarded as being safe in healthy individuals. However, since studies have not evaluated the safety of marshmallow, proper doses and duration in humans are not known. Allergic reactions may occur.

Based on animal study, marshmallow may lower blood glucose levels. Caution is advised in patients with diabetes or hypoglycemia, and in those taking drugs, herbs, or supplements that affect blood sugar. Serum glucose levels should be monitored closely and medication adjustments may be necessary.

Precautions:Because marshmallow may possibly reduce blood sugar levels, individuals with diabetes should be careful when taking it. Blood sugar levels may need to be checked more often, as well.

Caution: When using the tincture for digestive or urinary disorders, hot water should be used to reduce the alcohol content. Cold water extracts should be made if the mucilage content is to be preserved. However, since starch will not dissolve in cold water, if the root is to be used as a gargle for tonsillitis and inflamed gums, where the starch will be of benefit, it should be prepared with hot water.

Pregnancy and Breastfeeding:There is not enough scientific evidence to support the safe use of marshmallow during pregnancy or breastfeeding.

Allergies:Although there are no known reports or studies about marshmallow allergy, allergic reactions to marshmallow may occur.

Interactions with Drugs:
Based on animal study, marshmallow may lower blood sugar levels. Caution is advised when using medications that may also lower blood sugar. A qualified healthcare professional should monitor patients taking drugs for diabetes by mouth or insulin closely. Medication adjustments may be necessary.
Marshmallow may interfere with the absorption of other drugs and therefore should be taken 1 hour before or 2 hours after other drugs.
Marshmallow may interfere with the absorption of certain medications. For this reason, it is important to take marshmallow several hours before or after ingesting other herbs or medications.
Marshmallow (not to be confused with Marshmellows) has traditionally been used internally for inflammation and ulceration of the digestive tract, hiatal hernia, bronchitis, excess mucus, asthma, whooping cough, and cystitis.

Interactions with Herbs and Dietary Supplements:
When mixed with water or other fluids, marshmallow forms a sticky, slippery gel. In theory, taking marshmallow by mouth could block the absorption of other drugs that are taken at the same time. Individuals who take marshmallow should not take any other drugs for at least 2 hours.

Based on animal study, marshmallow may lower blood sugar levels. Caution is advised when using herbs or supplements that may also lower blood sugar. Blood glucose levels may require monitoring, and doses may need adjustment. Possible examples include: Aloe vera , American ginseng, bilberry, bitter melon, burdock,fenugreek, fish oil, gymnema, horse chestnut seed extract (HCSE), milk thistle, Panax ginseng, rosemary, Siberian ginseng, stinging nettle and white horehound. Agents that may raise blood sugar levels include: Arginine, cocoa, and ephedra (when combined with caffeine).
Marshmallow may interfere with the absorption of other agents and therefore should be taken 1 hour before or 2 hours after other herbs and supplements.

Summary:
Marshmallow’s genus name, Althea, is derived from the Greek word, althe, which means “to heal.” Marshmallow, which is also known as Althea, was originally an ingredient in the candy we also know as Marshmallow, and its powder has been used as a binding agent to hold other herbs together in making pills.

Marshmallow has been commonly substituted in herbal remedies for Slippery Elm, another herb known for its high mucilage content, because its source, the elm tree, has become endangered, due to Dutch Elm Disease. Marshmallow is a native of most countries of Europe, from Denmark southward, and is also found in the western United States. It grows in salt marshes, in damp meadows, by the sides of ditches, by the sea and on the banks of tidal rivers. Marshmallow has nourished many people. The plant has been utilized for thousands of years, not only as a food during times of famine, but also for its healing properties as an herbal remedy.

Served as a vegetable, the plant was considered a delicacy among the Romans. During the reign of Charlemagne in the ninth century, Marshmallow was promoted as a cultivated vegetable, and in France, the young tops and leaves are eaten uncooked in salads.

Primary chemical constituents in Marshmallow include substantial mucilage, polysaccharides, flavonoids (quercetin), kaempferol, asparagine, tannins, lecithin and pectin. The great demulcent and emollient properties of Marshmallow make it useful in inflammation and irritation of the alimentary canal and of the urinary and respiratory organs.

Recently, Marshmallow has been used as an expectorant to treat a variety of upper respiratory problems. Marshmallow also contains large amounts of vitamin A, calcium, zinc and significant amounts of iron, sodium, iodine and B-complex vitamins. Like slippery elm, Marshmallow reduces inflammation and has a calming effect on the body. The active constituents in Marshmallow are large carbohydrate (sugar) molecules, which make up the mucilage. This smooth, slippery substance can soothe and protect irritated mucous membranes. Although Marshmallow has primarily been used for the respiratory and digestive tracts, its high mucilage content may also provide some minor relief for urinary tract and skin infections. Marshmallow’s mucilage content helps soothe inflamed tissues often caused by bronchitis, and it also relieves dryness and irritation in the chest and throat, usually brought on by colds and persistent coughs. Marshmallow has been known to relieve indigestion, kidney problems, urinary tract infections and even external skin wounds such as boils and abscesses.
Claims & Warning:
Claims: Information this web site presented is meant for Nutritional Benefit and as an educational starting point only, for use in maintenance and promotion good health in cooperation with a common knowledge base reference…Furthermore,it based solely on the traditional and historic use or legend of a given herb from the garden of Adonis. Although every effort has been made to ensure its accurate, please note that some info may be outdated by more recent scientific developments……

Pharmakon Warning: The order of knowledge is not the transparent order of forms and ideas,as one might be tempted retrospectively to interpret it; it is the antidote….(Dissemination,Plato’s Pharmacy,II.The Ingredients:Phantasms,Festivals,and Paints;138cf. Jacques Derrida.).

And as it happens,the technique of imitation,along with the production of the simulacrum,has always been in Plato’s eyes manifestly magical,thaumaturgical:……and the same things appear bent and straight to those who view them in water and out,or concave and convex,owing to similar errors of vision about colors, and there is obviously every confusion of this sort in our souls.And so scene painting (skiagraphia) in its exploitation of this weakness of four nature falls nothing short of witchcraft (thaumatopoia), and so do jugglery and many other such contrivances.(Republic X,602c-d;cf.also 607c

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Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://www.indianspringherbs.com/Althea.htm
http://www.harvestfields.ca/Finley/251.htm
http://www.mdidea.com/products/new/new037.html

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Althaea_officinalis

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Sage, Clary

Botanical Name : Salvia sclarea
Family: N.O. Labiatae
Synonyms: Clary. Horminum. Gallitricum. Clear Eye. See Bright.
(German) Muskateller Salbei.
Parts Used: Herb, leaves, seeds.Parts Used—The herb and leaves, used both fresh and dry, dried in the same manner as the Garden Sage. Formerly the root was used, dry, in domestic medicine, and also the seeds.
Habitat: The Common Clary, like the Garden Sage, is not a native of Great Britain, having first been introduced into English cultivation in the year 1562. It is a native of Syria, Italy, southern France and Switzerland, but will thrive well upon almost any soil that is not too wet, though it will frequently rot upon moist ground in the winter.
Gerard describes and figures several varieties of Clary, under the names of Horminum and Gallitricum. He describes it as growing ‘in divers barren places almost in every country, especially in the fields of Holborne neare unto Grayes Inne . . . and at the end of Chelsea.’

Salmon, in 1710, in The English Herbal, gives a number of varieties of the Garden Clary, which he calls Horminum hortense, in distinction to H. Sylvestre, the Wild Clary, subdividing it into the Common Clary (H. commune), the True Garden Clary of Dioscorides (H. sativum verum Dioscorides), the Yellow Clary (Calus Jovis), and the Small or German Clary (H. humile Germanicum or Gallitricum alterum Gerardi). This last variety being termed Gerardi, indicates that Gerard classified this species when it was first brought over from the Continent, evidently taking great pains to trace its history, giving in his Herbal its Greek name and its various Latin ones. That the Clary was known in ancient times is shown by the second variety, the True Garden Clary, being termed Dioscoridis.

Another variety of Horminum is given in The Treasury of Botany, called H. pyrenaicum, and described as ‘a tufted perennial herb, with numerous root-leaves, simple almost leafless stems and purplish-blue flowers which grow in whorls of six, all turned the same way. It is a native of the temperate parts of Europe, on the mountains.’

Description: The Common Garden Clary, is a biennial or short-lived perennial herb in the genus Salvia, native to Europe east to central Asia. It grows to 1 m tall, with opposite leaves 10-20 cm long and 6-12 cm broad, with a thick woolly texture. The flowers are white to pink or pale purple. Its strong and unusual odour is considered unpleasant by some, while others find it very attractive.its square, brownish stems growing 2 to 3 feet high, hairy and with few branches. The leaves are arranged in pairs, almost stalkless and are almost as large as the hand, oblong and heart-shaped, wrinkled, irregularly toothed at the margins and covered with velvety hairs. The flowers are in a long, loose, terminal spike, on which they are set in whorls. The lipped corollas, similar to the Garden Sage, but smaller, are of a pale blue or white. The flowers are interspersed with large coloured, membraneous bracts, longer than the spiny calyx. Both corollas and bracts are generally variegated with pale purple and yellowish-white. The seeds are blackish brown, ‘contained in long, toothed husks,’ as an old writer describes the calyx. The whole plant possesses a very strong, aromatic scent, somewhat resembling that of Tolu while thck to see the picturee taste is also aromatic, warm and sightly bitter.

click to see the picture

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According to Ettmueller, this herb was first brought into use by the wine merchants of Germany, who employed it as an adulterant, infusing it with Elder flowers, and then adding the liquid to the Rhenish wine, which converted it into the likeness of Muscatel. It is still called in Germany Muskateller Salbei (Muscatel Sage).

Waller (1822) states it was also employed in this country as a substitute for Hops, for sophisticating beer, communicating considerable bitterness and intoxicating property, which produced an effect of insane exhilaration of spirits, succeeded by severe headache. Lobel says:
‘Some brewers of Ale and Beere doe put it into their drinke to make it more heady, fit to please drunkards, who thereby, according to their several dispositions, become either dead drunke, or foolish drunke, or madde drunke.’
In some parts of the country a wine has been made from the herb in flower, boiled with sugar, which has a flavour not unlike Frontiniac.
The English name Clary originates in the Latin name sclarea, a word derived from clarus (clear). Clary was gradually modified into ‘Clear Eye,’ one of its popular names, and from the fact that the seeds have been used for clearing the sight.

Sometimes we find the plant not only called ‘Clear Eye,’ but also ‘See Bright’ and even ‘Eyebright,’ though this name belongs to another plant – Euphrasia officinalis.

Cultivation: Clary is propagated by seed, which should be sown in spring. When fit to move, the seedlings should be transplanted to an open spot of ground, a foot apart each way, if required in large quantities. After the plants have taken root, they will require no further care but to keep them free of weeds. The winter and spring following, the leaves will be in perfection. As the plant is a biennial only, dying off the second summer, after it has ripened seeds, there should be young plants annually raised for use.

Constituents—Salvia sclarea yields an oil with a highly aromatic odour, resembling that of ambergris. It is known commercially as Clary oil, or Muscatel Sage, and is largely used as a fixer of perfumes. Pinene, cineol and linalol have been isolated from this oil.

French oil of Clary has a specific gravity of 0.895 to 0.930, and is soluble in two volumes of 80 per cent alcohol. German oil of Clary has a specific gravity of 0.910 to 0.960, and is soluble in two volumes of 90 per cent alcohol.

Medicinal Action and Uses:
Antispasmodic, balsamic, carminative, tonic, aromatic, aperitive, astringent, and pectoral.
The plant has been used, both fresh and dry, either alone or with other herbs, as an infusion or a tincture. It has mostly been employed in disordered states of the digestion, as a stomachic, and has also proved useful in kidney diseases.

For violent cases of hysteria or wind colic, a spirituous tincture has been found of use, made by macerating in warm water for 14 days, 2 OZ. of dried Clary leaves and flowers, 1 OZ. of Chamomile flowers, 1/2 ox. bruised Avens root, 2 drachms of bruised Caraway and Coriander seeds, and 3 drachms of bruised Burdock seeds, adding 2 pints of proof spirit, then filtering and diluting with double quantity of water – a wineglassful being the dose.

Culpepper says:

‘For tumours, swellings, etc., make a mucilage of the seeds and apply to the spot. This will also draw splinters and thorns out of the flesh…. For hot inflammation and boils before they rupture, use a salve made of the leaves boiled with hot vinegar, honey being added later till the required consistency is obtained.’ He recommends a powder of the dry roots taken as snuff to relieve headache, and ‘the fresh leaves, fried in butter, first dipped in a batter of flour, egges, and a little milke, serve as a dish to the table that is not unpleasant to any and exceedingly profitable.’
The juice of the herb drunk in ale and beer, as well as the ordinary infusion, has been recommended as very helpful in all women’s diseases and ailments.
In Jamaica, where the plant is found, it was much in use among the negroes, who considered it cooling and cleansing for ulcers, and also used it for inflammations of the eyes. A decoction of the leaves boiled in coco-nut oil was used by them to cure the stings of scorpions. Clary and a Jamaican species of Vervain form two of the ingredients of an aromatic warm bath sometimes prescribed there with benefit.

The distilled essential oil is occasionally found in specialty stores such as natural food stores and “scent shops”. The odour is sometimes described as “sweaty”, spicy or “hay-like”. Clary seeds have a mucilaginous coat, and so old herbals recommended putting a seed into the eye of someone with a foreign object in it, to adhere to the object and make it easy to remove.

The leaves have been used as a vegetable in cookery. Clary was used as a flavouring in ales before the use of hops became common, and also in wine, notably muscatel. It is also used as a flavouring in some tobacco products. Clary can be used as a tea or in aromatherapy, and is supposed to have a calming effect.

It is also the primary ingredient in Norambrolide, an ingredient claimed by the herbal-supplement industry to promote fat catabolism and therefore weight loss.

Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:

http://botanical.com/botanical/mgmh/s/sages-05.html

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Salvia_sclarea

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Insomnia in kids may spell big trouble

 Does your child suffer from regular disturbed sleep? Beware, he or she could grow up to be depressed and suffer from various ‘co morbid anxiety disorders’.

According to a study published in the January 1 issue of journal SLEEP, sleep-disturbed children have been found to be more severely depressed and suffering from co morbid anxiety disorders compared with children without sleep disturbance.

The study, authored by Xianchen Liu and colleagues from the University of Pittsburgh, was conducted on 553 children with a depressive disorder in Hungary. Out of this study group, 72.7% had suffered from some kind of sleep disturbance, of which 53.5% had insomnia, 9% hypersomnia (prolonged night time sleep and daytime sleepiness) and 10.1% had both disturbances.

Researchers said depressed girls were more likely to have sleep disturbance than boys, but age had no significant effects. In an e-mail interview with TOI, Liu said the study also found that across sleep-disturbed children, those with both insomnia and hypersomnia had a longer history of illness, were more severely depressed and were more likely to have anhedonia (a key symptom of depression associated with lack of pleasure in everyday pleasurable activities), weight loss, psychomotor retardation and fatigue than those with either insomnia or hypersomnia.

Liu is an assistant professor of psychiatry and has been conducting sleep studies for more than 10 years with a focus on sleep in children and adolescents for 5 years and on sleep and depression and suicidality for about 3 years.

“We know that depression is associated with sleep problems. But what this study shows is that in depressed youths, not all sleep problems are the same. Insomnia is the most common problem, but having a combination of insomnia and sleepiness is double trouble. Youths having both of these had more severe depression than youths with just one sleep problem,” he stated.

The study, conducted in 23 mental health facilities in Hungary, also pointed out that 90% of depressed adults had sleep complaints and over two-third of depressed children had significant sleep onset problems. “The surprising finding of the study was the relationship between sleep disturbances and depressive symptoms. Insomniacs suffered from depressed mood, diurnal variation and agitation, hypersomnia caused weight loss and worthlessness,” Liu said.

Said Dr Anupam Sibal, paediatrician at Delhi’s Apollo Hospital,”Sleep deprivation leading to health complications is a common problem in adolescence. School children should get between 10-11 hours of sleep a night to achieve good health and optimum performance. We see the hours reduce to 8 in adolescence due to late night television and internet chatting. This impacts their health, attention span, reaction time, memory and motivation, ultimately affecting their academic performance.”

To ensure the most effective care, researchers in the study have advised parents of sleep-disturbed children to first consult a paediatrician, who may issue a referral to a sleep specialist for comprehensive testing and treatment.

Source:The Times Of India