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Mahonia bealei

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Botanical Name : Mahonia bealei
Family: Berberidaceae
Genus: Mahonia
Species: M. bealei
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Ranunculales

Common Names: Beale’s barberry, Leatherleaf Mahonia, Leatherleaf Holly, Mahorina

Habitat : Mahonia beal is native to E. Asia – W. China in Hupeh, Hubei, Sichuan and Taiwan. It grows in damp woodlands in uplands around 2000 metres.

Description:
Leatherleaf mahonia is an evergreen shrub with large, pinnately compound leaves. It grows in an upright, open and loose, multi-stemmed clump 4-6 ft (1.2-1.8 m) tall and 3-4 ft (0.9-1.2 m) wide. It can get as large as 10 ft (3 m) tall and 8 ft (2.4 m) wide. The erect stems are stiff and unbranched, and the leaves come out in horizontal tiers. The leaves are about 18 in (46 cm) long with 9 to 13 stiff, sharply spiny, hollylike leaflets. The leaflets are dull grayish blue-green above and pale yellowish green below, and about 2-4 in (5-10 cm) long and 1-2 in (2.5-5 cm) wide. The terminal leaflet is larger than the lateral leaflets. The fragrant lemon-yellow flowers, appearing in late winter, are borne in erect racemes 3-6 in (7.6-15 cm) long. The fruit is a berry, first green, then turning bluish black with a grayish bloom. They are about a half inch long and hang in grapelike clusters.

click to see the pictures…>..…(01)..…....(1)..…..(2)…..…(3)...………………………

Cultivation:
Landscape Uses:Border, Foundation, Pest tolerant, Massing, Rock garden, Specimen, Woodland garden. Thrives in any good garden soil[11]. Grows well in heavy clay soils. Survives under quite heavy tree cover, thriving in dense shade. Prefers a semi-shaded woodland position in a damp, slightly acid to neutral humus-rich soil. The fully dormant plant is hardy to about -20°c, though the young growth in spring can be damaged by late frosts. Scarcely distinct from M. japonica, differing mainly in its broader leaflets which are placed closer together on the stem and its erect flower raceme. It is often treated as a subspecies of M. japonica, despite the fact that this species is found in the wild whilst M. japonica is a cultigen and not a wild plant. Plants of the two species are often confused in cultivation. The flowers are sweetly scented. Hybridizes freely with other members of this genus. Special Features:Attractive foliage, Not North American native, Extended bloom season in Zones 9A and above, Fragrant flowers, Attractive flowers or blooms.

Propagation :
Seed – best sown as soon as it is ripe in a cold frame. It usually germinates in the spring. ‘Green’ seed (harvested when the embryo has fully developed but before the seed case has dried) should be sown as soon as it is harvested and germinates within 6 weeks. Stored seed should be sown as soon as possible in late winter or spring. 3 weeks cold stratification will improve its germination, which should take place in 3 – 6 months at 10°c. Prick out the seedlings when they are large enough to handle and grow them on in a cold frame for at least their first winter. Plant them out in late spring or early summer. Division of suckers in spring. Whilst they can be placed direct into their permanent positions, better results are achieved if they are potted up and placed in a frame until established. Leaf cuttings in the autumn.

Edible Uses:.....Fruit raw or cooked. A pleasant acid flavour, it is nice when added to muesli or porridge. Unfortunately, there is relatively little flesh and a lot of seeds. The fruit is about 10mm long and 6mm wide, it ripens in April/May and if the plant is in a sheltered position the crops can be fairly heavy.

Medicinal Uses:
A decoction of the root and root bark is used in the treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis, recurring fever and cough in rundown body systems, rheumatoid arthritis, backache, weak knees, dysentery and enteritis. Berberine, universally present in rhizomes of Mahonia species, has marked antibacterial effects and is used as a bitter tonic. Since it is not appreciably absorbed by the body, it is used orally in the treatment of various enteric infections, especially bacterial dysentery. It should not be used with Glycyrrhiza species (Liquorice) because this nullifies the effects of the berberine. Berberine has also shown antitumor activity. The taste is bitter.  The plant detoxifies, reduces inflammations and breaks fevers. Anti-influenza effect of alkaloids from roots of Mahonia bealei. was studied in vitro. The experiment in embryo indicated that the alkaloids at concentration of 0.25 mg/ml obviously inhibited the proliferation of influenza virus Al, and at concentration of 20 mg/ml showed no side-effect on embryo.

The leaf is febrifuge and tonic. A decoction of the root and stems is antiphlogistic, antirheumatic, depurative and febrifuge. A decoction is used in the treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis, recurring fever and cough in rundown body systems, rheumatoid arthritis, backache, weak knees, dysentery and enteritis. The root and root bark are best harvested in the autumn. Berberine, universally present in rhizomes of Mahonia species, has marked antibacterial effects  and is used as a bitter tonic. Since it is not appreciably absorbed by the body, it is used orally in the treatment of various enteric infections, especially bacterial dysentery. It should not be used with Glycyrrhiza species (Liquorice) because this nullifies the effects of the berberine.  Berberine has also shown antitumour activity.

Other Uses:
The shade tolerant leatherleaf mahonia is a popular shrub in the southern US and similar climates, producing dense clusters of very fragrant, golden yellow flowers. These showy blossoms stand above its evergreen foliage in late winter or early spring when few other plants are blooming. Use this spiny, gangly shrub on the north side of a building, where shade excludes most flowering shrubs. You can plant a leatherleaf mahonia in front of a window, and still be able to see out between the vertical stems and horizontal layered foliage. It often is used as a border or foundation plant as well. The coarse texture and clumsy form may not suit well in a neat, formal garden, but leatherleaf mahonia can be pruned to a single-stemmed specimen. To keep a denser form, prune out a few of the tallest stems each spring to encourage new stem growth from the base. Prune out a few leaves to accentuate the layered effect. With creative pruning, leatherleaf mahonia has a dramatic silhouette.

The fruits are much relished by birds, and are usually devoured within days of ripening. Leatherleaf mahonia can be grown in containers and can be used as a large houseplant.

Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://www.floridata.com/ref/m/maho_bea.cfm
http://www.herbnet.com/Herb%20Uses_AB.htm
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Mahonia+bealei

 

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Daruharidra (Berberis aristata)

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Botanical Name : Berberis aristata
Family: Berberidaceae
Kingdom:
Plantae
Order:
Ranunculales
Genus:
Berberis
Species:
B. aristata

Common name: Chitra
Other Common Names:   Darlahad [H], Hint Amberparisi [E], Indian Lycium [E], Nepal Barberry [H], Ophthalmic Barberry [H] (From various places around the Web, may not be 100% correct.) Barberry, Nepal
Vernacular Name: Sans; Daruharidra; Hind: Darhald; Eng : Indian barberry
Synonyms: Berberis coriaria (Lindl.), Berberis chitria (Hort.)

Sanskrit Synonyms:
Darunisha, Peeta, Daruharidra, Darvi, Peetadru, Peetachandana, Hemakanti, Kashta Rajani, Peetaka, Peetahva, Hemakanta,Hemavarnavati, – All these synonyms explain about turmeric-like yellow coloured stem.
Katankati, Katankateri, Parjanya, Pachampacha, Kusumbhaka,
Habitat :E. Asia – Himalayas in Nepal.(Shrubberies to 3500 metres)Woodland, Dappled Shade, Shady Edge.

Description:

Daruharidra is an evergreen erect spiny shrub, ranging between 2 and 3 meters in height. It is a woody plant, with bark that appears yellow to brown from the outside and deep yellow from the inside. The bark is covered with three-branched thorns, which are modified leaves, and can be removed by hand in longitudinal strips. The leaves are arranged in tufts of 5-8 and are approximately 4.9 centimeters long and 1.8 centimeters broad. The leaves are deep green on the dorsal surface and light green on the ventral surface. The leaves are simple with pinnate venation. The leaves are leathery in texture and are toothed, with several to many small indentations along the margin of the leaf.
It is a woody plant, with bark that appears yellow to brown from the outside and deep yellow from the inside. The bark is covered with three-branched thorns, which are modified leaves, and can be removed by hand in longitudinal strips. The leaves are arranged in tufts of 5-8 and are approximately 4.9 centimeters long and 1.8 centimeters broad. The leaves are deep green on the dorsal surface and light green on the ventral surface. The leaves are simple with pinnate venation. The leaves are leathery in texture and are toothed, with several to many small indentations along the margin of the leaf.

The flowering season begins in mid-March and lasts throughout the month of April. The yellow flowers that develop are complete and hermaphroditic. The average diameter of a fully opened flower is 12.5 millimeters. The flowers form a racemose inflorescence, with 11 to 16 flowers per raceme, arranged along a central stem. The flower is polysepalous, with 3 large and 3 small sepals, and polypetalous, with 6 petals in total. The male reproductive structure, the androecium, is polyandrous and contains 6 stamens, 5 to 6 millimeters long. There is one female reproductive structure, the gynoecium, which is 4 to 5 millimeters long and is composed of a short style and a broad stigma. The plant produces bunches of succulent, acidic, edible berries that are bright red in color and have medicinal properties. The fruits start ripening from the second week of May and continue to do so throughout June. The berries are approximately 7 millimeters long, 4 millimeters in diameter and weigh about 227 milligrams.

CLICK TO SEE THE PICTURES………>….(01).…….(1)…....(2).………(3)……

Cultivation :   Prefers a warm moist loamy soil and light shade but it is by no means fastidious, succeeding in thin, dry and shallow soils. Grows well in heavy clay soils. The plant prefers light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and can grow in heavy clay and nutritionally poor soils. The plant prefers acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It requires dry or moist soil. Plants are very hardy, they survived the severe winters of 1986-1987 without problems in most areas of Britain.

Plants can be pruned back quite severely and resprout well from the base. The fruits are sometimes sold in local markets in India. Hybridizes freely with other members of this genus. Most plants cultivated under this name are B. chitria., B. coriaria., B. glaucocarpa. and, more commonly, B. floribunda.

Propagation:  Seed – best sown as soon as it is ripe in a cold frame, it should germinate in late winter or early spring.  Seed from over-ripe fruit will take longer to germinate. Stored seed may require cold stratification and should be sown in a cold frame as early in the year as possible. When they are large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on in the greenhouse or cold frame for at least their first winter. Once they are at least 20cm tall, plant them out into their permanent positions in late spring or early summer, after the last expected frosts. The seedlings are subject to damping off, so be careful not to overwater them and keep them well ventilated.

Cuttings of half-ripe wood, July/August in a frame. Very difficult, if not impossible. Cuttings of mature wood of the current season’s growth, preferably with a heel, October/November in a frame . Very difficult, if not impossible.

Edible Uses:  Fruit – raw or cooked. A well-flavoured fruit, it has a sweet taste with a blend of acid, though there is a slight bitterness caused by the seeds. The fruit is much liked by children. It is dried and used like raisins in India. The fruit contains about 2.3% protein, 12% sugars, 2% ash, 0.6% tannin, 0.4% pectin. There is 4.6mg vitamin C per 100ml of juice.The fruit is about 7mm x 4mm – it can be up to 10mm long. Plants in the wild yield about 650g of fruit in 4 pickings.

Flower buds – added to sauces.

Composition:  Fruit (Fresh weight) :In grammes per 100g weight of food:Protein: 2.3 Carbohydrate: 12 Ash: 2

Medicinal Uses:  Alterative; Antibacterial; Antiperiodic; Bitter; Cancer; Deobstruent; Diaphoretic; Laxative; Ophthalmic; Tonic.

The dried stem, root bark and wood are alterative, antiperiodic, deobstruent, diaphoretic, laxative, ophthalmic and tonic (bitter). An infusion is used in the treatment of malaria, eye complaints, skin diseases, menorrhagia, diarrhoea and jaundice.

Berberine, universally present in rhizomes of Berberis species, has marked antibacterial effects. Since it is not appreciably absorbed by the body, it is used orally in the treatment of various enteric infections, especially bacterial dysentery]. It should not be used with Glycyrrhiza species (Liquorice) because this nullifies the effects of the berberine. Berberine has also shown antitumour activity.

As per Ayurveda:
It is tikta, katu, ushnaveerya; applied in the treatment of septic wounds and polyuria, pruritus, erysipelas and diseases of skin, eye and ear; antidotal

 Therapeutic uses: Paste of root-bark finds external application for healing ulcers. Extract prepared from root-bark is used as a local application in affected parts of the eyelids and in chronic ophthalmia.The tincture of the root is used against intermittent fever and considered to be advantageous over quinine and cinchona since it does not produce deafness or cardiac depression.

The decoction is particularly useful in the enlargement of liver and spleen associated with malarial fever. It is also used for fever accompanied by diarrhoea. Root combined with opium, rocksalt and alum is considered to be an useful anti-inflammatory agent.

In bleeding piles, application of powdered root mixed with butter is beneficial. “Rasauf’ of the rootprepared withis found useful in stomatitis and leucorrhoea.

Decoction of stem mixed with that of curcuma longa is recommended in’gonorrhoea.

Bark juice is useful in jaundice.

Fruits are edible and prescribed as a mild laxative for children.

 Other Uses:A yellow dye is obtained from the root and the stem. An important source of dyestuff and tannin, it is perhaps one of the best tannin dyes available in India. The wood is used as a fuel.

Disclaimer:The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

 

Resources:
http://www.ibiblio.org/pfaf/cgi-bin/arr_html?Berberis+aristata
http://www.ayurvedakalamandiram.com/herbs.htm#bringraj
http://www.motherherbs.com/berberis-aristata.html
http://www.ayurgold.com/clinical_studies/indian_barberry

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Berberis_aristata

 

 

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Yashtimadhu – (Glycyrrhiza glabra)

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Botanical Name : Glycyrrhiza Glabra
Family: Fabaceae
Subfamily: Faboideae
Tribe: Galegeae
Genus: Glycyrrhiza
Species: G. glabra
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Fabales

Family name: Leguminosae

Sanskrit: Yashtimadhu
English: Liquorice

Hindi: Mulethi
Telugu: Athimadhuramu
Common names:Liquorice, or Licorice, Yashtimadhuka, Mitilakadi, Asailasoos, Erattimadhuram, Athimadhuram, Athimadhura, Jeshtamaddu,

The word liquorice is derived (via the Old French licoresse) from the Greek    (glukurrhiza), meaning “sweet root”,   from    (glukus), “sweet”  +  (rhiza), “root”,  the name provided by Dioscorides.  It is usually spelled liquorice in British usage, but licorice in the United States and Canada. It is called erk-soos   in Arabic, athimadhuram   in Telugu, jyeshthamadhu   in Kannada,   in Urdu, athimadhuram   in Tamil, irattimadhuram   in Malayalam, yastimadhu   in Sanskrit, mulethi   in Hindi, Vel Mee  in Sinhalese, jethimadh  in Gujarati, and jyeshthamadh  in Marathi.

Other Names: Licorice, Mithi-lakdi, Mulathi, Liquorice, sweetwood.

Parts used : Roots and runners, either unpeeled or peeled.
Habitat: Glycyrrhiza Glabra is  native to southern Europe, India, and parts of Asia. It is not botanically related to anise, star anise, or fennel, which are sources of similar flavouring compounds.It is a legume plant and grows as a shrub.This herb is found in many countries. It is believed to give contentment and harmony.

Origin: China. Licorice is a medical plant in China and India, and therefore cultivated.

Description:
The liquorice plant is a herbaceous perennial legume. It goows to 1 m in height, with pinnate leaves about 7–15 cm (2.8–5.9 in) long, with 9–17 leaflets. The flowers are 0.8–1.2 cm (1?3–1?2 in) long, purple to pale whitish blue, produced in a loose inflorescence. The fruit is an oblong pod, 2–3 cm (3?4–1 1?6 in) long, containing several seeds. The roots are stoloniferous.

..click to see the pictures…>……..(001)....(01)...(1)..….…...(2).……..(3).………(4)….

History:
Licorice is a traditional herbal remedy with an ancient history and world wide usage. Modern research has shown it to have effects upon, amongst other organs, the endocrine system and liver. The triterpenes of Glycyrrhiza are metabolized in the body to molecules that have a similar structure to the

Active Compounds:
*Triterpenes of the oleanane type, mainly glycyrrhizin (=glycyrrhizic or glycyrrhizinic acid), and its agylcone glycyrrhetinic acid (=glycyrrhitic acid), liquiritic acid, glycyrrhetol, glabrolide, isoglabrolide, licoric acid, & phytosterols.

* Flavonoids and isoflavonoids; liquiritigenin, liquiritin, rhamnoliquiritin, neoliquiritin, licoflavonol, licoisoflavones A and B, licoisoflavanone, formononetin, glabrol, glabrone, glyzarin, kumatakenin and others.

* Coumarins; liqcoumarin, umbelliferone, herniarin glycyrin.

*Chalcones; liquiritigenin, isoliquiritigenin, neosoliquiritin, rhamnoisoliquiritin, licuraside, licochalcones A and B, echinatin and others.

*Polysaccharides, mainly glucans.

*Volatile oil, containing fenchone, linalool, furfuryl alcohol, benzaldehyde.

* Miscellaneous; starch, sugars, amino acid etc

In Ayurveda Yashtimadhu is known as an aphrodisiac and a rejuvenating tonic. It is an excellent natural herb that is used for treating various ailments like throat congestions, coughs, respiratory disorders and tuberculosis. Yastimadhu also helps inincreasing the appetite by facilitating proper evacuation of stools. This herb has a specialaction on kapha, which helps in expectoration of the accumulated kapha.

Some recent scientific studies have shown that Yashtimadhu also acts as a memory enhancer and mental rejuvenator.

Reduces hyperacidity and is documented for preventing gastric and duodenal ulcers. It has spasmolytic effect and is useful in treating heartburn.

Yashtimadhu is an excellent natural herb for treating throat congestions, coughs, respiratory disorders and tuberculosis. Yashtimadhu is known in Ayurvedic as an aphrodisiac and a rejuvenating tonic, it also helps in relieving hyperacidity, soothing peptic ulcers, liver diseases and abdominal aches.

The scent of liquorice root comes from a complex and variable combination of compounds, of which anethole is up to 3% of total volatiles. Much of the sweetness in liquorice comes from glycyrrhizin, which has a sweet taste, 30–50 times the sweetness of sugar. The sweetness is very different from sugar, being less instant, tart, and lasting longer.
The isoflavene glabrene and the isoflavane glabridin, found in the roots of liquorice, are phytoestrogens.
Edible Uses:………..CLICK & SEE
Food and candy:
Liquorice flavour is found in a wide variety of candies or sweets. In most of these candies, the taste is reinforced by aniseed oil so the actual content of liquorice is very low. Liquorice confections are primarily purchased by consumers in the European Union.

In the Netherlands, where liquorice candy (drop) is one of the most popular forms of sweets, only a few of the many forms that are sold contain aniseed, although mixing it with mint, menthol, or with laurel is quite popular. Mixing it with ammonium chloride (salmiak) is also popular. The most popular liquorice, known in the Netherlands as zoute drop (salty liquorice), actually contains very little salt, i.e., sodium chloride. The salty taste is probably due to ammonium chloride and the blood pressure-raising effect is due to glycyrrhizin. Strong, salty sweets are popular in Nordic countries.

Pontefract in Yorkshire was the first place where liquorice mixed with sugar began to be used as a sweet in the same way it is in the modern day.[20] Pontefract cakes were originally made there. In County Durham, Yorkshire, and Lancashire, it is colloquially known as ‘Spanish’, supposedly because Spanish monks grew liquorice root at Rievaulx Abbey near Thirsk.
Liquorice root chips:

Dried sticks of liquorice root:
In Italy (particularly in the south), Spain, and France, liquorice is popular in its natural form. The root of the plant is simply dug up, washed, dried, and chewed as a mouth freshener. Throughout Italy, unsweetened liquorice is consumed in the form of small black pieces made only from 100% pure liquorice extract; the taste is bitter and intense. In Calabria a popular liqueur is made from pure liquorice extract.

Liquorice is also very popular in Syria and Egypt, where it is sold as a drink, in shops as well as street vendors. It is used for its expectorant qualities in folk medicine in Egypt.

Dried liquorice root can be chewed as a sweet. Black liquorice contains about 100 calories[dubious – discuss] per ounce (15 kJ/g).

Liquorice is used by brewers to flavour and colour porter classes of beers, and the enzymes in the root also stabilize the foam heads produced by beers brewed with it

Medicinal Uses:anti-inflammatory, anti-hepatotoxic, anti-spasmodic, demulcent, emetic, expectorant, laxative, rejuvenative, sedative, tonic.

Uses in:
abdominal pain
bronchitis
colds
cough
debility (general)
heart tonic
hyperacidity
inflammation
laryngitis
laxative
mucus membrane toner and soother
muscle spasms
sore throat
ulcers
painful urination

Yashtimadhu is an excellent natural herb for treating throat congestions, coughs, respiratory disorders and tuberculosis. Yashtimadhu is known in Ayurvedic as an aphrodisiac and a rejuvenating tonic, it also helps in relieving hyperacidity, soothing peptic ulcers, liver diseases and abdominal aches.

Various scientific studies suggest that Yashtimadhu also acts as a memory enhancer and mental rejuvenator.
As an anti-hepatotoxic licorice is effective in the treatment of chronic hepatitis and cirrhosis, for which it is been widely used in Japan. Much of the liver orientated research has focused upon the triterpene glycyrrhizin. This inhibits hepatocyte injury caused by carbon tetrachloride, benzene hexachloride and PCB. Antibody production is enhanced by glycyrrhizin, possibly through the production of interleukin.

Glycyrrhizin inhibits the growth of several DNA and RNA viruses, inactivating Herpes simplex virus particles irreversibly. It has a variety of uses in bronchial problems such as catarrh, bronchitis and coughs in general. Liquorice is used in allopathic medicine as a treatment for peptic ulceration, a similar use to its herbal use in gastritis and ulcers. It can be used in the relief of abdominal colic.

It nourishes the brain-increasing cranial and cerebrospinal fluid. Also improves complexion, hair, and vision.

It is used for:Sore throat with hoarseness of voice and cough.Acid peptic disease.Chronic liver diseases General tonic.

Since Hippocrates’ day licorice has been prescribed for dropsy because it does, indeed, prevent thirst–probably the only sweet thing that does. The chief medicinal action of licorice is as a demulcent and emollient. Its soothing properties make it excellent in throat and chest complaints and it is a very common ingredient in throat pastilles and cough mixtures. It is also widely used in other medicines to counteract bitter tastes and make them more palatable. Recent research has shown that it has a pain-killing effect on stomach ulcers and prolonged use raises the blood pressure. Medicinally the dried peeled root has been decocted to allay coughs, sore throat, laryngitis, and urinary and intestinal irritations. The root is expectorant, diuretic, demulcent, antitussive, anti-inflammatory, and mildly laxative. It has proven helpful in inflammatory upper respiratory disease, Addison’s disease, and gastric and duodenal ulcers. Side effects may develop in ulcer treatment. Licorice may increase venous and systolic arterial pressure causing some people to experience edema, and hypertension. In some countries, licorice has been used to treat cancers. Licorice stick, the sweet earthy flavored stolons, are chewed. Licorice chew sticks blackened Napoleon’s teeth. In the 1940s Dutch physicians tested licorice’s reputation as an aid for indigestion. They came up with a derivative drug, carbenoxolone, that promised to help peptic ulcer patients by either increasing the life span of epithelial cells in the stomach or inhibiting digestive activity in general. Many cures were achieved in the experiments, but negative side effects–the patients’ faces and limbs swelled uncomfortably–outweighed the cures.

Certain agents in licorice have recently been credited with antibacterial and mild antiviral effects; licorice may be useful in treating dermatitis, colds, and infections. It also has been used in a medicinal dandruff shampoo. Other modern-day research found that the herb can reduce arthritic activity.

An extract of licorice is made by crushing the fresh or stored roots, then boiling or passing steam through them and evaporating the liquid, leaving a thick paste or solid black glossy substance with a sharp fracture. The active ingredient Glycyrrhizin may cause hypertension from potassium loss, sodium retention, and in increase of extracellular fluid and plasma volume. It is fifty times sweeter than sugar. Licorice also reportedly contains steroid hormones, but their relation to licorice’s biological activity is yet to be determined, though extracts have been shown to be estrogenic in laboratory animals. Perhaps the most common medicinal use is in cough syrups and cough drops; licorice soothes the chest and helps bring up phlegm. Licorice has also been used to treat ulcers, to relieve rheumatism and arthritis, and to induce menstruation. In this country it was used in powder form as a laxative.

Licorice root is being used today in France and China in eye drops that relieve inflammation. Sodium salts of glycyrrhinic acid are extracted from the root and added to the eye drop formula. The cortisone like action of the licorice root extract is responsible for its healing effects.

Safety:
Caution : There is a small possibility of effecting electrolyte balance with extended use of large doses of licorice. It has an ACTH like effect causing retention of sodium thus raising BP. The whole herb has constituents that counter this but it is best to avoid Licorice if the patient has hypertension, kidney disease or during pregnancy.

It may interfere with the calcium and potassium absorption. Do not use if you are suffering from osteoporosis, hypertension (increases water around heart). Take with boiled milk.

No other information about the safety of this herb is available. Use caution. Ayurvedic herbs are often taken in combination with others to neutralize the toxicity one herb with the opposing effect of other. Do not take except under the supervision of a qualified professional.
Its major dose-limiting toxicities are corticosteroid in nature, due to the inhibitory effect its chief active constituents, glycyrrhizin and enoxolone, have on cortisol degradation and include oedema, hypokalaemia, weight gain or loss, and hypertension.

The United States Food and Drug Administration believes that foods containing liquorice and its derivatives (including glycyrrhizin) are safe if not consumed excessively. Other jurisdictions have suggested no more than 100 mg to 200 mg of glycyrrhizin per day, the equivalent of about 70 to 150 g (2.5 to 5.3 oz) of liquorice.

Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Click to buy Suppliment
Resources:
http://www.allayurveda.com/herbalcure5.htm
http://www.india-shopping.net/india-ayurveda-products/Glycyrrhiza%20glabra-yashtimadhu.htm
http://www.herbzonline.com/safeherbs/natural-antacid.htm
http://www.holisticonline.com/Herbal-Med/_Herbs/h204.htm
http://www.ayurveda-recipes.com/yashtimadhuka.html
http://www.uni-graz.at/~katzer/engl/Glyc_gla.html

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Liquorice

http://www.herbnet.com/Herb%20Uses_LMN.htm

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Herbs & Plants

Yashtimadhu/Mulethi

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Botanical Name : Glycyrrhiza glabra
Family:    Fabaceae
Subfamily:Faboideae
Kingdom:    Plantae
Order:    Fabales
Tribe:    Galegeae
Genus:    Glycyrrhiza
Species:    G. glabra

Vernacular namesSans Yasti madhu, Hind: Jethi madhu, Eng : Licorice

Therapeutic Catagory: Anti-inflammatory, Anti-ulcer

Ayurvedic Names:
Yashtimadhu, Madhuka

Botanical Name: Glycyrrhiza Glabra

Unani Name: Rub-ul-sus

Indian Names: Yashtimadhu, Jethimadhu, Mulethi,Calamus,  Sweet Liquorice, Sweet Wood

Habitat:  This plant can be cultivated in plains of India but the drug is mainly imported from
Afghanistan and Iran.

DESCRIPTION:
Yashtimadhu or Licorice is one of the greatest herbs known to mankind. Egyptian hieroglyphics record the use of Licorice in a popular beverage. Alexander the Great, the Scything armies, Roman Emperor Caesar, and even India’s great prophet, Brahma, are on record endorsing the beneficial properties contained in Licorice. Warriors used it for its ability to quench thirst while on the march, while others recognized Licorice’s valuable healing properties. A very important quality of licorice continues to be its use as a flavoring agent. Glycyrrhiza is Greek meaning ‘sweet root’.

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Liquorice/ Licorice, a perennial herb of the genus Glycyrrhiza, in the family Leguminosae is a tall shrub (4  to  5 feet). This tender, twining plant, woody at the base is native of Asia and Mediterranean region and grows in subtropical climates. Glycyrrhiza glabra is its scientific name
A perennial shrub up to 1m high, violet flowers in racemes, dried roots are the source of liquorice. It is a herb or a small shrub up to 1m high with pinnate leaves having 9-17 leaflets. The leaflets ovate and obtuse. flowers pale blue, arranged in a raceme. Caylx glandular, pubescent. The pods glabrous, red to brown having 3-4 seeds. The root light brown, sweet in taste.

CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS:
Principle constituent of liquorice is the sweet tasting Triterpenoid saponin glyccrrhizin
(2-9%), a mixture of potassium and calcium salts of glycyrrhizinic acid. Include other
triterpenoid saponins like glabranin A&B, glycyrrhetol, glabrolide, isoglabrolide, isoflavones, coumarins, triterpene sterols.

MEDICINAL USES:
The medicinally active sweet juice contained in its root, abounds with a constituent, much used in demulcent compositions. The inspissated juice is used as a confection and for medicinal purposes. Acrid resins, however, render the root irritant and poisonous. The word licorice derives from Greek glykeia rhiza “sweet root” – glykys the modern Greek name means sweet and rhiza means root. This herb known in Malayalam as At(t)i madhuram, Iratti madhuram, can be purchased from angadikkada, the shop in the street Ati madhuram/ Iratti madhuram which means excessively sweet (or extremely charming/ beautiful) is a sugar ally.

Eratti/ iratti means doubling. But Eratti/ iratti madhuram, doesn’t  mean doubling of the sweetness. Iratti is transformed into eratti. The characteristic sweet taste of liquorice is also reflected in the Indian names. In Sanskrit, madhu means sweet, pleasant. This element is found in names for licorice not only in Sanskrit (madhuka and yashtimadhu from yashti “stem, stalk”, but also in modern names of both South and North India, e.g., jestamadha (Marathi), yashthimodhu (Bengali), yashti madhukam, madhu yashti(ka), madhukam, yashti madhuram, yashti, yashtee madhu, madhusrava, yashteekam, kleethakam (Sanskrit), jathi-madh, jethi-madh, mulathi (Hindi), ati-madhura, yashti-madhuka (Kannada), ati-maduram (Tamil), ati-madhuramu, yashti-madhukam (Telugu).

The drug posses potent demulcent, expectorant and anti-inflamattory properties, attributed to the presence of glycyrrhizin, which is about 50 times sweeter than sucrose. Besides these, glyrrhizin is also credited with anti-hepatotoxic, anti-viral and anti-bacterial activites. The drug is also beneficial to peptic ulcer.

In India, the crude as well as its dried aqueous extract is mainly used in bronchial
troubles along with Viola pilosa, Adiantum lunulatum and Justicia adhatoda in the form of
decoction or in lozenges, but in Allopathy, its additional use along with anise oil is as
mild laxative and for masking the bad taste of some herbal preparations of senna aloe,
hyoscyamus, etc.

In Ayurveda, Glycyrrhiza glabra is used in “Yastyadi Churna”, “Yastyadi Kwath” and “Yastimadhavadi Taila”. In Unani system, it is an ingredient of “Banadiq-ul-bazur” used as a diuretic in urinary troubles, of lozenges “Hab Awaz Kusha” and “Hab Maqhas Badam” of “Dawa-i-sandal” a cooling agent for such diseases as syphilis, of “Sufuflodh” for threatened abortion, of “Sharbat Aijaz” a cough syrup and of “Laooq Bihdana” and “Laooq Badama” used as cough linctus.

It is madhura, slightly tikta, sheetala, used in opthalmia, deranged pitta, anorexia, emaciation, allays thirst and cures ulcer.

Therapeutic Uses:
Root (powder) : prescribed in coughs, hoarseness and in respiratory troubles; mixed with citrus juice efficacious in catarrhal affections and with honey in jaundice; in combination with ginger and milk, acts as a good tonic during convalescence; infusion,

Decoction or extract is laxative and an useful medicine in urinary diseases, bronchial and gastric troubles. alterative, galactagogue; good for the eyes, in incipient loss of sight, in diseases of the eyelid; removes biliousness, ear diseases due to biliousness; improves taste; lessens thirst, hiccough, vomiting, fatigue; heals ulcers, wounds; improves the voice; cures” vata “, inflammation, consumption, purifies the blood; useful in leprosy, anremia; hemicrania, haemoptysis, abdominal pains, epilepsy
The root is hot, dry, sweet; diuretic, emmenagogue, demulcent; relieves thirst, cough, vomiting, asthma, bronchitis, abdominal colic, headache; good in eye troubles; cures unhealthy humours, ulcers.-

The branches are bitter.-
The leaves are used for scalds of the head, and in foul perspiration of the armpits
The root is demulcent, pectoral, and emollient.used for coughs, consumption, and chest complaints..
The root is. said to be good for sore throats

CONTENTS:
Licorice root contains triterpenoid saponins (4-24%), mostly glycrrhizin, a mixture of potassium and calcium salts of glycyrrhizic acid; falvonoids (1%), mainly liquiritin and liquiritigenin, chalcones isoliquiritin, isoliquiritigenin, and isoflavonoids (formononetin) ; amines (1-2%) asparagine, betaine, and choline; amino acids; 3-15% glucose and sucrose; starch (2-30%); polysaccharides (arabinogalactans); sterols (beta-sitosterol); coumarins (glycerin); resin; and volatile oils (0.047%). Also Vitamins E, B-complex, phosphorous, biotin, niacin, pantothenic acid, lecithin, manganese, iodine, chromium, and zinc have been found.

BIOCHEMICAL ACTIONS:
Liquorice is used both in the Western and Oriental medicines. In western medicine, liquorice has been used since the ancient Grecian age as an expectorant and antitussive agent and as ad additive for sweetening. In old Chinese Materia Medica “Shin Nung Pen T Sao Chung”, liquorice was described as a drug for strengthening muscle and bone, and curing wounds.

Since liquorice extracts were effective clinically for treatment of gastric ulcer, but
caused oedema and hypertension in nearly 20% patients treated. The physiological and
pharmacolgical studies on glycyrrhizin, the main saponin of liquorice have advanced
remarkably. The side effect of liquorice extracts was regarded as a mineral corticoid like
action of glycyrrhizin. It has been reported that glycyrrhizin caused retention of Na+and Cl and excretion of K+.

Glycyrrhizetic acid has been shown to possess anti-inflammatory activity, in 1/8th potency of hydrocortisone by the cotton-pellet method. The activity is potentiated to 1/5th of hydrocortisone when carbenoxolone (Sodium salt of hemisuccinate of glycyrrhetic acid) is used. Glycyrrhizin ointment is employed clinically for aphtha and other inflammatory skin diseases.

In these cases, glycyrrhizin or its sapogenin glycyrrhetic acid potentiates the
action of glucocorticoid. Glycyrrhizin has been shown to inhibit ulcers in rats and cures
experimental gastric ulcers caused by acetic acid administration. To avoid side effects in
glycyrrhizin in liquorice preparation, such as oedema and hypertension, a glycyrrhizin free
fraction was studied. Later it has been whon that the fraction named FM 100 was found
effective for gastric ulcers and it contains several iso-flavones and chalcones. De-glycyrrhized liquorice extract is now an important substance for treatment of gastric and duodenal ulcers.

Click to see    :Liquorice

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

 

Resources:
http://www.maya-ethnobotanicals.com/product_info.phtml/herbid_055/category_/type_latinname
http://www.banlab.com/herb.htm

http://www.ayurvedakalamandiram.com/herbs.htm#yastimadhu

Categories
Herbs & Plants

LICORICE

Botanical Name: Glycyrrhiza glabra
Family:    
Fabaceae
Subfamily:
Faboideae
Tribe:    
Galegeae
Genus:    
Glycyrrhiza
Species:    
G. glabra
Kingdom: 
   Plantae
Order:  
 Fabales

Common Names: The word liquorice / licorice is derived (via the Old French licoresse) from the Greek   name  glukurrhiza, meaning “sweet root”,  glukus means “sweet”   and rhiza   means “root”.   It is called as adhimadhuram  in Tamil, irattimadhuram  in Malayalam, yastimadhu  in Sanskrit and in Bengali, mulethi  in Hindi, Vel Mee  in Sinhalese and jethimadh  in Gujarati language.

Habitat :
The liquorice plant is a legume native to southern Europe, India, and parts of Asia.

Description:
It is a herbaceous perennial, growing to 1 m in height, with pinnate leaves about 7–15 cm (3–6 in) long, with 9–17 leaflets. The flowers are 0.8–1.2 cm (1/3 to 1/2 in) long, purple to pale whitish blue, produced in a loose inflorescence. The fruit is an oblong pod, 2–3 cm (1 in) long, containing several seeds. The roots are stoloniferous.

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Other herbs and spices of similar flavour include Anise, star anise, tarragon, and fennel.The taste of licorice is similar to that of aniseed and fennel, and thus licorice can be considered to be a spice. However, it has a long history as being of value as an herbal remedy, and it is therefore often considered to be an herb rather than a spice. The licorice plant is a member of the bean family, but its seed pods are hair free in contrast to similar plants. Its roots contain the very sweet, characteristic juice, and as a tribute to this, the plant is named Glycyrrhiza glabra   meaning the sweet root with hairless seed pods. Corruption of the Greek name glyrrhiza led to the other official name, Liquiritra officinalis; the medieval name was gliquiricia from which the name licorice or liquorice is obtained. The sweetest sources of licorice come from plants growing in Spain and Italy, although it is probable that the original plant came from Russia or China. Spanish licorice was brought to England, and it became an important product in the town of Pontefract.
Cultivation and uses
Liquorice is grown as a root crop mainly in southern Europe. Very little commercial liquorice is grown in North America, where it is replaced by a related native species, American Licorice (G. lepidota), which has similar uses.

Liquorice extract is produced by boiling liquorice root and subsequently evaporating most of the water (in fact, the word ‘liquorice’ is derived from the Ancient Greek words for ‘sweet root’). Liquorice extract is traded both in solid and syrup form. Its active principle is glycyrrhizin, a sweetener more than 50 times as sweet as sucrose which also has pharmaceutical effects. The related Chinese Liquorice (G. uralensis), which is used extensively in traditional Chinese medicine, contains this chemical in much greater concentration.
The pleasant quality of true licorice led to it being incorporated into many traditional Chinese remedies, where it was credited with harmonizing the body’s response when it was exposed to the contrasting actions of other herbs in the formula. It has also been utilized in Chinese spice mixtures, and is often incorporated in desserts, confectionaries, candies and alcoholic drinks. Further uses include its addition to tobaccos and snuff. Currently, it is included in many simple medications, especially for pharyngitis and cough. Traditionally, the list of indications is very extensive, and includes infections, aphthous ulcers, skin disorders, rheumatic and other inflammatory diseases, asthma, hepatic and gastroduodenal diseases.

There is no doubt that glycyrrhizin has an aldosterone like effect, and excessive intake of licorice can cause hypokalemia and hypertension. However, the claimed value of licorice products in treating hypo-adrenal states is disputed. Other hormonal effects have been suggested, including impairment of gonadal function.

Thus, this ancient herbal spice has dubious medical values that are complemented by its undoubted toxic potential. It may surprise many people in the U.S. to know that familiar licorice candy is usually not true licorice, since the flavor is generally provided by aniseed, molasses and corn syrup. Eaters of typical U.S. licorice products may put on weight, but this will not be explainable by the hormonal effects of the compounds found in true licorice.
Liquorice flavour is found in a wide variety of liquorice candies. The most popular in the United Kingdom are Liquorice allsorts. In continental Europe, however, far stronger, saltier candies are preferred. It should be noted, though, that in most of these candies the taste is reinforced by aniseed oil, and the actual content of liquorice is quite low. Additionally, liquorice is found in some soft drinks (such as root beer), and is in some herbal teas where it provides a sweet aftertaste. The flavour is common in medicines to disguise unpleasant flavours.

Liquorice is popular in Italy, particularly in the South, in its natural form. The root of the plant is simply dug up, washed and chewed as mouth-freshener. Throughout Italy unsweetened liquorice is consumed in the form of small black pieces made only from 100% pure liquorice extract; the taste is bitter and intense. Liquorice is also very popular in Syria where it is sold as a drink. Dried liquorice root can be chewed as a sweet. According to the US Department of Agriculture Food Database, black licorice contains approximately 100 calories per ounce Chinese cuisine uses liquorice as a culinary spice for savoury foods. It is often employed to flavour broths and foods simmered in soy sauce.

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Useful Parts :The roots and rhizomes are the important source for the flavor.

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Medicinal Properties:Licorice contains several active phytomedicines. The main one is the saponin-like triterpene glycoside, glycyrrhizin (also called glycyrrhizic acid and glycyrrhizinic acid), which is much sweeter than sugar. This compound is hydrolyzed in the bowel to glycyrrhetic (or glycyrrhetinic) acid, which is also called enoxolone. The latter has been marketed as a succinate derivative, carbenoxolone, which is prescribed in Europe and Japan as a treatment for gastric ulcers, although its value is uncertain. Licorice flavonoids are believed to have antioxidant properties. Additional effects of glycyrrhizin include the surprising finding in Japan that this agents helps improve liver function in hepatitis C. Similarly, some reports demonstrate improvement in AIDS. All such studies raise unanswered questions as to the true value of licorice in the modern era.
Liquorice plays an important part in unani as well as Ayurvedic system of medicines. It is mentioned as one of principal drugs by ‘Sushruta’ one of the prominent Sage physician of Vedic times. Liquorice has been used for its rejuvenating properties especially for longer periods. In earlier times, it was used to quench thirst, alleviate feverishness, pain, cough & distress of breathing. Liquorice is also a popular flavouring agent. It is tall erect herb growing upto about 1.5 metres in height. It has compound leaves lilac or violet flowers flat fruit & and is densely covered with small apineous out growths. The dried roots & under ground stems or rhizomes of the plant constitute the drug. Liquorice is cultivated in southern Europe, Syria, Iraq, Turkey, Greece & Russia. In India, it is cultivated in northwest parts of the country and large quantities are imported for medicinal purposes.

CURATIVE PROPERTIES: –
The root of the plant is a laxative & expectorant. When externally used it has a soothing effect on the skin. Powdered liquorice is very popular in allopathic medicine.

STOMACH DISORDERS:
Liquorice is an excellent remedy for relieving pain discomfort & other symptoms caused by acrid matter in the stomach. It should be taken in powder form.

SORE THROAT: –

The herb is a recognised home remedy for sore throat. A small piece of raw liquorice if chewed or sucked provides relief by soothing the inflammation.
Historical View : Liquorice root possesses demulcent properties: and hence is useful to allay cough, and in catarrhal affections. It has also been found serviceable in irritable conditions of the mucous membrane of the urinary organs, etc.”

Other Uses:
Tobacco:
Most liquorice is used as a flavouring agent for tobacco. For example, M&F Worldwide reported in 2011 that about 63% of its liquorice product sales are to the worldwide tobacco industry for use as tobacco flavour enhancing and moistening agents in the manufacture of American blend cigarettes, moist snuff, chewing tobacco, and pipe tobacco  American blend cigarettes made up a larger portion of worldwide tobacco consumption in earlier years,  and the percentage of liquorice products used by the tobacco industry was higher in the past. M&F Worldwide sold approximately 73% of its liquorice products to the tobacco industry in 2005.  A consultant to M&F Worldwide’s predecessor company stated in 1975 that it was believed that well over 90% of the total production of liquorice extract and its derivatives found its way into tobacco products.

Liquorice provides tobacco products with a natural sweetness and a distinctive flavour that blends readily with the natural and imitation flavouring components employed in the tobacco industry. It represses harshness and is not detectable as liquorice by the consumer. Tobacco flavourings such as liquorice also make it easier to inhale the smoke by creating bronchodilators, which open up the lungs.  Chewing tobacco requires substantially higher levels of liquorice extract as emphasis on the sweet flavour appears highly desirable

Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Help taken from:Medicinal Spices Exhibit and en.wikipedia.org and http://www.hashmi.com/liquorice.html

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