Herbs & Plants


Botanical Name :Flacourtia indica (Burm. f.) Merr.
Family: Flacourtiaceae
Genus: Flacourtia
Species: F. indica
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Violales

Other Scientific Names : Gmelina indica Burm. f.,Mespilus sylvestris Burm.,Flacourtia sepiaria Roxb.,Flacourtia ranibtcgu L’ Herit. ,Myroxylon decline Blanco ,Flacourtia cataphracta Rolfe

Common Names :  Bitangol (Sbl.),Bitunogo (Tag.),Bolong (Mang.), Palutan (Ibn.), Saua-saua (Bis.),Many spiked Flacourtia (Engl.)

Habitat : Palutan is found in dry thickets at low altitude in Cagayan, Isabela, Zambales, Tarlac, Bataan, Rizal, and Batangas Provinces in Luzon; and in Mindoro. It also occurs in India to tropical Africa and Malaya.

The plant is an erect, branched, more or less spiny shrub of small tree, growing to a height of 3 meters. Spines are slender and scattered, up to 2 cm long. Leaves are obovate to oblong-ovate, 2.5 to 5 cm long, with toothed margins and rounded lobes, the based pointed with the tip rounded. Flowers are white, about 5 mm in diameter, borne on axillary or terminating short branchlets, solitary or in pairs. Fruit is rounded, about 1 cm in diameter, fleshy when fresh, smooth and purple or nearly black. The pulp is edible, fleshy and sweet, enclosing 6 to 10 small and flattened seeds.


Edible Uses: In India, fruits consumed as food by local people.

Medicinal Uses:
Parts Used: Bark and leaves.

*Bark is astringent.
*Dried leaves considered carminative, expectorant, tonic and astringent.

*Infusion of the bark used for hoarseness and as a gargle.

*In Madagascar, the bark is titurated in oil and used as a rheumatic liniment.

*The ashes of the roots are used for kidney ailments.

*Dried leaves are used in asthma, bronchitis, phthisis and catarrh of the bladder.

*Juice of fresh leaves and tender stalks used for fevers.

*As an antiperiodic for infants, 5 to 10 drops are placed in water or in mother’s milk.

*Also used in phthisical coughs, dysentery, diarrhea and indigestion during dentition.

*In Bengal, used as a tonic during parturition.

*The fruit is used for bilious disorders and to relieve nausea and vomiting.

*In India, used as an antiviral.

*In Sabah, roots used for headaches, leaves for colic.

*In Tanzania, fruit used for jaundice and enlarged spleens; leaves and roots for schistosomiasis, malaria and diarrhea. Also, the roots are used for hoarseness, pneumonia, intestinal worms; and as astringent, diuretic and analgesic.

Studies :-
Hepatoprotective / Paracetamol-Induced Hepatotoxicity: Study of extracts of aerial parts of F indica in paracetamol-induced hepatic necrosis in rat models exhibited hepatoprotective effects probably mediated through the inhibition of the microsomal metabolizing enzymes.
• Hepatoprotective / CCL4-Induced Hepatotoxicity: Study results conclude that aqueous extract of leaves of F indica protects the liver against oxidative damages and can be used as an effective protector against CCl4-induced hepatic damage.
• Antimalarial: Study reports on the antiplasmodial activity of the AcOEt extract and three major constituents of Flacourtia indica.

The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.


Click to access palutan.pdf

Enhanced by Zemanta
Herbs & Plants


[amazon_link asins=’B00127QBV2,2336295652,B00473ZTMU,B003TGGTQG,B01N92PFY1,B01I019PCO,B01N9210IH,B01N8RM22K,B01N6397CM’ template=’ProductCarousel’ store=’finmeacur-20′ marketplace=’US’ link_id=’d70281b0-5c0f-11e7-931d-b3c81c300c02′]

Botanical Name : Gmelina elliptica Sm.
Family: Verbenaceae/Lamiaceae
Genus: Gmelina
Species:  Gmelina elliptica
Order: Lamiales

Other Scientific   Names :Gmelina asiatica Linn. ,Gmelina villosa Roxb. ,Gmelina elliptica Sm.

Common Names : Bañgana (Bag.),Talauan (P. Bis.),Bohol (C. Bis.),Taluñgud (Sul.), Danhañgas (Mag.) Tantuñgun (P. Bis.) ,Gimelina (Tag.) Tuluñgun (P. Bis.) ,Kaluñgun (P. Bis.) Tuñgolnol (P. Bis.) ,Puhang (Sul.) Rais madre de Dios (Span.) ,Saonad (Sub.)

Habitat :
Taluñgud is common in thickets and secondary forest at low altitudes in Quezon Province in Luzon; and in Mindoro, Masbate, Panay, Guimaras, Negros, Cebu, Bohol, Mindanao, Basilan, and Bongao. It also occurs in Burma, through Malaya to the Moluccas and the Palau Islands.


This is a thorny, scrambling shrub or small tree growing up to 8 meters in height. The leaves are elliptic or ovate, 4 to 9 centimeters long, 2 to 6 centimeters wide, blunt or slightly pointed at both ends, woolly-felted or white-hoary on the lower surface, furnished with minute, green glands at the base, and having somewhat entire or coarsely toothed margins. The flowers are about 3.5 centimeters in length, with rather large bracts. The calyx has 5 to 6 flat, green glands on one side, and small, toothed lobes. The corolla has a bell-shaped, 4-lobed mouth, and a very narrow tube below. The fruit (drupe) is nearly round, less than 2 centimeters in width, and yellow when ripe, with watery flesh.


click to see…the pictures..

Propagation: Seed

Study of aerial parts yielded 22 compounds from a chloroform extract, its prevailiing compound, 1,2- benzenedicarboxylic acid, diisoctyl ester (31.22%); and 12 compounds from an ethanolic extract, its major constituent, monolinoleoylglycerol trimethylsilyl ether (38.51%).

*Bark and roots are demulcent and alterative.
*Leaves are cathartic.
Medicinal Uses:
Parts used : Leaves, fruit.

*Poultices for headaches; mixed with lime, poulticed for swellings.
*Leaves are cathartic.
*Roasted fruit applied to foot itching caused by stagnant waters.
*Infusion from fruit used as eye lotion.
*Juice from the fruit or leaves used for otalgia.
*Boiled leaves used for inflammed gums.
*In Thailand, the bark of Uvaria spp. and Gmelina elliptica is used to treat nausea and vomitiing during pregnancy.

• Hypoglycemic / Anti-Diabetic: Study of the alcoholic extract of root of Gmelina asiatica showed significant dose-dependent blood glucose reduction in normal and diabetic rats. The effect was compared with the drug tolbutamide.
Antiinflammatory: Study of the root powder in male albino rats showed the crude drug may exert anti-inflammatory activity by anti-proliferative, anti-oxidative and lysosomal membrane stabilisation.
Study showed the hexane and chloroform extract of G asiatica roots showed significant antipyretic activity with no toxic activity.
• Antimicrobial: T
he ethanolic extract of roots of G asiatica exhibited a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity, particularly against E coli, P vulgaris and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
Antiproliferative / Anti-Breast Cancer: Study results suggest the efficacy of G. asiatic roots as antiproliferative agents on human breast cancer cells, supporting the hypothesis that plants containing lignans have beneficial effects on human breast cancer.

The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.


Herbs & Plants

Gamar (Gmelina arborea Roxb)

[amazon_link asins=’B0007HWA6I,8170892287,B0007BVMQ8,B0006EMLV6,B0006EMLV6′ template=’ProductCarousel’ store=’finmeacur-20′ marketplace=’US’ link_id=’66f13bf6-02d3-11e7-9b07-0f6f540f6156′]

[amazon_link asins=’B01KMN2UBQ’ template=’ProductCarousel’ store=’finmeacur-20′ marketplace=’US’ link_id=’56c93a7f-02d4-11e7-b338-d5fdff153dc8′]

Botanical Name:Gmelina arborea Roxb. (Verbenaceae)
Syn : Premna arborea Roth

English names: Cashmeri tree, Coomb teak, Malay bush beech, White teak.

Sanskrit names: Ashveta, Bahdraparni, Gambhari, Gandhari, Kakodumbari, Kassmari, Katphala, Nandivriksha, Sharubhadra, Shriparni, Subhadra, Vataha, Vidarini.

Vernacular names: Asm : Gomari; Ben: Gamar, Gamari, Gambar; Guj : Shewan; Hin: Gamari, Gambhari, Jugani chukur, Khambheri; Kan : Kashmirimara, Kumbalamara, Shivani; Lcd: Kashmar daru; Mal: Kambil, Kumil, Kumilu, Kumpil; Mar: Shewan; Mun : Kasambar daru, Kasmar daru; Orn : Gambhair; Ori : Bhodroparni, Gambari; Pun: Gumhar; Sad: Gambhair; San: Kashmar daru; Tam: Gumudu-taku, Kattanam, Kumadi, Kumala maram, Perumkumbil, Umithekku; Tel: Gumar-tek, Gummadi.

Trade names: Gamar, Gamari, Gumhar.
Habitat : Throughout India; Bangladesh (Chittagong), .Native to tropical moist forest from India, Burma, and Sri Lanka to southern China, Gmelina is widely introduced, e.g. in Brazil, Gambia, Honduras, Ivory Coast, Malaysia, Malawi, Nigeria, Panama, Philippines, and Sierra Leone.

Deciduous tree 12–30 m high and 60–100 cm in diameter. Bark light gray or gray-yellow, smooth, thin, somewhat corking, becoming brown and rough; twigs stout, often slightly 4-angled. Leaves opposite, broadly ovate, 10–20 cm long, 7–13 cm wide; base with 2–4 glands beneath, acuminate, entire, with 3 or 5 main veins from near base and 2–5 pairs of side veins, underneath velvety with yellow-brown hairs. Petiole 5–12 cm long, hairy. Cymes paniculate at ends of twigs, 15–30 cm long, branched, densely hairy. Flowers many, short-stalked, nodding, 4 cm long, densely hairy. Calyx bell-shaped, 5 mm long, 5-toothed; corolla bright orange-yellow or brownish-yellow, with short narrow tube, 2-lipped; stamens 4 in 2 pairs inserted near base of tube. Pistil with elliptical 4-celled ovary having 1 ovule in each cell. Stigma often slightly 2–4-forked. Drupes ovate or pyriform, 2–2.5 cm long, smooth, becoming orange-yellow, pulpy, with large egg-shaped stone, having 1–4 cells. Seeds 1–4 (Little, 1983).

Click  & see the pictures   

Flowering: January-April; Fruiting: May-June.

Seeds, retaining their viability for only about 12 months, will benefit from soaking if rain or irrigation is not expected. Direct seeding is cheap but tubed seedlings are also outplanted, sometimes intercropped with beans, cashew, corn, peanuts, and tobacco. For fuelwood, spacing at 2 x 2 m is recommended, wider spacings for timber plantations. For the first year or so, weeding is necessary, but the canopy is soon dense, like the litter layer, quickly arresting the weed growth.

Trees coppice well, with 5-year coppice rotations for fuel, longer rotations for timber.

Destructive distillation of the wood yields 31.8% charcoal, 47.1% total distillate, 37.1% pyroligneous acid, 10.0% tar, 2.4% pitch, and losses, 4.47% acids, 3.42% esters, 2.38% acetone, and 1.28% methanol on a dry weight basis. The non-condensable gases (1.88 ft3/lb) contain 59% CO2, 31.75% CO, 4.5% methane, 4.15% H, and 0.6% unsaturated hydrocarbons. Many of these have energetic potential (C.S.I.R., 1948–1976). Reynolds and Lawson (1978) concluded that the heating value of Gmelina wood was less than that from the local eucalypts. Although the calorific values of the samples studied were almost identical (4.53 mcal/kg and 4.54 respectively), the DM contents were 45 and 56%. The fresh weight of Gmelina firewood brought in cubic-meter lots was significantly correlated with butt size. The NAS (1980a) suggests 4.8 mcal/kg for the sapwood, spec. grav. 0.42–0.64. The charcoal burns well, without smoke, leaving a lot of ash. The Wealth of India (C.S.I.R., 1948–1976) puts the calorific value at 4.763 mcal (8,547 BTU) with silica free ash of 1.54%. In a 10-year-old Philippine stand, the aboveground biomass was 127 MT/ha, leaf biomass was 1.4 MT, leaf litter ca 5.2 MT, constituting ca 62% of the total litter. Annual productivity was 18 MT/ha. Annual stem increment was about 10 MT/ha or 30 M3/ha, little influenced by the age of the stand over the first 15 years (Kawahara et al., 1981). Akachuku’s data (1981) show annual yields of 20–50 m3/ha/yr but he cites other studies on poor sandy soil yielding only 7, on laterites only 18; on the best of savanna sites 25, on rainforest sites 31–36, on Malaysia sites 28–38, and on Philippine sites 36 m3. MAI in 7-year trees was 32 m3 (15 MT) to 47 m3 (23 MT)/ha (Akachuku, 1981).

Biotic Factors :
Cattle may eat the foliage and bark; seeds and foliage are consumed avidly by rabbits and deer. In Latin America, the leaves are gathered by the leaf-cutter ants. In India, other insects may defoliate the plant. Calopepla may defoliate, while the borers, Dihamnus and Alicide, may damage the trees. The “machete disease”, Ceratocystis fimbriata, is sometimes severe in moister climates. Poria rhizomorpha may cause stem and root diseases in wet situations with heavy soils. Browne (1968) lists the following as affecting Gmelina arborea: (Fungi) Armillaria mellea, Cercospora ranjita, Fomes roseus, Polyporus baudni, Poria rhizomorpha, Sclerotinia rolfsii, Trametes straminea. (Angiospermae) Tapinanthus sp. (Mollusca) Limicolaria aurora. (Myriapoda) Odontopyge sp. (Coleoptera) Alcidodes ludificator, Apion angulicolle, A. armipes, Apophyllia chloroptera, A. sulcata, Calopepla leayana, Dihammus cervinus, Empecamenta calabarica, Lagria villosa, Lixus camerunus, L. spinimanus, Macrocoma candens, podagrica dilecta, Prioptera punctipennis, Xyleborus fornicatus. (Hemiptera) Agaeus pavimentatus, Anoplocnemis tristator, Chunrocerus niveosparsus, Dysdercus superstitiosus, Tingis beesoni, Trioza fletcheri. (Isoptera) Coptotermes curvignathus, C. niger, Macrotermes goliath. (Lepidoptera) Acrocercops telestis, Endoclita undulifer, Eupterote geminata, E. undata, Evergestis aureolalis, Gonodontis clelia, Indarbela quadrinotata, Metanastria hyrtaca, Phostria caniusalis, Psilogramma menephron, Sahyadrassus malabaricus, Selepa celtis, Xyleutes ceramica. (Orthoptera) Heteropternis thoracica, Kraussaria angulifera, Phaneroptera nana, Phymateus viridipes, Zonocerus elegans. (Mammalia) Axis axis, Strepsiceros strepsiceros, Sylvicarpa grimmia, Thryonomys swinderianus, Tragelaphus scriptus.

It is one of the best and most reliable timber-yielding trees of India. The plant is a fast grower.
The wood is one of the best timbers of the tropics, useful for particle board, plywood core stock, pit props, matches, and saw timber for light construction, furniture, general carpentry, and packing. Also used in carriages, carvings, musical instruments, and ornamental work. Graveyard tests indicate that the untreated timber may last 15 years in contact with the soil. With pulping properties superior to most hardwood pulps, gmelina has been planted by the millions, e.g. in the Rio Jari region of Brazil to feed a 750 MT/day kraft pulp mill. In Gambia there are dual purpose plantings, for firewood and for honey. It is often planted as an ornamental avenue shade tree. The wood makes a fairly good charcoal. According to Little (1983), the leaves are harvested for fodder for animals and silkworms; the bittersweet fruits were once consumed by humans.

Ethnic communities of India use the plant in the treatment of rinderpest of cattle. In Sri Lanka, it is used in skeletal fracture.

Chemical contents: Root: ceryl alcohol, gmelofuran, gmelinol, hentriacontanol-I, n-octacosanol, β-sitosterol, sesquiterpene; Stem: arboreok, bromoisoarboreol, cluytyl ferulate, gmelanone, gmelinol, gummidiol, lignans, lignan hemiacetal, n-hentriacontanol-I, n-octacosanol, β-sitosterol; Leaf: apigenin, hentriacontanol, luteoHn, quercetin, quercetogenin, β-sitosterol.

The drupes are reported to contain butyric acid traces of tartaric acid and resinous and saccharine matter, the latter two also in the roots, which contain traces of benzoic acid.

Medicinal Uses:
Folk Medicine
According to Hartwell  , the root decoction is used in folk remedies for abdominal tumors in India. Reported to be anodyne, demulcent, lactagogue, refrigerant, stomachic, and tonic, gmelina is a folk remedy for anasarca, anthrax, bilious disorder, bites, blood disorders, cholera, colic, convulsions, delirium, diarrhea, dropsy, dyspepsia, epilepsy, fever, gout, ,gravel, headache, hemorrhage, intoxication, madness, phthisis, ratbites, rheumatism, rinderpest, septicemia, smallpox, snakebite, sores, sorethroat, splenitis, stomachic, swelling, and urticaria (Duke and Wain, 1981). Deeming the fruits alterative, aphrodisiac, astringent, diuretic, and tonic, Ayurvedics prescribe them for alopecia, anemia, consumption, leprosy, strangury, thirst, and vaginal discharges; the flowers for blood disorders and leprosy; the root, deemed anthelmintic, apertif, laxative, and stomachic, for abdominal pains, burning sensations, fever, hallucinations, piles, thirst and urinary discharges (Duke, 1984 in ed.).

Traditional use: MIKIR: Root: as blood purifier, Leaf: as carminative; BIRHORE : Leaf: in headache; SANTAL : in anasarca, asthma, bronchitis, cholera, colic pain, diarrhoea, dropsy, dyspepsia, epilepsy, fever, phthisis, rheumatism, small pox, sore, spleen complaints, syphilis, throat swelling, urticaria, as antidote to snake bite and some other poisons; MUNDA : Bark: to cure wounds; SORA (Orissa) : Root: in catarrh of bladder; Decoction of root: as tonic; Bark: in stomach disorder; ETHNIC COMMUNITIES OF ARAKU VALLEY (Andhra Pradesh) : Root: in malarial fever; ETHNIC COMMUNITIES OF GODAVARI (Andhra Pradesh) : Bark-paste: on bone fracture, Leaf: in cough, gonorrhoea; ETHNIC COMMUNITIES OF DEHRA DUN (Uttar Pradesh): Leaf-paste: on wounds.

ATHARVAVEDA : blood purifier; CHARAKA SAMHITA : useful in vomiting, dropsy and in burning sensation of the body; SUSHRUTA SAMHITA : energiser like grape, can be used as substitute of sweet date palm; BHAVAPRAKASHA : it is bitter, appetiser, brain tonic, energiser, digestive, subdues vata and kapha, removes dropsy, alleviates thirst, useful in colic pain, burning sensation of body, fever, urinary complaints, wastage; RAJANIGHANTU : it is pungent, bitter, heavy (guru), thermogenic, removes oedema, phlegm, tridosha, burning sensation, fever, thirst, poisons; DHANVANTARINIGHANTU : bitter, thermogenic, removes bleeding tendency, tridosha, fatigue, burning sensation of body, fever, thirst; KAIYAOEVANIGHANTU : it is sweet, bitter, thermogenic, heavy, appetiser, digestive, brain tonic, removes dropsy, giddiness, colic pain, toxins, burning sensation of body, fever, alleviates thirst; flowers sweet, cooling, bitter, astringent, beneficial for the diseases caused by pitta and kapha; fruits unctuous, heavy, cooling, astringent, brain tonic, cardiotonic, removes giddiness, acidity, urinary troubles, burning sensation of body, wounds, wastage and troubles caused by vata; RAJAVALLABHAM: fruits seizing, bitter, sweet, heavy, cooling, good for hair, brain, removes burning sensation of body and diseases caused by pitta; roots are too hot; NIGHANTU RATNAKARAM: it is pungent, bitter, hot, astringent, heavy, sweet, appetiser, digestive, brain tonic, cardiotonic, removes thirst, colic pain, oedema, phlegm, toxins, burning sensation of body, fever, impurities of blood, piles, giddiness; fruits aphrodisiac, heavy, increases semen, cooling, unctuous, increases intelligence, removes urinary troubles, impurities of blood, thirst, burning sensation of body, good for urticaria, consumption, wounds, leucorrhoea.

AYURVEDA : Root: acrid, bitter, anthelmintic, galactogogue, laxative, stomachic, tonic, useful in burning sensation, dyspepsia, fever, haemorrhoids, hallucination, hyperdisia and stomachalgia; Bark: bitter, tonic, stomachic, useful in dyspepsia, fever; Leaf-paste: useful in cephalalgia, Leaf-extract: good wash for foul ulcer; Flower: acrid, astringent, bitter, refrigerant, sweet, useful in skin diseases including leprosy; Fruits: acrid, alterant, aphrodisiac, astringent, bitter, diuretic, refrigerant, sour, sweet, tonic, trichogenous, useful in anaemia, blood dysentery, constipation, leprosy, leucorrhoea, malnutrition of child and embryo, strangury and wounds.

Modern use: 50% EtOH extract of bark (and also of stem) : antiviral, hypoglycaemic. Phytography : Unarmed deciduous tree, 15-20 m in height; stem-bark whitish grey, lenticellate, young branches covered with fine white soft hairs; leaves .opposite, simple, petioles ±7.5 cm long, lamina broadly ovate, usually 22.5 by 15.0 cm, more or less acuminate, glabrous above but stellately hairy beneath; panicles terminal, often 30 cm long, many-flowered; flowers bucciniform, brownish yellow, ±3.7 cm long, tomentose at least when young; drupes ±1.8 cm 1000g, fleshy, ovoid, orange-yellow when ripe; seeds hard, oblong.

The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.