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Ailmemts & Remedies

Dyslexia

Definition:
Dyslexia is a disorder occurs in children. It is a learning disorder characterized by difficulty reading due to problems identifying speech sounds and learning how they relate to letters and words. Also called specific reading disability, dyslexia is a common learning disability in children

Dyslexia, also known as reading disorder, is characterized by trouble with reading despite normal intelligence. Different people are affected to varying degrees. Problems may include difficulties in spelling words, reading quickly, writing words, “sounding out” words in the head, pronouncing words when reading aloud and understanding what one reads. Often these difficulties are first noticed at school. When someone who previously could read loses their ability, it is known as alexia. The difficulties are involuntary and people with this disorder have normal desire to learn…………..CLICK & SEE THE  PICTURES

It occurs in children with normal vision and intelligence. Sometimes dyslexia goes undiagnosed for years and isn’t recognized until adulthood.

Dyslexia is the most common learning disability, affecting 3–7 % of the population; however, up to 20% may have some degree of symptoms. While dyslexia is more often diagnosed in men, it has been suggested that it affects men and women equally. Dyslexia occurs in all areas of the world. Some believe that dyslexia should be best considered as a different way of learning, with both benefits and downsides.

There’s no cure for dyslexia. It’s a lifelong condition caused by inherited traits that affect how our brain works. However, most children with dyslexia can succeed in school with tutoring or a specialized education program. Emotional support also plays an important role.
Symptoms:
It is very difficult to recognize dysplexia before the child enters school, but some early clues may indicate a problem. Once the child reaches school age, the school teacher may be the first to notice a problem. The condition often becomes apparent as a child starts learning to read.

Symptoms found before school age:

Signs and symptoms that a young child may be at risk of dyslexia include:

*Late talking
*Learning new words slowly
*Difficulty learning nursery rhymes
*Difficulty playing rhyming games
Symptoms found at the school age:

Once the child is in school, dyslexia signs and symptoms may become more apparent, including:

*Reading well below the expected level than the child’s age
*Problems processing and understanding what he or she hears
*Difficulty comprehending rapid instructions
*Problems remembering the sequence of things
*Difficulty seeing (and occasionally hearing) similarities and differences in letters and words
*Inability to sound out the pronunciation of an unfamiliar word
*Difficulty spelling
*Trouble learning a foreign language

Symptoms found in teens and adults:

The symptoms are similar to those in children. Though early intervention is beneficial for dyslexia treatment, it’s never too late to seek help. Some common dyslexia symptoms in teens and adults are :

* Difficulties with summarizing stories
* Difficulty with memorization, reading aloud.
*Difficulty in learning foreign languages.
*Difficulty with time management
*Trouble learning a foreign language
*Difficulty memorizing
*Difficulty doing math problems

Adult dyslexics can often read with good comprehension, though they tend to read more slowly than non-dyslexics and perform worse in spelling tests or when reading nonsense words – a measure of phonological awareness.

A common myth about dyslexia is that its defining feature is reading or writing letters or words backwards, but this is true of many children as they learn to read and write

Associated conditions:
Dyslexia is often accompanied by several learning disabilities, but it is unclear whether they share underlying neurological causes. These associated disabilities include:

*Dysgraphia – A disorder which primarily expresses itself through difficulties with writing or typing, but in some cases through difficulties associated with eye–hand coordination and direction- or sequence-oriented processes such as tying knots or carrying out repetitive tasks. In dyslexia, dysgraphia is often multifactorial, due to impaired letter-writing automaticity, organizational and elaborative difficulties, and impaired visual word forming which makes it more difficult to retrieve the visual picture of words required for spelling.

*Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder – A significant degree of comorbidity has been reported between ADHD and reading disorders such as dyslexia. ADHD occurs in 12–24% of all individuals with dyslexia.

*Auditory processing disorder – A listening disability that affects the ability to process auditory information. This can lead to problems with auditory memory and auditory sequencing. Many people with dyslexia have auditory processing problems, and may develop their own logographic cues to compensate for this type of deficit. Some research indicates that auditory processing skills could be the primary shortfall in dyslexia.

*Developmental coordination disorder – A neurological condition characterized by marked difficulty in carrying out routine tasks involving balance, fine-motor control, kinesthetic coordination, difficulty in the use of speech sounds, problems with short-term memory, and organization.
Causes:
Researchers have been trying to find the neurobiological basis of dyslexia since the condition was first identified in 1881. For example, some have tried to associate the common problem among dyslexics of not being able to see letters clearly to abnormal development of their visual nerve cells.

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Dyslexia has been linked to certain genes that control how the brain develops. It appears to be an inherited condition — it tends to run in families.

These inherited traits appear to affect parts of the brain concerned with language, interfering with the ability to convert written letters and words into speech.

Neuroanatomy:
Modern neuroimaging techniques such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and positron emission tomography (PET) have shown a correlation between both functional and structural differences in the brains of children with reading difficulties. Some dyslexics show less electrical activation in parts of the left hemisphere of the brain involved with reading, such as the inferior frontal gyrus, inferior parietal lobule, and the middle and ventral temporal cortex. Over the past decade, brain activation studies using PET to study language have produced a breakthrough in the understanding of the neural basis of language. Neural bases for the visual lexicon and for auditory verbal short-term memory components have been proposed,   with some implication that the observed neural manifestation of developmental dyslexia is task-specific (i.e. functional rather than structural). fMRIs in dyslexics have provided important data which point to the interactive role of the cerebellum and cerebral cortex as well as other brain structures.

The cerebellar theory of dyslexia proposes that impairment of cerebellum-controlled muscle movement affects the formation of words by the tongue and facial muscles, resulting in the fluency problems that are characteristic of some dyslexics. The cerebellum is also involved in the automatization of some tasks, such as reading.[48] The fact that some dyslexic children have motor task and balance impairments has been used as evidence for a cerebellar role in their reading difficulties. However, the cerebellar theory is not supported by controlled research studies

Genetics:
Research into potential genetic causes of dyslexia has its roots in post-autopsy examination of the brains of people with dyslexia. Observed anatomical differences in the language centers of such brains include microscopic cortical malformations known as ectopias, more rarely, vascular micro-malformations, and microgyrus. The previously cited studies and others[51] suggest that abnormal cortical development presumed to occur before or during the sixth month of fetal brain development was the cause of the abnormalities. Abnormal cell formations in dyslexics have also been reported in non-language cerebral and subcortical brain structures. Several genes have been associated with dyslexia, including DCDC2 and KIAA0319 on chromosome 6, and DYX1C1 on chromosome 15

Mechanisms:
The dual-route theory of reading aloud was first described in the early 1970s. This theory suggests that two separate mental mechanisms, or cognitive routes, are involved in reading aloud. One mechanism is the lexical route, which is the process whereby skilled readers can recognize known words by sight alone, through a “dictionary” lookup procedure. The other mechanism is the nonlexical or sublexical route, which is the process whereby the reader can “sound out” a written word. This is done by identifying the word’s constituent parts (letters, phonemes, graphemes) and applying knowledge of how these parts are associated with each other, for example, how a string of neighboring letters sound together. The dual-route system could explain the different rates of dyslexia occurrence between different languages (e.g. the Spanish language dependence on phonological rules accounts for the fact that Spanish-speaking children show a higher level of performance in non-word reading, when compared to English-speakers).

Dyslexia disorder is not caused by mutation in one gene; in fact, it appears to involve the combined effects of several genes. Studying the cognitive problems associated with other disorders helps to better understand the genotype-phenotype link of dyslexia. Neurophysiological and imaging procedures are being used to ascertain phenotypic characteristics in dyslexics, thus identifying the effects of certain genes.

Diagnosis:
There’s no one test that can diagnose dyslexia. Your child’s doctor will consider a number of factors, such as:

*Child’s mental development, educational issues and medical history.
The doctor will likely ask the chil questions about these areas. The doctor will likely also want to know about any conditions that run in your child’s family, including whether any family members have a learning disability.

*Child’s home life.
The doctor may ask for a description of hi or her family and home life, including who lives at home and whether there are any problems at home.

*Questionnaires.
The child’s doctor may have the child, family members or teachers answer written questions. Child may be asked to take tests to identify reading and language abilities.
Vision, hearing and brain (neurological) tests. These can help determine whether another disorder may be causing or adding to the child’s poor reading ability………....CLICK & SEE 

*Psychological testing.
The doctor may ask the parent or child questions to better understand the child’s psychological state. This can help determine whether social problems, anxiety or depression may be limiting his or her abilities.

*Testing reading and other academic skills.
Child may take a set of educational tests and have the process and quality of reading skills analyzed by a reading expert.
Treatment & Management:
There’s no known way to correct the underlying brain abnormality that causes dyslexia — dyslexia is a lifelong problem. However, early detection and evaluation to determine specific needs and appropriate treatment can improve success.

Through the use of compensation strategies, therapy and educational support, dyslexic individuals can learn to read and write. There are techniques and technical aids which help to manage or conceal symptoms of the disorder. Removing stress and anxiety alone can sometimes improve written comprehension. For dyslexia intervention with alphabet-writing systems, the fundamental aim is to increase a child’s awareness of correspondences between graphemes (letters) and phonemes (sounds), and to relate these to reading and spelling by teaching how sounds blend into words. It has been found that reinforced collateral training focused on reading and spelling yields longer-lasting gains than oral phonological training alone. Early intervention – that done while the language areas of the brain are still developing – is the most successful in reducing the long-term impacts of dyslexia. There is some evidence that the use of specially-tailored fonts may mitigate the effects of dyslexia. These fonts, which include Dyslexie, OpenDyslexic, and Lexia Readable, were created based on the idea that many of the letters of the Latin alphabet are visually similar and may therefore confuse dyslexics. Dyslexie and OpenDyslexic both put emphasis on making each letter more unique in order to be more easily identified. Font design can have an effect on reading, reading time, and the perception of legibility of all readers, not only those with dyslexia.

There have been many studies conducted regarding intervention in dyslexia. Among these studies one meta-analysis found that there was functional activation as a result.

Alternative therapy: Regular practice of Yaga with Pramayama under the supervision of an expart may give very good result in improving neurogical difficulties.

Prognosis:
The prognosis for children with dyslexia is variable and dependent on the cause. In the case of primary dyslexia, the earlier the diagnosis is made and intervention started, the better the outcome. It is also important to focus on the child’s self-esteem, since dealing with dyslexia can be extremely frustrating.

Dyslexic children require special instruction for word analysis and spelling from an early age. However, there are fonts that can help dyslexics better understand writing. The prognosis, generally speaking, is positive for individuals who are identified in childhood and receive support from friends and family.

Lastly it is important to recognize that many well-known and successful individuals have suffered from dyslexia, including Albert Einstein and Steven Spielberg, just to name a couple.

Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.This is purely for educational purpose.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dyslexia
http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/dyslexia
http://www.medicinenet.com/dyslexia/page6.htm#what_is_the_prognosis_for_a_person_with_dyslexia

Categories
Herbs & Plants

Mountain Dandelion (Agoseris glauca)

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Botanical Name :Agoseris glauca
Family : Compositae/Asteraceae
Subfamily: Cichorioideae
Genus: Agoseris

Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Asterales
Tribe: Cichorieae
Species: A. glauca

Synonyms : Agoseris villosa – Rydb.  Troxicum glaucum – Pursh.

Other common names: Mountain Dandelion ,false dandelion,pale agoseris and prairie agoseris.

 

Habitat : It is native to northern and western North America from Alaska to Ontario to New Mexico, where it grows in many habitat types.   Western N. AmericaBritish Columbia to Manitoba, south to California and New Mexico.  Meadows and other open places at all elevations in moderately dry to moist or even wet soils.

Description:
Agoseris glauca is a species of flowering plant in the daisy family .This is a perennial herb which varies in general appearance. It produces a basal patch of leaves of various shapes which may be as long as the plant is high. There is no stem but the plant flowers in a stemlike inflorescence which is sometimes erect, reaching heights near half a meter or taller. The flower head is one to three centimeters wide with layers of pointed phyllaries. The head is ligulate, bearing many yellow ray florets and no disc florets. The fruit is an achene with a body up to a centimeter long and a pappus which may be almost 2 centimeters in lengt

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It is hardy to zone 0. It is in flower from May to June, and the seeds ripen from June to August. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Insects.
The plant prefers light (sandy) soils, requires well-drained soil and can grow in nutritionally poor soil. The plant prefers acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It cannot grow in the shade. It requires dry or moist soil.

Varieties:-
Agoseris glauca var. dasycephala
Agoseris glauca var. glauca

Cultivation:
Prefers full sun and a sandy or gravelly loam low in nutrients. The sub-species A. glauca villosa is used for its gum.

Propagation:-
Seed – sow spring in a greenhouse. The seed usually germinates in 2 – 6 weeks at 15°c. As soon as the seedlings are large enough to handle, prick them out into individual pots and plant them out in the summer or late in the following spring. Division with care in spring. The plants do not like a lot of root disturbance so it is best to pot up the divisions and keep them in a cold frame or greenhouse until they are established.

Edible Uses:-
Edible Uses: Gum.

The solidified sap (latex) of the stem is chewed as a gum.

Medicinal  Actions &  Uses:-

Laxative; Poultice; Warts.

The following reports refer to the sub-species A. glauca dasycephala (Torr.&Gray.)Jepson. An infusion of the entire plant is used as a wash for sores and rashes. The milky latex is applied to warts in order to remove them. This requires constant applications over a period of weeks for it to be effective. A poultice made from the latex is applied to sores. An infusion of the root is used as a laxative.

Disclaimer:The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Other Uses
Latex.

 

A latex in the plant contains rubber, but not in sufficient quantities to make it commercially valuable.

Resources:
http://www.pfaf.org/database/plants.php?Agoseris+glauca

Click to access Agoseris_glauca.pdf


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Agoseris_glauca

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Categories
Herbs & Plants

Jatropha

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Botancal Name:Jatropha Curcas L.
Family: Euphorbiaceae
Subfamily: Crotonoideae

Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Order: Malpighiales
Tribe: Jatropheae
Genus: Jatropha

Synonyms:
This genus is also known as:
*Adenorhopium Rchb.
*Aamanakku / Kaattaamanakku Tamil, India
*Castiglionia Ruiz & Pav.
*Collenucia Chiov.
*Curcas Adans.
*Jarak Indonesia
*Jatropa Scop., orth. var.
*Loureira Cav.
*Mesandrinia Raf.
*Mesandrinia Ortega
*Zimapania Engl. & Pax
*Nkran Dedua
*Pourghère French term
*Pulga
*Tempate

Common Names:Jatropha is a genus of approximately 175 succulent plants, shrubs and trees (some are deciduous, like Jatropha curcas L.), from the family Euphorbiaceae. The name is derived from (Greek iatros = physician and trophe = nutrition), hence the common name physic nut.

Species
Approximately 175, see Section Species.

Habitat : Jatropha is native to Central America and has become naturalized in many tropical and subtropical areas, including India, Africa, and North America. Originating in the Caribbean, Jatropha was spread as a valuable hedge plant to Africa and Asia by Portuguese traders. The mature small trees bear separate male and female flowers, and do not grow very tall. As with many members of the family Euphorbiaceae, Jatropha contains compounds that are highly toxic.

Description:
It is a small tree or shrub with smooth gray bark, which exudes a whitish colored, watery, latex when cut. Normally, it grows between three and five meters in height, but can attain a height of up to eight or ten meters under favourable conditions.

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Leaves
It has large green to pale-green leaves, alternate to sub-opposite, three-to five-lobed with a spiral phyllotaxis.

Flowers
The petiole length ranges between 6-23 mm. The inflorescence is formed in the leaf axil. Flowers are formed terminally, individually, with female flowers usually slightly larger and occurs in the hot seasons. In conditions where continuous growth occurs, an unbalance of pistillate or staminate flower production results in a higher number of female flowers.

Fruits
Fruits are produced in winter when the shrub is leafless, or it may produce several crops during the year if soil moisture is good and temperatures are sufficiently high. Each inflorescence yields a bunch of approximately 10 or more ovoid fruits. A three, bi-valved cocci is formed after the seeds mature and the fleshy exocarp dries.

Seeds
The seeds become mature when the capsule changes from green to yellow, after two to four months from fertilization. The blackish, thin shelled seeds are oblong and resemble small castor seeds.

The hardy Jatropha is resistant to drought and pests, and produces seeds containing 27-40% oil  (average: 34.4% ). The remaining press cake of jatropha seeds after oil extraction could also be considered for energy production.

Goldman Sachs recently cited Jatropha curcas as one of the best candidates for future biodiesel production.[5] However, despite its abundance and use as an oil and reclamation plant, none of the Jatropha species have been properly domesticated and, as a result, its productivity is variable, and the long-term impact of its large-scale use on soil quality and the environment is unknown.

Ecological Requirements
Jatropha curcas grows almost anywhere – even on gravelly, sandy and saline soils. It can thrive on the poorest stony soil. It can grow even in the crevices of rocks. The leaves shed during the winter months form mulch around the base of the plant. The organic matter from shed leaves enhance earth-worm activity in the soil around the root-zone of the plants, which improves the fertility of the soil.

Regarding climate, Jatropha curcas is found in the tropics and subtropics and likes heat, although it does well even in lower temperatures and can withstand a light frost. Its water requirement is extremely low and it can stand long periods of drought by shedding most of its leaves to reduce transpiration loss. Jatropha is also suitable for preventing soil erosion and shifting of sand dunes.

USES :-

Oil Crop

Analysis of the Jatropha seed shows the following chemical composition:

– Moisture 6.20 %
– Protein 18.00 %
– Fat 38.00 %
– Carbohydrates 17.00 %
– Fiber 15.50 %
– Ash 5.30 %

The oil content is 35 – 40% in the seeds and 50 – 60% in the kernel. The oil contains 21% saturated fatty acids and 79% unsaturated fatty acids.There are some chemical elements in the seed which are poisonous and render the oil not appropriate for human consumption.

Raw material
Oil has a very high saponification value and is being extensively used for making soap in some countries. Also, the oil is used as an illuminant as it burns without emitting smoke.

Raw material for dye
The bark of Jatropha curcas yields a dark blue dye which is used for colouring cloth, fishing nets and lines.

Soil enrichment
Jatropha oil cake is rich in nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium and can be used as organic manure.

Feed
Jatropha leaves are used as food for the tusser silkworm.

Insecticide/ pesticide
The seeds are considered anthelimintic in Brazil, and the leaves are used for fumigating houses against bed-bugs. Also, the ether extract shows antibiotic activity against Styphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli.

Alternative to Diesel

It is significant to point out that, the non-edible vegetable oil of Jatropha curcas has the requisite potential of providing a promising and commercially viable alternative to diesel oil since it has desirable physicochemical and performance characteristics comparable to diesel. Cars could be run with Jatropha curcas without requiring much change in design.

Medicinal Uses:
The latex of Jatropha contains an alkaloid known as “jatrophine” which is believed to have anti-cancerous properties. It is also used as an external application for skin diseases and rheumatism and for sores on domestic livestock. In additon, the tender twigs of the plant are used for cleaning teeth, while the juice of the leaf is used as an external application for piles. Finally, the roots are reported to be used as an antidote for snake-bites.

Disclaimer:The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider .

Resources:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jatropha
http://www.fao.org/docrep/x5402E/X5402e11.htm

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