Categories
Fruits & Vegetables Herbs & Plants

Pomelo

Botanical Name:Citrus maxima (Burm.) Merr
Family: Rutaceae
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Sapindales
Genus: Citrus
Species :C. maxima
Synonyms: Citrus grandis (L.) Osbeck, Citrus decumana L.
Common Name:Pomelo, Pummelo, Chinese grapefruit, Pommelo, Shaddock, Jambola
Dutch: Pompelmoes
French: Pomélo, Pamplemousse
German: Pompelmus, Pampelmus
Spanish: Pomelo

Chinese grapefruit, pummelo, pommelo, Lusho Fruit, jabong, shaddock, Citrus maxima (Merr., Burm. f.), also Citrus grandis (L.), is a citrus fruit.
Indigenous names include som in Thai and buoi in Vietnamese. In Burmese, the fruit is called kywègaw thee in the south and shaupann thee in upcountry. In Malay and Indonesian, it is known as limau/jeruk bali (“Balinese lime/orange”) after the island of Bali. In the Philippines, while the common name is pomelo, it is also known as suha in Tagalog and boongon in Visayan.

In Chinese, the fruit is known as yòuzi , although the same Chinese characters can also be used for the yuzu, a different species. The Japanese refer to the pomelo as buntan ( buntan) or zabon ( zabon), apparently both derived from Cantonese captain , whose name is read Sha Buntan in Japanese.

Batabi Nimbu in India and particularly in Bengal

Habitat:The pomelo is native to South-East Asia.The pomelo is native to southeastern Asia and all of Malaysia; grows wild on river banks in the Fiji and Friendly Islands. It may have been introduced into China around 100 B.C. It is much cultivated in southern China (Kwang-tung, Kwangsi and Fukien Provinces) and especially in southern Thailand on the banks to the Tha Chine River; also in Taiwan and southernmost Japan, southern India, Malaya, Indonesia, New Guinea and Tahiti.

It is grown in many eastern countries including China, Japan, India, Fiji, Malaysia, and Thailand. It is also now grown in the Caribbean and in the United States, in California and Florida. In season November through March, Pummelos are especially popular for Chinese New Year. The Chinese believe the delectable Pummelo is a sign of prosperity and good fortune – good things will happen if they eat it.

Description:
The Tree is Evergreen,grows large to midium.Large flowers of 3-7 cm in diameter, either single or in small clusters, with cream colored petals. : Pomelo has the largest leaves among all citrus.
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Pomelo fruits are pale green to yellow when ripe. Pomelo is a big citrus fruit (larger than grapefruits), 10-25 cm in diameter, with a thick spongy rind. The flesh is sweet. Pulp vesicles are large with a yellow or pink color.

Cultivation and uses:-
The Chandler is a Californian variety with a smoother skin than many other varieties. In Vietnam, a particularly well known variety called b??i N?m Roi is cultivated in the Vinh Long Province of the Mekong Delta region.

The tangelo is a hybrid between the pomelo and the tangerine. It has a thicker skin than a tangerine and is less sweet.

The pummelo is an exotic large citrus fruit that is an ancient ancestor of the common grapefruit. It is the largest of the citrus fruits with a shape that can be fairly round or slightly pointed at one end (the fruit ranges from nearly round to oblate or pear-shaped). They range from cantaloupe-size to as large as a 25-pound watermelon and have very thick, soft rind. The skin is green to yellow and slightly bumpy; flesh color ranges from pink to rose.

Like grapefruits, they can range from almost seedless to very seedy, from juicy to dry, from sweet to sour. It is sweeter than a grapefruit and can be eaten fresh, although membranes around the segments should be peeled. Pummelos commonly have 16 to 18 segments, compared to most grapefruit that have about 12 segments. Be sure to refrigerate and use quickly. Use as you would grapefruit sections. They are also good for jams, jellies, marmalades and syrups.
The pomelo tastes like a sweet, mild grapefruit – it has very little or none of the common grapefruit’s bitterness, but the membranes of the segments are bitter and usually discarded. The peel is sometimes used to make marmalade, or candied then dipped in chocolate. The peel of the pomelo is also used in Chinese cooking or candied. In general, citrus peel is often used in southern Chinese cuisine for flavouring, especially in sweet soup desserts.

The flowers of Pomelo are highly aromatic and gathered in North Vietnam for making perfume. The wood is heavy, hard, tough, fine-grained and suitable for making tool handles.

Containts:One-fourth of a Pummelo (152 grams) has 60 calories and provides 130% of the Vitamin C recommended for the day. It is sodium, fat and cholesterol free and is a source of potassium.

Medicinal Uses:
In the Philippines and Southeast Asia, decoctions of the leaves, flowers, and rind are given for their sedative effect in cases of epilepsy, chorea and convulsive coughing.
The hot leaf decoction is applied on swellings and ulcers. The fruit juice is taken as a febrifuge. The seeds are employed against coughs, dyspepsia and lumbago. Gum that exudes from declining trees is collected and taken as a cough remedy in Brazil.

In the Philippines and Southeast Asia, decoctions of the leaves, flowers, and rind are given for their sedative effect in cases of epilepsy, chorea and convulsive coughing, The hot leaf decoction is applied on swellingd and ulcers. The fruit juice is taken as a febrifuge . The sarcocarps are employed against coughs, dyspepsia and lumbago. Gum that exudes from declining trees is collected and taken as a cough remedy in Brazil . An essence prepared from the flowersis taken to overcome insomnia, also as a stomachic, and cardiac tonic. The pulp is considered an effective aid in the treatment of urinary disorders. Leaf extractions have shown antibiotic activity.

In Indian Ayurveda Pomelo is verymuch useful for vata-kaphha nashak,mild laxative,digestive,appetiser,loss of appetite,abdominal colick,worm,vomiting,nausea

Recipes
Pomelo salad

Ingredients:
1 large pomelo, 1 red chili, 1 clove garlic, 1 teaspoon honey, 1 tablespoon fish sauce, 1 stalk lemongrass, 2 limes, some fresh coriander

Preparation:
Peel and segment the pomelo. Crush the garlic. Slice the lemon grass (fine) and the chili. Squeeze the limes. Prepare a dressing from chili, garlic, honey, fish sauce, lemon grass and line juice. Mix this dressing in a bowl with the fruit and decorate it with fresh coriander.

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Dangerous/Poisonous:
Like that of other citrus fruits, the peel of the pummelo contains skin irritants, mainly limonene and terpene, also citral, aldehydes, geraniol, cadinene and linalool, which may cause dermatitis in individuals having excessive contact with the oil of the outer peel.
Harvesters, workers in processing factories, and housewives may develop chronic conditions on the fingers and hands.
(Morton, J. 1987. Fruits of warm climates.)

Disclaimer:The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pomelo
http://whatscookingamerica.net/pomelo.htm
http://www.bijlmakers.com/fruits/pomelo.htm
http://www.ntbg.org/plants/plant_details.php?rid=419&plantid=2851

http://www.hinduwebsite.com/hinduism/concepts/ayurveda.asp

http://www.pomelofruit.cn/faq.asp

Categories
News on Health & Science

Some Fruit Juices Lower Drug Effect

Grapefruit, orange and apple juices can harm the body’s ability to absorb certain medications and make the drugs less effective, said a study.

The research showed that these juices can decrease the effectiveness of certain drugs used to treat heart disease, cancer, organ-transplant rejection and infection, “potentially wiping out their beneficial effects”, it said.

David Bailey, a professor of clinical pharmacology with the University of Western Ontario and leader of the study, was the first researcher to identify grapefruit juice‘s potential to increase the absorption of certain drugs two decades ago, possibly turning some doses toxic.

The new findings came as part of his continuing research on the subject, and were presented at the 236th annual meeting of the American Chemical Society on Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

“Recently, we discovered that grapefruit and these other fruit juices substantially decrease the oral absorption of certain drugs undergoing intestinal uptake transport,” said Bailey. “The concern is loss of benefit of medications essential for the treatment of serious medical conditions.”

Healthy volunteers took fexofenadine, an antihistamine used to fight allergies, along with either a glass of grapefruit juice, a glass of water with naringin (which gives the bitter taste to grapefruit juice), or plain water.

Those who drank the grapefruit juice absorbed only half the amount of fexofenadine, compared to those who drank plain water.

Researchers said the water with naringin served to block “a key drug uptake transporter, called OATP1A2, involved in shuttling drugs from the small intestine to the bloodstream”.

Among the drugs affected by consumption of grapefruit, orange and apple juices are: etoposide, an anticancer agent; beta blockers used to treat high blood pressure and prevent heart attacks; and certain antibiotics (ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, itraconazole).

The drug-lowering interaction also affected cyclosporine, a drug taken to prevent rejection of transplanted organs, and more drugs were expected to be added to the list as the research continued.

Sources: The Times Of India

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Categories
Fruits & Vegetables Herbs & Plants

Grapefruit

Orange blossom and oranges. Taken by Ellen Lev...
Image via Wikipedia

Botanical Name:Citrus paradisi
Family: Rutceae
Genus: Citrus
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Sapindales
Species: C. × paradisi

Common Name : Grapefruit

Other Names:Citrus grandis, Pomelo, Mahanimbu,  Batabi limbu  in bengali

Habitat :  Grapefruit  is native to tropical   &  subtropical  regions of the world.

The grapefruit is a sub-tropical citrus tree grown for its fruit which was originally named the “forbidden fruit” of Barbados.

Description:The grapefruit tree reaches 15 to 20 ft (4.5-6 m) or even 45 ft (13.7 m) with age, has a rounded top of spreading branches; the trunk may exceed 6 in (15 cm) in diameter; that of a very old tree actually attained nearly 8 ft (2.4 m) in circumference. The twigs normally bear short, supple thorns. The evergreen leaves are ovate, 3 to 6 in (7.5-15 cm) long, and 1 3/4 to 3 in (4.5-7.5 cm) wide; dark-green above, lighter beneath, with minute, rounded teeth on the margins, and dotted with tiny oil glands; the petiole has broad, oblanceolate or obovate wings. The white, 4-petalled flowers, are 1 3/4 to 2 in (4.5-5 cm) across and borne singly or in clusters in the leaf axils. The fruit is nearly round or oblate to slightly pear-shaped, 4 to 6 in (10-15 cm) wide with smooth, finely dotted peel, up to 3/8 in (1 cm) thick, pale-lemon, sometimes blushed with pink, and aromatic outwardly; white, spongy and bitter inside. The center may be solid or semi-hollow. The pale-yellow, nearly whitish, or pink, or even deep-red pulp is in 11 to 14 segments with thin, membranous, somewhat bitter walls; very juicy, acid to sweet-acid in flavor when fully ripe. While some fruits are seedless or nearly so, there may be up to 90 white, elliptical, pointed seeds about 1/2 in (1.25 cm) in length. Unlike those of the pummelo, grapefruit seeds are usually polyembryonic. The number of fruits in a cluster varies greatly; a dozen is unusual but there have been as many as 20.
These evergreen trees are usually found at around 5-6 m tall, although they can reach 13-15 m. The leaves are dark green, long (up to 150 mm) and thin. It produces 5 cm white four-petalled flowers. The fruit is yellow-skinned, largely oblate and ranges in diameter from 10-15 cm . The flesh is segmented and acidic, varying in color depending on the cultivars, which include white, pink and red pulps of varying sweetness. The 1929 US Ruby Red (of the Redblush variety) has the first grapefruit patent.

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The fruit has only become popular from the late 19th century; before that it was only grown as an ornamental plant. The US quickly became a major producer of the fruit, with orchards in Florida, Texas, Arizona, and California. In Spanish, the fruit is known as toronja or pomelo.

Click to learn more about Grapefruit

History:
The fruit was first documented in 1750 by the Rev. Griffith Hughes describing specimens from Barbados. Currently, the grapefruit is said to be one of the “Seven Wonders of Barbados.” It had developed as a hybrid of the pomelo (Citrus maxima) with the sweet orange (Citrus sinensis), though it is closer to the former. It was brought to Florida by Odette Philippe in 1823. Further crosses have produced the tangelo (1905), the minneola (1931), and the sweetie (1984). The sweetie has very small genetic and other differences from pomelo.

The grapefruit was known as the shaddock or shattuck until the 1800s. Its current name alludes to clusters of the fruit on the tree, which often appear similar to grapes. Botanically, it was not distinguished from the pomelo until the 1830s, when it was given the name Citrus paradisi. Its true origins were not determined until the 1940s. This led to the official name being altered to Citrus × paradisi. Grapefruit peel oil is used in aromatherapy and it is historically known for its aromatic scent.

The 1929 Ruby Red patent was associated with real commercial success, which came after the discovery of a red grapefruit growing on a pink variety. Only with Ruby Red the grapefruit transformed into a real agricultural fruit. The Red grapefruit, starting from the Ruby Red, has even become a symbol fruit of Texas, where white “inferior” grapefruit were eliminated and only red grapefruit were grown for decades. Using radiation to trigger mutations, new varieties were developed to retain the red tones which typically faded to pink, with Rio Red is the current (2007) Texas grapefruit with registered trademarks Rio Star and Ruby-Sweet, also sometimes promoted as “Reddest” and “Texas Choice”.

Colors & Flavors:
Grapefruit comes in many varieties, determinable by color, which is caused by the pigmentation of the fruit in respect of both its state of ripeness and genetic bent. The most popular varieties cultivated today are red, white, and pink hues, referring to the inside, pulp color of the fruit. The family of flavors range from highly acidic and somewhat bitter to sweet and tart. Para-1-menthene-8-thiol, a sulfur-containing terpene, is one of the substances which has a strong influence on the taste and odor of grapefruit, compared with other citrus fruits.

Nutritional properties:
Grapefruit is an excellent source of many nutrients and phytochemicals, for a healthy diet. Grapefruit is a good source of vitamin C,pectin fiber, and the pink and red hues contain the beneficial antioxidant lycopene Studies have shown grapefruit helps lower cholesterol and there is evidence that the seeds have high levels of antioxidant properties. Grapefruit forms a core part of the “grapefruit diet”, the theory being that the fruit’s low glycemic index is able to help the body‘s metabolism burn fat.

Grapefruit seed extract has been claimed to be a strong antimicrobial with proven activity against bacteria and fungi. However, studies have shown the efficacy of grapefruit seed extract as an antimicrobial is not demonstrated. Although GSE is promoted as a highly effective plant-based preservative by some natural personal care manufacturers, studies indicate the universal antimicrobial activity associated with GSE preparations is merely due to contamination with synthetic preservatives.

A 2007 study found a correlation between eating a quarter of grapefruit daily and a 30% increase in risk for breast cancer in post-menopausal women. The study points to the inhibition of CYP3A4 enzyme by grapefruit, which metabolizes estrogen.

Medicinal Value
Grapefruit stimulates the appetite and is used for its digestive, stomachic, antiseptic, tonic, and diuretic qualities.

Grapefruit and Weight Loss Diets
Over the years a number of people have promoted the grapefruit as possessing a unique ability to burn away fat. People following grapefruit diets lose weight because they eat little else-a practice that can lead to nutritional deficiencies.

Grapefruits, however, are a good food to include in a sensible weight-loss diet; a serving contains less than 100 calories, and its high-fiber content satisfies hunger. If you’re trying to lose weight, make grapefruit your first course to help prevent overeating. It’s also an ideal snack food.

Grapefruit and Cholesterol Control
Grapefruits are especially high in pectin, a soluble fiber that helps lower blood cholesterol.

Grapefruit for Cancer Control
Recent studies indicate that grapefruits contain substances that are useful in preventing several diseases. Pink and red grapefruits are high in lycopene, an antioxidant that appears to lower the risk of prostate cancer. Researchers have not yet identified lycopene’s mechanism of action, but a 6-year Harvard study involving 48,000 doctors and other health professionals has linked 10 servings of lycopene-rich foods a week with a 50 percent reduction in prostate cancer.

Other protective plant chemicals found in grapefruits include phenolic acid, which inhibits the formation of cancer-causing nitrosamines; limonoids, terpenes, and monoterpenes, which induce the production of enzymes that help prevent cancer; and bioflavonoids, which inhibit the action of hormones that promote tumor growth.

Ayurvedic Uses:Vata-kaphha nashak, mild laxative, digestive, appetiser, loss of appetite, abdominal colic, worms, vomiting, nausea.

Other Uses of Grapefruit
Some people with rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, and other inflammatory disorders find that eating grapefruit daily seems to alleviate their symptoms. This is thought to stem from plant chemicals that block Prostaglandins, substances that cause inflammation.

Click to learn :->

Medicinal Use of Citrus

Grape Fruit  is Very Good for Gums

Click to see ->Grapefruit diet

Drug interactions:
Grapefruit can have a number of interactions with drugs, often increasing the effective potency of compounds. Grapefruit contains naringin, bergamottin and dihydroxybergamottin, which inhibit the cytochrome P450 isoform CYP3A4 in the intestine. It is via inhibition of this enzyme that grapefruit increases the effects of buspirone (Buspar), carbamazepine, several statin drugs (such as simvastatin), terfenadine, felodipine, nifedipine, verapamil, estradiol, tacrolimus, dextromethorphan (significant only at recreational doses), benzodiazepines, and ciclosporin. The effect of grapefruit juice with regard to drug absorption was originally discovered in 1989. However, the effect became well-publicized after being responsible for a number of deaths due to overdosing on medication.

Safety :-
People who are allergic to citrus fruits are likely to react to grapefruits, too. The sensitivity may be to the fruit itself or to an oil in the peel.

CLICK & SEE  :->  Grapefruit raises breast cancer risk   

Click & see : Grapefruit Juice Dangers Q&A

Interactions With Drugs and Medicines:-

Grapefruit has serious interactions with many commonly prescribed medications.

Grapefruit juice inhibits a special enzyme in the intestines that is responsible for the natural breakdown and absorption of many medications. When the action of this enzyme is blocked, the blood levels of these medications increase, which can lead to toxic side effects from the medications.

Grapefruit juice research has suggested that flavonoids and/or furanocoumarin compounds are the substances that act to block the enzyme in the intestines that normally metabolizes many drugs.

The grapefruit juice-drug interaction can lead to unpredictable and hazardous levels of certain important drugs.

These medications should not be consumed with grapefruit juice  unless advised by a doctor:

Statins (Cholesterol Lowering Drugs):

* Baycol (Cerivastatin)

* Mevacor (Lovastatin)

*Lipitor (Atorvastatin)

*Zocor (Simvastatin)

Antihistamines:

*Ebastine

*Seldane (Terfenadine, taken off the U.S. market)

Calcium Channel Blockers (Blood Pressure Drugs):

*Nimotop (Nimodipine)

*Nitrendipine

*Plendil (Felodipine)

* Pranidipine

*Sular (Nisoldipine)

Psychiatric Medications:

*Buspar (Buspirone)

*Halcion (Triazolam)

*Tegretol (Carbamazepine)

* Valium (Diazepam)

* Versed (Midazolam)

Intestinal Medications:

Propulsid (Cisapride, taken off the U.S. market)

*Immune Suppressants:

* Neoral (Cyclosporine)

* Prograf (Tacrolimus)

*Pain Medications:

*Methadone

*Impotence Drug:

*Viagra (Sildenafil)

Toxic blood levels of these medications can occur when patients taking them consume grapefruit juice. The high blood levels of the medications can cause damage to organs or impair their normal function, which can be dangerous.


The following drugs may potentially have interactions with grapefruit juice, but this potential has not been scientifically studied. Use caution:

*Amiodarone (CordaroneÒ)

* Cilostazol (PletalÒ)

*Donepezil (AriceptÒ)

* Losartan (CozaarÒ)

*Montelukast (SingulairÒ)

*Pimozide (OrapÒ)

*Quetiapine (SeroquelÒ)

*Sildenafil (ViagraÒ)

* Tamoxifen (NolvadexÒ)

*Tamsulosin (FlomaxÒ)

Related Topic: Interactions of Grapefruit with Medications For a detailed description of how grapefruit affects the metabolism of prescription drugs.

Click to see-> List of drugs affected by grapefruit

Click to read:->Grapefruit ‘may cut gum disease’:Grapefruit heals stomach ulcers :

Grapefruit may help weight loss

Resources:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grapefruit

http://www.holisticonline.com/Herbal-Med/_Herbs/h_grapefruit.htm

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_herbs_and_minerals_in_Ayurveda

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