Tag Archives: Great Lakes

Viola renifolia

Botanical Name: Viola renifolia
Family: Violaceae
Genus: Viola
Species: V. renifolia
Kingdom:Plantae
Order: Malpighiales

Common names: White violet and Kidneyleaf violet
Habitat : Viola renifolia is native to northern North America, where it has a widespread distribution across Canada and the northern United States as far south as Washington, Colorado, and New York. It is grown in part shade, sun; cool coniferous swamps and woods.
Description:
Viola renifolia is a perennial herb growing up to 10 centimeters tall. It does not have stems, rhizomes, or stolons. The kidney-shaped leaf blades are 3 to 6 centimeters long and are borne on petioles up to 15 centimeters long. It is in flower during April to June. The flower is 1 to 1.5 centimeters long and white in color with purple lines on the lower three petals. The fruit is a purplish nearly spherical capsules; seeds are brown; ripening mid-summer.

This violet grows in white spruce and black spruce forests, and temperate coniferous forests. Near the Great Lakes it grows in swamps and wooded areas….CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES : 

Edible & Medicinal Uses:
Violets are high in vitamins A and C; the leaves contain as much vitamin C as 4 oranges. The flowers have been used as a garnish (fresh or candied) or as a flavouring and colouring in vinegar. They have also been made into jelly and syrup.

Flower Essences: Indications: uncomfortable in closed spaces and constrained environments; fearful of losing one’s identity in a group; unable to embody one’s sensitivity in a comfortable way.

Known Hazards: The rhizomes, fruits and/or seeds of some violets are poisonous, causing severe stomach and intestinal upset, as well as nervousness and respiratory and circulatory depression. The species name renifolia, from the Latin rens, ‘a kidney’, and folium, ‘a leaf’, refers to the kidney-shaped leaves typical of this plant.
Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.
Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Viola_renifolia
http://www.herbnet.com/Herb%20Uses_UZ.htm
https://www.minnesotawildflowers.info/flower/kidney-leaved-violet
http://www.borealforest.org/herbs/herb40.htm

Populus deltoides monilifera

Botanical Name: Populus deltoides monilifera
Family: Salicaceae
Genus: Populus
Section: Aigeiros
Species: P. deltoides
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Malpighiales

Common Name : Plains Cottonwood

Habitat : Populus deltoides monilifera is native to Central N. America – Saskatchewan to Manitoba, south to Texas and New Mexico. It grows on the streamsides in the eastern foothills of the Rockies.

Description:
Populus deltoides monilifera is a large tree growing to 20–40 m (66–131 ft) tall and with a trunk up to 1.8 m (5.9 ft) diameter, one of the largest North American hardwood trees. The bark is silvery-white, smooth or lightly fissured when young, becoming dark gray and deeply fissured on old trees. The twigs are grayish-yellow and stout, with large triangular leaf scars. The winter buds are slender, pointed, 1–2 cm long (.039–0.79 inches), yellowish brown, and resinous. It is one of the fastest growing trees in North America. In Mississippi River bottoms, height growth of 10–15 ft per year for a few years have been seen. Sustained height growth of 5 foot height growth and 1 inch diameter growth per year for 25 years is common.

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The leaves are large, deltoid (triangular), 4–10 cm (1.6–3.9 in) long and 4–11 cm (1.6–4.3 in) broad with a truncated (flattened) base and a petiole 3–12 cm (1.2–4.7 in) long. The leaf is very coarsely toothed, the teeth are curved and gland tipped, and the petiole is flat; they are dark green in the summer and turn yellow in the fall (but many cottonwoods in dry locations drop their leaves early from the combination of drought and leaf rust, making their fall color dull or absent). Due to the flat stem of the leaf, the leaf has the tendency to shake from even the slightest breeze. This is one of the identifying characteristics.

It is dioecious, with the flowers (catkins) produced on single-sex trees in early spring. The male (pollen) catkins are reddish-purple and 8–10 cm (3.1–3.9 in) long; the female catkins are green, 7–13 cm (2.8–5.1 in) long at pollination, maturing 15–20 cm (5.9–7.9 in) long with several 6–15 mm (0.24–0.59 in) seed capsules in early summer, which split open to release the numerous small seeds attached to cotton-like strands.

Cultivation:
An easily grown plant that does well in a heavy cold damp soil. Prefers a deep rich well-drained circumneutral soil, growing best in the south and east of Britain. Growth is much less on wet soils, on poor acid soils and on thin dry soils. It does not do well in exposed upland sites. It dislikes shade and is intolerant of root or branch competition. A fast-growing but short-lived species, it reaches maturity in 40 – 50 years and rarely lives as long as 100 years. Like the quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides) the leaves of this species rustle even in light breezes. Poplars have very extensive and aggressive root systems that can invade and damage drainage systems. Especially when grown on clay soils, they should not be planted within 12 metres of buildings since the root system can damage the building’s foundations by drying out the soil. Dioecious. Male and female plants must be grown if seed is required. Hybridizes freely with other members of this genus.

Propagation :
Seed – must be sown as soon as it is ripe in spring. Poplar seed has an extremely short period of viability and needs to be sown within a few days of ripening. Surface sow or just lightly cover the seed in trays in a cold frame. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle and grow them on in the old frame. If sufficient growth is made, it might be possible to plant them out in late summer into their permanent positions, otherwise keep them in the cold frame until the following late spring and then plant them out. Most poplar species hybridize freely with each other, so the seed may not come true unless it is collected from the wild in areas with no other poplar species growing. Cuttings of mature wood of the current season’s growth, 20 – 40cm long, November/December in a sheltered outdoor bed or direct into their permanent positions. Very easy. Suckers in early spring

Edible Uses: .Inner bark. A pleasant sweet flavour. There are no more details but inner bark is often dried, ground into a powder and then used as a thickener in soups etc or added to cereals when making bread. Young shoots – cooked. The cottony fruit has been used by children as a chewing gum. (This almost certainly refers to the seedpods.)

Medicinal Uses:
The bark of most, if not all members of the genus contain salicin, a glycoside that probably decomposes into salicylic acid (aspirin) in the body. The bark is therefore anodyne, anti-inflammatory and febrifuge. It is used especially in treating rheumatism and fevers, and also to relieve the pain of menstrual cramps. The seed down has been used as an absorbent dressing on open sores.

Other Uses:
Dye; Gum; Rooting hormone; Wood.

An extract of the shoots can be used as a rooting hormone for all types of cuttings. It is extracted by soaking the chopped up shoots in cold water for a day. A yellow dye is obtained from the seedpods. A yellow dye is obtained from the leaf buds. Wood – soft, rather woolly in texture, without smell or taste, of low flammability, not durable, very resistant to abrasion. It weighs about 22lb per cubic foot and is used for posts, veneer, baskets and fuel.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Populus_deltoides
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Populus+deltoides+monilifera

Populus deltoides

Botanical Name : Populus deltoides
Family: Salicaceae
Genus: Populus
Section: Aigeiros
Species: P. deltoides
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Malpighiales

Common Names : Eastern Cottonwood, Plains cottonwood, Rio Grande cottonwood, Necklace Poplar

Habitat : Populus deltoides is native to North America, growing throughout the eastern, central, and southwestern United States.Itis found on rich moist soils, mainly along riverbanks, bottoms and rich woods.

Description:
Populus deltoides is a large tree growing to 20–40 m (66–131 ft) tall and with a trunk up to 1.8 m (5.9 ft) diameter, one of the largest North American hardwood trees. The bark is silvery-white, smooth or lightly fissured when young, becoming dark gray and deeply fissured on old trees. The twigs are grayish-yellow and stout, with large triangular leaf scars. The winter buds are slender, pointed, 1–2 cm long (.039–0.79 inches), yellowish brown, and resinous. It is one of the fastest growing trees in North America. In Mississippi River bottoms, height growth of 10–15 ft per year for a few years have been seen. Sustained height growth of 5 foot height growth and 1 inch diameter growth per year for 25 years is common.

CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES

The leaves are large, deltoid (triangular), 4–10 cm (1.6–3.9 in) long and 4–11 cm (1.6–4.3 in) broad with a truncated (flattened) base and a petiole 3–12 cm (1.2–4.7 in) long. The leaf is very coarsely toothed, the teeth are curved and gland tipped, and the petiole is flat; they are dark green in the summer and turn yellow in the fall (but many cottonwoods in dry locations drop their leaves early from the combination of drought and leaf rust, making their fall color dull or absent). Due to the flat stem of the leaf, the leaf has the tendency to shake from even the slightest breeze. This is one of the identifying characteristics.

It is dioecious, with the flowers (catkins) produced on single-sex trees in early spring. The male (pollen) catkins are reddish-purple and 8–10 cm (3.1–3.9 in) long; the female catkins are green, 7–13 cm (2.8–5.1 in) long at pollination, maturing 15–20 cm (5.9–7.9 in) long with several 6–15 mm (0.24–0.59 in) seed capsules in early summer, which split open to release the numerous small seeds attached to cotton-like strands.

Cultivation :
Landscape Uses: Erosion control, Aggressive surface roots possible. An easily grown plant, it does well in a heavy cold damp soil but thrives best on moist well-drained, fine sandy loams or silts close to streams. Prefers a deep rich well-drained circumneutral soil, growing best in the south and east of Britain. Growth is much less on wet soils, on poor acid soils and on thin dry soils]. It does not do well in exposed upland sites. It dislikes shade and is intolerant of root or branch competition. Tolerates both hot and cool summers. Fairly wind-tolerant. The tree is reported to tolerate an annual precipitation in the range of 60 to 150cm, an annual temperature in the range of 8 to 14°C, and a pH of 4.5 to 8. A fast-growing but short-lived tree. It can make new shoots up to 1.5 metres long each year and is often planted for timber in Europe. It does have drawbacks, though, since it is easily storm-damaged, is easily damaged by fire when young and is much attacked by fungi. Like the quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides) the leaves of this species rustle even in light breezes. The trees can be coppiced, sprouting freely from the base of the trunk and the roots if they are cut down. Poplars have very extensive and aggressive root systems that can invade and damage drainage systems. Especially when grown on clay soils, they should not be planted within 12 metres of buildings since the root system can damage the building’s foundations by drying out the soil. Dioecious. Male and female plants must be grown if seed is required. Hybridizes freely with other members of this genus. Special Features: North American native, Naturalizing, Wetlands plant, Inconspicuous flowers or blooms.

Propagation :
Seed – must be sown as soon as it is ripe in spring. Poplar seed has an extremely short period of viability and needs to be sown within a few days of ripening. Surface sow or just lightly cover the seed in trays in a cold frame. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle and grow them on in the old frame. If sufficient growth is made, it might be possible to plant them out in late summer into their permanent positions, otherwise keep them in the cold frame until the following late spring and then plant them out. Most poplar species hybridize freely with each other, so the seed may not come true unless it is collected from the wild in areas with no other poplar species growing. Cuttings of mature wood of the current season’s growth, 20 – 40cm long, November/December in a sheltered outdoor bed or direct into their permanent positions. Very easy. Suckers in early spring.
Edible Uses:……Inner bark .….. A mucilaginous texture, it is usually harvested in the spring. The inner bark is often dried, ground into a powder and then used as a thickener in soups etc or added to cereals when making bread. Seeds. No more details are given but they are very small and would be exceedingly fiddly to collect and use. Sap – used for food. Buds. The leaves are rich in protein and have a greater amino-acid content than wheat, corn, rice and barley. A concentrate made from them is as nourishing as meat, but can be produced faster and more cheaply. Some people believe that this will become a major food source for humans.
Medicinal Uses:
Anodyne; Anthelmintic; Antiinflammatory; Antiscorbutic; Blood purifier; Febrifuge; Poultice; Tonic.

The bark contains salicin, a glycoside that probably decomposes into salicylic acid (aspirin) in the body. The bark is therefore anodyne, anti-inflammatory and febrifuge. It is used especially in treating rheumatism and fevers, and also to relieve the pain of menstrual cramps. An infusion of the bark has been used in the treatment of whooping cough and tuberculosis. A decoction of the bark has been used to rid the body of intestinal worms. The bark has been eaten as a treatment for colds. A tea made from the inner bark is used in the treatment of scurvy. The inner bark, combined with black haw bark (Crataegus douglasii) and wild plum bark (Prunus spp) has been used as a female tonic. A poultice of the leaves has been used as a treatment for rheumatism, bruises, sores and boils.
Other Uses:
Biomass; Dye; Pioneer; Rooting hormone; Shelterbelt; Soil stabilization; Wood.

An extract of the shoots can be used as a rooting hormone for all types of cuttings. It is extracted by soaking the chopped up shoots in cold water for a day. Various dyes can be obtained from the leaf buds in the spring – green, white, yellow, purple and red have been mentioned. Trees are planted for dune fixing in erosion control programmes. They are also good pioneer species, growing quickly to provide a good habitat for other woodland trees and eventually being out-competed by those trees. A fairly wind resistant tree, it can be grown as part of a shelterbelt planting. Another report says that it is easily storm-damaged. The wood has been used as a bio-mass for producing methanol, which can be used to power internal combustion engines. Annual yields of 7 tonnes of oven-dry material per year have been achieved. Wood – weak, soft, rather woolly in texture, without smell or taste, of low flammability, not durable, very resistant to abrasion but warps and shrinks badly. It weighs 24lb per cubic foot. The wood takes paint well, is easy to glue and nail. It is used principally for lumber, pulp, crates, veneer etc.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Populus_deltoides
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Populus+deltoides

Sarracenia purpurea

Botanical Name : Sarracenia purpurea
Family: Sarraceniaceae
Genus:    Sarracenia
Species: S. purpurea
Kingdom: Plantae
Order:     Ericales

Synonyms: Sarazina Gibbosa. Sarracenie. Eve’s Cups. Fly-catcher. Fly-trap. Huntsman’s Cup. Purple Side-saddle Flower. Side-saddle Plant. Water-cup. Nepenthes distillatoria.

Common Names:Pitcher Plant, Purple pitcher plant, Northern pitcher plant, or Side-saddle flower,

Habitat: Sarracenia purpurea is native to Eastern N. America – Labrador, south to Kentucky, Iowa and Florida. Naturalized in C. Ireland.It grows in Sphagnum bogs and peaty barrens.

Its range includes almost the entire eastern seaboard of the United States, the Great Lakes, and south eastern Canada, making it the most common and broadly distributed pitcher plant, as well as the only member of the genus that inhabits cold temperate climates. The species is the floral emblem of the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador. The species was introduced into bogs in parts of Ireland, where it has proliferated.

Description:
Sarracenia purpurea, a strange,evergreen perennial plant growing to 0.3 m (1ft) by 0.3 m (1ft in),  the leaves of which form cups, often richly coloured, which become filled with water and small insects, and are covered by a lid in hot weather, due to the contraction of the fibres of the modified leaf-stalk. Water is sometimes present before opening. The insects gradually form a decaying mass, which emits a strong odour and probably serves as a fertilizer.
 CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES
There appears to be little, if any, difference botanically between the American Sarracenia and the Nepenthes distillatoria of Ceylon, the East Indies and China. For lack of other definite information it may be concluded from the name that the latter is also used medicinally. (Nepenthe, from the Greek ‘not’ and ‘grief.’) In antiquity a magic potion, Nepenthe, is mentioned by Greek and Roman poets. It was said to cause forgetfulness of sorrows and misfortunes.

Cultivation: The plant requires a moist, well-drained situation, and being a creeping plant needs trellis-work for support. The flowers are insignificant, with five petals shaped like a violin.

Propagation :
Seed – we have no information for this species but would suggest sowing the seed in light shade in a cold frame as soon as it is ripe if possible otherwise in early spring. When they are large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on in the greenhouse for at least their first winter. Plant them out into their permanent positions in late spring or early summer, after the last expected frosts. Consider giving the plants some protection from the cold for their first winter outdoors. Division might be possible.

Medicinal Uses:
Parts Used: Root, leaves.

Constituents: An alkaloid, Sarracenine resin, a yellow colouring principle (probably sarracenic acid) and extractive. ‘Sarracenine is white, soluble in alcohol and ether, combines with acids to form salts, and with sulphuric acid forms handsome needles which are bitter, and communicate this taste to its members.’

Tonic, laxative, stomachic, diuretic. Used in the southern United States in dyspepsia. The drug was unknown in Europe until a few years ago, when Mr. Herbert Miles introduced it as a specific for smallpox, as used by the North American Indians with great success, saving life and even the unsightly pitting. Some homoeopaths confirm the value of the remedy, but allopaths do not appear to have been successful in its use, either in America, England or France.

Its principal value appears to be in torpid liver, stomach, kidney and uterus complaints.

 
Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sarracenia_purpurea
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Sarracenia+purpurea
http://www.botanical.com/botanical/mgmh/p/pitche42.html

Broomsedge

Botanical Name : Andropogon virginicus
Family: Poaceae
Genus: Andropogon
Species: A. virginicus
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Poales

Common Name :Broomsedge,Broomsedge bluestem and Yellowsedge bluestem

Habitat :It is native to the southeastern United States and as far north as the Great Lakes. It is known as an introduced species in California and Hawaii, where it is weedy.

Broomsedge bluestem grows throughout the Southeast from the 25-inch mean annual precipitation belt (southeastern Nebraska south through eastern Texas) eastward.  It is found as far north as Iowa, Ohio, and New York. Outlying introduced populations occur in southern California and Hawaii

Description:
A. virginicus is a perennial grass forming narrow clumps of stems up to just over a meter in maximum height. Its stems and leaves are green when new, turning purplish to orange and then straw-colored with age. It produces large amounts of seeds small enough to disperse on the wind. This grass is successful in a wide range of habitats. It is a prolific seed producer, it has a high germination rate and seedling survival rate, and it thrives in poor soils
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Medicinal Uses:
A decoction of the roots is used in the treatment of backaches. A tea made from the leaves is used in the treatment of diarrhea. Externally, it is used as a wash for frostbite, sores, itching, piles and poison ivy rash.

Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Andropogon_virginicus
http://www.herbnet.com/Herb%20Uses_AB.htm
http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/graminoid/andvir/all.html

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