Categories
Herbs & Plants

Aconitum Ferox

[amazon_link asins=’B00VBDN912′ template=’ProductCarousel’ store=’finmeacur-20′ marketplace=’US’ link_id=’d0c48d9c-1626-11e7-a834-8b93c85ba87b’]

[amazon_link asins=’B013P251CQ,B005P0RN0A,B0083V5N1Y,B0006NXG4S,B001GCTWRI,B005P0WBG6,B000V40ZC8,B00126B9DS,B00VPPCNI6′ template=’ProductCarousel’ store=’finmeacur-20′ marketplace=’US’ link_id=’30ec2fb5-1627-11e7-8379-311d32aa0413′]
Botanical Name:Aconitum ferox
Family: Ranunculaceae
Genus: Aconitum
Species: A. ferox
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Ranunculales

Common Name :Aconitum virorum,Indian Aconite,Bishnag

Syn: Aconitum virosum Don., A. napellus var. rigidum Hook, f & T.
English names: Wolf’s bane, Indian aconite.
Sanskrit names: Vatsanabha, Visa.
Vernacular names: Hin: Bish, Mahoor; Guj and Mar: Vachang; Kas: Mohra; Tam: Vasnumbi; Tel: Vasnabhi.
Trade name: Bish.
Genus : Aconitum
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Order: Ranunculales
Species: A. ferox

Known Hazards:Aconitum ferox is considered the most poisonous plant in the world.   The whole plant is highly toxic – simple skin contact has caused numbness in some people

Habitat : E. Asia – Himalayas.  Shrubberies and forest clearings, 2100 – 3600 metres from C. Nepal to Bhutan.Abundant at Sandakphu, which is the highest point of the Darjeeling Hills in the Indian State of West Bengal.Woodland Garden; Dappled Shade;

Description:
A deciduous perennial that grows up to 1.0 metre tall by 0.5 metres wide and which favours many types of soil. They are handsome plants with the tall and erect stem crowned by racemes of large eye-catching blue, purple, white, yellow or pink zygomorphic flowers with numerous stamens. They are distinguished by having one of the five petaloid sepals (the posterior one), called the galea, in the form of a cylindrical helmet; hence the English name monkshood. There are 2-10 petals, in the form of [nectary|nectaries]. The two upper petals are large. They are placed under the hood of the calyx and are supported on long stalks.

click to see the pictures…..>.…..(01)....(1)..……….(2).…….…(3)..

It’s roots look like the navel of children; leaves alternate, simple, rounded or oval, may be palmately 5-lobed; flowers borne on branched racemes, bracts and bracteoles present, large helmet-type, helmet vaulted with short sharp beak, pale dirty blue in colour, zygomorphic, floral parts arranged spirally on an elongated receptacle; follicles erect, usually densely villose-sometimes glabrous.

It is hardy to zone 6. It is in flower from August to September. The flowers are pollinated by Bees.
The plant prefers light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and can grow in heavy clay soil. The plant prefers acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It requires moist soil.

Cultivation:
Thrives in most soils and in the light shade of trees. Grows well in heavy clay soils. Prefers a moist soil in sun or semi-shade. Prefers a calcareous soil. Grows well in open woodlands. The root of this plant is widely collected from the wild for medicinal use and is becoming much rarer in much of its range. Members of this genus seem to be immune to the predations of rabbits and deer. A greedy plant, inhibiting the growth of nearby species, especially legumes. Closely related to A. napellus.

Propagation:
Seed – best sown as soon as it is ripe in a cold frame. The seed can be stratified and sown in spring but will then be slow to germinate. When large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on in a cold frame for their first winter. Plant them out in late spring or early summer. Division – best done in spring but it can also be done in autumn. Another report says that division is best carried out in the autumn or late winter because the plants come into growth very early in the year.

Constituents: It is from “Aconitum ferox” that the well known Indian poison bikh, bish, or nabee is produced. It contains large quantities of the alkaloid pseudaconitine, which is a deadly poison. Aconite was often used as an ingredient in the psychoactive drugs prepared by the descendants of Hecate (the Greek goddess of sorcery and witchcraft). It was also used in European witchcraft ointments and has been used by poisoners.
Root: pseudoaconitine (a toxic alkaloid), indactonitine, chasmaconitine, bikhaconitine.

Medicinal Actions &  Uses:-
Alterative; Anaesthetic; Antiarthritic; Deobstruent; Diaphoretic; Diuretic; Sedative; Stimulant.

The dried root is alterative, anaesthetic, antiarthritic, deobstruent, diaphoretic, diuretic, sedative, stimulant. It is best harvested in the autumn as soon as the plant dies down. This is a very poisonous plant and should only be used with extreme caution and under the supervision of a qualified practitioner. It has been used in India and Nepal in the treatment of neuralgia, leprosy, fevers, cholera and rheumatism. When the roots are soaked in cow’s urine, they become soft and lose their depressant action on the heart, becoming a stimulant instead.
Traditional use: AYURVEDA : Root: used in the mrityunjaya rasa (used to treat the fever supposed to be caused by deranged vayu, i.e., wind, sannipatika jvara, i.e., remittent fever, hingulesware-rasa, anandabhairav agnitundi vati, etc.

Vatsanabha has been used in medicine from a very remote period. It is regarded as healing and stimulant. It is used in a great variety of affections, but is specially recommended in fever, cephalagia, affections of throat, dyspepsia and rheumatism. HOMOEOPATHY: remedy for clotting of blood in heart or in lungs, pneumonia, Iymptisis, pleurisy, eye trouble, earache, toothache and urinary trouble.

Modern use: Extremely poisonous; used in leprosy, fever, cholera, nasal catarrah, tonsillitis, sore throat, gastric disorders, debility, etc., also used as a sedative and diaphoretic; applied in the form of paste in cases of neuralgia and rheumatism.

Disclaimer:The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://www.pfaf.org/database/plants.php?Aconitum+ferox
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aconitum_ferox
http://earthisours.blogspot.com/2008/05/45-flora-species-face-threat-of.html

http://www.bsienvis.nic.in/medi.htm#Aconitum ferox

Enhanced by Zemanta
Categories
Herbs & Plants

Iris cristata

[amazon_link asins=’B06W55HMRC,B00C6QUW1S,B06X3VS91Z,B00UTLX1XI’ template=’ProductCarousel’ store=’finmeacur-20′ marketplace=’US’ link_id=’e769dd3c-2970-11e7-b3e1-61e2951030f3′]

Botanical Name : Iris cristata
Family: Iridaceae
Subfamily: Iridoideae
Tribe: Irideae
Genus: Iris
Subgenus: Limniris
Section: Lophiris
Species: I. cristata
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Asparagales

Common Names: Crested Iris, Dwarf crested iris

Habitat :Iris cristata is native to Eastern N. America – Maryland to Ohio, south to Georgia, Tennessee and Missouri. It grows in rich woods, wooded bottoms and ravines, usually in calcareous soils.

Description:
Iris cristata is a Herbaceous perennial plant. This dwarf crested iris is a low-growing, rapidly spreading plant that typically grows to 3-6” tall. It features pale blue, lilac or lavender iris flowers with gold crests on the falls. Flowers are borne on very short stems, often appearing nearly stemless. Narrow, sword-shaped, yellowish-green to medium green leaves (to 6” long) arise from a network of branching rhizomes. Spreads quickly and forms dense colonies in optimum growing conditions. Native from Maryland to Oklahoma south to Georgia and Mississippi. In Missouri, it typically occurs on rocky, wooded slopes, on bluffs and along streams in the southeastern Ozark region (Steyermark). When in flower, a well-developed bed can produce a spectacular drift of blue color

CLICK & SEE

Flowers light blue to light violet, complicated in structure with petals and sepals all showy. Flower with 3 lower “sepals” hanging downward, base with a yellow shoehorn-like appendage (crest). “Sepals” not heavily veined with violet but with a basal patch of yellow. Upper 3 “petals” narrow and pointing generally upward. Seed pods elongate, ovate. Leaves relatively short and broad, embracing the stem, particularly those near the top of the plant..Flowering period: April to May.

Cultivation:
Landscape Uses:Alpine garden, Container, Ground cover, Massing, Rock garden, Woodland garden. Requires a light or gravelly lime-free soil of a woodland nature in partial shade or full sun. Likes plenty of moisture in summer but the soil must be well-drained. Grows well on a peat bank. Plants are hardy to about -20°c. Another report says that it is best if the plants are lifted intact in October, stored in sand and planted out in March. Members of this genus are rarely if ever troubled by browsing deer and rabbits. Plants require protection from slugs. Frequent division and transplanting every other year is necessary if the plant is to thrive and persist. Special Features:North American native, Naturalizing, All or parts of this plant are poisonous, Suitable for cut flowers.

Propagation :
Seed – best sown as soon as it is ripe in a cold frame. It does not require cold stratification. Stored seed should be sown as early in the year as possible in a cold frame. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle and grow them on in the greenhouse or cold frame for their first year. Plant out into their permanent positions in late spring or early summer. Division in July/August. Very easy, larger clumps can be replanted direct into their permanent positions, though it is best to pot up smaller clumps and grow them on in a cold frame until they are rooting well. Plant them out in the spring.

History:
Legend attributes the use of the yellow iris by the French monarchs to Clovis, the King of the Franks from 481 to 511 and the founder of Frankish state.  During a campaign against Alaric, the King of Aquitaine, Clovis was seeking a ford across a river for his army. A deer was frightened by the soldiers, and crossed the river at a ford that was thus revealed to Clovis. On the far side, he found a yellow iris that he put on his helmet as a testament to his good fortune which continued through to his defeat of Alaric near Poitiers in 507.  This story is almost certainly apocryphal, as the fleur-de-lis was first used as a heraldic symbol by King Phillipe II in 1180 and adopted as the French royal standard with three golden fleurs-de-lis on an azure background by King Charles the Wise in 1376.  But, like George Washington and the cheery tree, it is a good story.

In Greek mythology, Iris was the anthropomorphized goddess of the rainbow. She served as a messenger for the gods in general, but primarily for Hera, the wife and sister of Zeus. She was thus the female counterpart of Hermes (Mercury in Roman mythology).  In that a rainbow extends from the heavens to the earth, it was believed in Ancient Greece that this phenomenon afforded a means of communication between gods and mortals.  Accordingly, whenever a rainbow appeared, Iris was bringing a message from Olympus to a mortal or to a god on a terrestrial mission.  She had several collateral duties.  She led the souls of dead women to the Elysian Fields which gave rise to the custom of planting irises on the graves of women.  She also brought water from the River Styx which was used as a means of certifying the veracity of the gods. If they drank it after taking a solemn oath, they were rendered unconscious for one year if they had lied. Iris was married to Zephyrus, the god of the west wind and, according to some accounts, the mother of Eros, the god of love. There is a metaphorical appeal to the notion of love being a child born of the rainbow and the wind.

Edible Uses:….Root – used as a spice. Frequently chewed by local people to alleviate thirst. When first chewed the roots have a pleasant sweet taste, within a few minutes this changes to a burning sensation far more pungent than capsicums. Caution is advised, see the notes above on toxicity.

Medicinal Uses: It is notable for its medicinal uses as well as for its toxic effects. Native Americans used the root in a poultice to treat sores and to make a tea that was a laxative and an emetic. It was adopted by early medical practitioners who used small, frequent doses to stimulate the bowels and the kidneys, and to otherwise “cleanse the blood.”  As with many medicinal treatments derived from plants, the chemical that provides the palliative effect in small doses is toxic if consumed in quantity. The blue flag contains furfural which can cause nausea and iridin, a powerful hepatic stimulant. Livestock have been poisoned when grazing in wild iris.

An ointment made from the roots is applied to cancerous ulcers. A tea made from the roots is used in the treatment of hepatitis.

Other Use:Charming blue flowers float above sword-shaped leaves in spring. Use this beautiful but tough plant to edge a shady garden or path. It is also an effective, slow moving ground cover that provides tremendous shelter for small animals.

Known Hazards: Many plants in this genus are thought to be poisonous if ingested, so caution is advised[65]. The roots are especially likely to be toxic[238]. Plants can cause skin irritations and allergies in some people.

Disclaimer:The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://www.nearctica.com/flowers/iton/iris/Icrist.htm
http://www.abnativeplants.com/index.cfm?fuseaction=plants.plantdetail&plant_id=79
http://www.mobot.org/gardeninghelp/plantfinder/Plant.asp?code=K690
http://sneezypb.livejournal.com/322957.html
http://www.sierrapotomac.org/W_Needham/DwarfIris_050605.htm
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Iris+cristata

Reblog this post [with Zemanta]