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Lablab purpureus

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Botanical Name : Dolichos lablab
Family: Fabaceae
Genus: Lablab
Species: L. purpureus
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Fabales

Synonyms :  Lablab purpureus L. Sweet; Dolichos lablab L; Dolichos purpureus L; Dolichos lablab ssp ensiformis Thunb; Dolichos cultratus Thunb; Dolichos bengalensis Jacq; Dolichos lablab var; hortensis Schweinf & Muschler; Dolichos albus Lour; Dolichos uniflorus; Dolichos lablab ssp bengalensis Jacq; Lablab niger Medik; Lablab vulgaris Savi; Lablab leucocarpos Davi; Lablab purpureus ssp purpureus Verdc; Lablab vulgaris var; niger DC; Lablab purpureus ssp uncinatus Verdc; Lablab perennans DC; Lablab nankinicus Savi; Lablab purpureus ssp bengalensis (Jacq.) Verdc.

Common Names : Dolichos bean, Hyacinth bean, Bonavist bean, Seim bean, Lablab bean, Egyptian kidney bean, Indian bean, Common bean, Field bean, Pendal bean, Pole bean, Waby bean (English); Avare, Chapparadavare, Chikkadikai (Kannada, India); Avari, Mochai (Tamil, India); Anumulu, Chikkudu (Telugu, India); Avara, Mochakotta (Malayalam, India); Sem, Ballar (Hindi, India); Shim (Bengali, India); Val (Gujarathi, India); Pavta, Wal (Marathi, India); Sin bean (Assam, India); Agni guango ahura (Ivory coast); Australian pea, Bannabees (Guyana); Batao, Batau, Beglau, Parda, Agaya, Itab (Philippines); Bounavista pea, Seim bean, Sem (Trinidad); Bunabis (Grenada.); Butter bean (Bah., Dom., Guy.); Caraota Chivata (Venzula); Chiancha Japanese (Spain); Chimbolo Verde (Costa Rica); Dauvan, Dall van (Vietnam); Dolic (d’ Egypte), Ataque, D. du Soudan, Feved Egypte (France); F, Cabellero (Salvador); Frijol bocon, F chileno (Peru); F.de la tierra (Cuba); Fuji-mame (Japan); Gallinazo blanco (Venezuela); Gallinita (Mexico); O- cala, Amora guaya, Gerenga (Ethiopia); Gueshrangaig (Egypt); Haricot cutelinho (Portugal); Helmbohne (Germany); Kashrengeig (Sudan); Kachang Kara, Kara-Kara, Kekara (Malaysia); Kerara (Indonesia); Fiwi bean, Kikuyu bean (East Africa); Cumandiata, Labe-labe (Brazil); Lubia bean (Ethopia, Sudan); Macape (Malag); Macululu (Angola); Pe-gyi (Burma); Tonga bean, Papaya bean, Poor man bean (Australia); Poroto bombero (Chile); P.de Egipto (Argentina); Tua nang. T. pab, T. pep (Thailand); P.contor, P.coolis, P.dum sou, P.en tout temps, P.indien (Mauritius); Macululu (Angola); Louria (Cyprus).

Habitat :Lablab purpureus grows  throughout the tropics, especially in Africa, India and Indonesia.It is a  traditional food plant in Africa,

Description:
Lablab bean is a twining vine with leaflets in threes and showy bright purple flowers and pods. In frostfree areas the vine becomes woody and can reach more than 30 ft (9 m) in length. In zones 9 and colder, the vine remains herbaceous and rarely exceeds 10 ft (3 m). The leaflets are purplish green, broad oval or triangular in shape and 3-6 in (7.6-15.2 cm) long. The flowers are pealike, a rich, brilliant purple and arranged in loose clusters on long stems that extend above the foliage. The pods are just as showy as the flowers. They are flat and curved, about 3 in (7.6 cm) long and bright purple. The beans inside are dark colored with a conspicuous white hilum, the elongate scar on the edge of the bean where it was attached to the inside of the pod.

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Several cultivars have been selected including some with white flowers and pale green pods; some with red flowers; some with long, thin cylindrical pods; and some dwarf forms. Some cultivars are grown primarily for the pods, some for the seeds, and some for roots. Some are day length neutral and some flower mainly as day length shortens.

Uses:
It is often grown as forage  and as an ornamental plant. In addition, this plant is also cited as a medicinal plant and a poisonous plant.
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In Maharashtra, a special spicy curry, known as vaala che birde , is often used during fasting festivals during Shravan month.

In the Telangana region of India, bean pods are cut into small pieces and cooked as spicy curry in Pongal festival season, along with bajra bread; it has been a very special delicacy for centuries.

In Hue, Vietnam, it is the main ingredient of the dish chè dau ván.

In Kenya, it is known as njahi, and is popular among the Kikuyu group. It is thought to encourage lactation and has historically been the main dish for breastfeeding mothers. Beans are boiled and mashed with ripe and/or semiripe bananas, giving the dish a sweet taste.

The leaves are used as greens, but have to be cooked like spinach and the water has to be discarded

Medicinal Uses:
Lablab purpureus is mild-and-lightly-warm-natured, tastes sweet.  It can tonify the spleen and stomach, relieve internal heat fever, relieve summer beat-and damp and remove dampness to stop diarrohea, etc.,  leukorrhea, with reddish discharge, infantile malnutrition and anti-cancer, etc.  The seeds are used to stimulate gastric activities, for vomiting and diarrhoea in acute gastro-enteritis, thirst in heat-stroke,  rheumatic arthritis, sunstroke, as an antidote against fish and vegetable poisoning and to treat colic and cholera.  The flowers are used to treat dysentery when there is pus and bloody stools, inflammation of the uterus and to increase menstrual flow.  Contraindicated in cases of intermittent fevers and chills, and in cold disorders.

Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://www.floridata.com/ref/d/doli_lab.cfm
http://www.lablablab.org/
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lablab_purpureus
http://www.herbnet.com/Herb%20Uses_FGH.htm

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Herbs & Plants

Cyclopia genistoides

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Botanical Name : Cyclopia genistoides
Family: Fabaceae
Subfamily: Faboideae
Tribe: Podalyrieae
Genus: Cyclopia
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Fabales

Common Name :Bush Tea,Honeybush tea, Heuningbos,kustee, coastal tea

Habitat :Cyclopia species (Family: Fabaceae), better known as honeybush, are endemic to the fynbos biome of the Western and Eastern Cape provinces of South Africa. It is adapted to the climate and soil in these areas and grow in nematode free, well drained, sandy to sandy loam soils with low pH, low phosphorus, generally occurring in sites with a relatively mild micro-climate.  In mountainous areas the populations are found on the cooler, wetter southern slopes.  Where there is a regular presence of mist, the populations are found on all slopes.

Description:
Cyclopia genistoides is a small, typical fynbos shrub, easy to miss when not in flower. A much-branched woody shrub with golden yellow stems, it grows to about one metre. The short needle-like leaves are arranged in threes along the branches, a typical feature of Cyclopia. When flowering in spring the same shrub can take your breath away with a bold display of bright yellow flowers.
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Money beetles are attracted to the sweet smelling flowers at the tip of the branches. They are responsible for most of the pollination. The brown seeds are formed in small pods that turn brown. The pods dry and split open within a few weeks as the seed ripens.

Propagation & Cultivation:
Cyclopia genistoides can be propagated by seed or cuttings. The best time to sow seed is from summer to autumn. To select viable seeds throw the seed into a jug of water and remove any seeds that float to the surface. Before sowing the seeds need to be treated. First, the hard seed coat which protects the small seeds, needs to be damage to enable the uptake of moisture for germination. In nature this hard seed coat would slowly be damaged in the soil by micro-organisms and other factors. In the nursery the scarifying of the dry seed can be done with sulfuric acid. Proceed with caution to avoid the chemical coming into contact with one’s skin.. If only a small amount of seed is needed, an easier way to damage the seed coat is to lightly sand the seeds with sandpaper.

The seeds of cyclopias and many other fynbos plants are adapted to germinate after fire. Experiments have shown that it is the smoke of the fire which stimulates the germination of the seed. To get this same effect the seed can be treated with smoke extract, which is produced and sold at Kirstenbosch.The seed must be sown on a medium with good drainage and a low pH of 3.5 to 5. Germination usually takes place within two weeks. To prevent damping off, a fungicide should be used.

The young seedlings are potted up as soon as they are big enough to handle and grown on in the nursery before planting out. Many plants of the legume family, which include cyclopias, are often difficult to root from cuttings, but Cyclopia genistoides is an exception. Tip cuttings can be made using Seradix 2 as a rooting hormone.

Honeybush needs to be planted in full sun and well-drained soil. The plants are sensitive to severe frost. The plants grow fairly fast but start to look untidy after a few years if not regularly pruned or burned, which is what usually happens in nature. After fire old honeybush plants shoot out vigorously from the surviving roots,which act as a storage organ.

Medicinal Uses:
Often dried and drunk as tea in South Africa.  Also of great value to sufferers from kidney and liver disorders.  To make the tea the stems and leaves are chopped into small pieces, wet and then left in heaps where they ferment spontaneously, They may be heated in an oven to about 60C – 70 C to enhance the process. After sufficient fermentation, the tea is spread out in the sun to dry. After sifting, it is ready for use. Honeybush tea, with its own distinct sweet taste and aroma, is made like ordinary tea, except that simmering enhances the flavor. Drinking honeybush tea is said to promote good health, stimulate the appetite, and the milk flow of lactating mothers.

Honeybush tea is a herbal infusion and many health properties are associated with the regular consumption of the tea. It has very low tannin content and contains no caffeine. It is therefore especially valuable for children and patients with digestive and heart problems where stimulants and tannins should be avoided.

Research on Honeybush tea has only started recently in the 90’s and already great progress was made on testing and researching the medicinal values of this tea. De Nysschen et al found 1995 three major phenolic compounds in honeybush tealeaves: a xanthone c-glycoside, mangiferin and O-glycosides of hesperitin and isosakuranetin, two flavanones.

Honeybush tea is normally consumed with milk and sugar, but to appreciate the delicate sweet taste and flavor, no milk or sugar should be added. Descriptions of the flavor vary from that of hot apricot jam, floral, honey-like and dried fruit mix with the overall impression of sweetness. The tea has the added advantage that the cold infusion can also be used as iced tea and that it blends well with fruit juices. Honeybush tea is prepared by boiling about 4-6 g of the dried material (approximately 2-3 tablespoonfuls) per liter for 20 minutes.

Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://www.arc.agric.za/home.asp?pid=4053
http://www.herbnet.com/Herb%20Uses_AB.htm
http://www.plantzafrica.com/plantcd/cyclopiagenistoides.htm
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cyclopia_(genus)

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Herbs & Plants Lentils

Mung

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Botanical Name :Phaseolus aureus Roxb.
Other scientific names ,Phaseolus mungo Blanco ,Phaseolus radiatus Merr.
Family :Fabaceae
Common Names :Balatong (Tag., Ibn., If., Ilk.),Mongo (Tag.),Mungo (Tag., Bis.) ,Mungos (Tag.) , Mongo bean (Engl.)  , Mung bean (Engl.) ,Green gram (Engl.)

Bengali name:  Mung dal

Habitat:The mung bean is native to Southwest Asia, where it was first cultivated 5,000-6,000 years ago. Currently it is grown in India, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Iran, Burma, China, Vietnam, Japan, and elsewhere. In the USSR it is grown in Tadzhikistan, Transcaucasia, and southern Kazakhstan (in small fields), using irrigation; it is planted in the spring or after the harvest. The seed yield of the mung bean is 10-16 centners per hectare; the foliage yield, up to 200 centners per hectare.

It is widely cultivated in warm regions of India and Indonesia and United States for forage and especially its edible seeds; chief source of bean sprouts used in Chinese cookery; sometimes placed in genus Phaseolus.


Description:

Erect, annual herb branching at the base, clothed with spreading brownish hairs. Leaves are long-petioled, compound, with three leaflets that are ovate and entire, broad based with pointed tips, 8 tto 15 cm long, the lateral ones inequilateral. The flowers are golden yellow, about 1 cm long, arranged near the end of the short stalks.

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The pods (beans) are narrow and cylindrical; they may be straight or curved, are 8-15 cm long, and contain seven to ten seeds. The ripe pods are nearly black. The seeds are rounded and cylindrical or barrel-shaped and may be green, yellow, or brown; 1,000 seeds weigh 25-80 g. The growing period for early ripening varieties in the USSR (such as Pobeda 104) is 80-100 days. The plants are heat- and moisture-loving. The seeds contain 24-28 percent protein, 46-50 percent starch, 2-4 percent oil, and vitamins. Mung beans are used as food in the form of groats, and the green beans and blanched sprouts are used as vegetables. The foliage is dried, ensiled, and plowed under as green manure; the straw and chaff are fed to livestock.

Chemical constituents and properties:-
*Seeds are high in carbohydrate (>45%) and protein (>21%); fair source of calcium, iron, vitamins A and B. deficient in vitamin C.
*Sprouts are a good source of vitamin B.
*Seeds are tonic and aperient.
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Edible Uses:

Extensively used in Philippine cuisine, in salads or boiled, in soups or stews. Mung is eaten in most part of Asian countries.

Medicinal Uses:

Folkloric
*Decoction of seeds as diuretic.
*The seeds, boiled or raw, used in poultices.
*Roots are thought to be narcotic, used for bone pains.
*Seeds, internally and externally, used for rheumatism and a variety of nervous system ailments.
*The seeds are used for hemorrhoids and liver afflictions.
*Powdered beans used to promote suppuration.
*Seeds used in anorexia.

Studies

Hypotensive: The hypotensive effects of green bean (Phaseolus aureus), common rue (Ruta graveolens) and kelp (Laminaria japonica) in rats: All extracts in the PA study contained bioactive proteinaceous substances and were hypotensive.
• Anti-irritation: Clinical studies on the anti-irritation effects of mung bean (Phaseolus aureus) extract in cosmetics: The study of extracts applied to irritant-containing cosmetic formulations showed considerable anti-irritation efficacy and suggesting a potential use for cosmetic products.
• Cardiovascular: The cardiovascular effects of green beans (Phaseolus aureus), common rue (Ruta graveolens), and kelp (Laminaria japonica) in rats: Green beans (P aureus) showed negative chronotropic effect on isolated right atria. The plants showed a variety of effects and explains why herbs, as in herbal medicine, should be used together therapeutically.
• Hypolipidemic / Antiatherogenic: Changes in serum lipids in normal and diabetic guinea pigs on feeding Phaseolus aureus (Green gram): Study showed green gram feeding showed lowering of both free and esterified fractions of cholesterol, significant loweriing of triglycerides and decreased the total cholesterol / phospholipid ration indicating its antiatherogenic nature.

Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.


Resources:

http://www.stuartxchange.com/Mongo.html
http://encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary.com/Phaseolus+aureus

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Herbs & Plants

Cleome gynandra

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Botanical Name : Cleome gynandra
Family: Cleomaceae /Capparaceae (APG: Brassicaceae)
Genus: Cleome
Species: C. gynandra
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Brassicales
Synonyms  : Cleome pentaphylla L. (1763), Gynandropsis pentaphylla (L.) DC. (1824), Gynandropsis gynandra (L.) Briq. (1914).

Common Names : Cat whiskers,African cabbage,African cabbage, spider wisp (Eng.); oorpeultjie, snotterbelletjie (Afr.); Morotho (Northern Sotho); Muruthu (Venda)
Vernacular names :  Spiderplant, cat’s whiskers, spider flower, bastard mustard (En). Caya blanc, brède caya, mouzambé (Fr). Musambe (Po). Mgagani, mkabili, mkabilishemsi, mwangani mgange (Sw).

Habitat : The origin of Cleome gynandra is not known. There are claims that it has a southern Asian origin, but others suggest that it originates from Africa or Central America. Cleome gynandra occurs throughout the tropics and subtropics. In Africa, it is mainly found near human settlements, possibly escapes from earlier introductions. It occurs probably in all countries of tropical Africa,  has now  become widespread in many tropical and sub-tropical parts of the world.

Description:
Erect annual herb up to 150 cm tall, strongly branched, with long taproot and few secondary roots; stem densely glandular. Leaves alternate, palmately compound with (3–)5(–7) leaflets; stipules absent; petiole 2–10 cm long, glandular; leaflets almost sessile, obovate to elliptical or lanceolate, 2–10 cm × 1–4 cm, cuneate at base, rounded to obtuse, acute or acuminate at apex, margins finely toothed, sparsely to distinctly hairy. Inflorescence a terminal raceme up to 30 cm long, bracteate. Flowers bisexual, white or tinged with purple; pedicel 1.5–2.5 cm long; sepals 4, free, ovate to lanceolate, up to 8 mm long; petals 4, elliptical to obovate, up to 1.5 cm long, clawed; androgynophore 1–1.5 cm long; stamens 6, purple; ovary superior, stalked, 2-celled. Fruit a long, narrow, cylindrical capsule up to 12 cm × 1 cm, stalked and beaked, usually green or yellow, dehiscing from below with 2 valves, many-seeded. Seeds subglobose, 1–1.5 mm in diameter, grey to black, irregularly ribbed. Seedling with oblong cotyledons; first leaves 3-foliolate.

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Edible Uses:

Fresh leaves are cooked and eaten as spinach or dried and stored for later use as a relish with porridge. They are rich in magnesium, iron and nicotinic acid.
The tender leaves, young shoots and occasionally flowers are eaten boiled as potherb, relish, stew or side dish. The leaves are utilized in fresh form or dried as powder. Sometimes the leaves are bitter and then cooked with milk and/or with other leafy vegetables such as cowpea leaves, amaranth, nightshades (Solanum spp.) and Cleome monophylla L. In other areas the leaves are boiled and the cooking water is discarded. In several countries, pounded groundnut paste (peanut butter) is added to improve the flavour. The leaves may be blanched, made into small balls and sun- or air-dried. This is a popular product in southern Africa, which finds a ready market when available during the rainy season. These balls or leaf powder can be stored up to a year and are soaked in water before being used in cooking. The seeds may be used as a substitute for mustard.

Nutrition analysis has found it to be high in certain nutrients including amino acids, vitamins and minerals as a result it forms an important part of diets in Southern Africa.

Chemical Constituents:

A study has shown that Cleome gynandra uses NAD-malic enzyme type C4 photosynthesis and has the characteristic traits associated with this including changes in “leaf biochemistry, cell biology and development”.  Cleome gynandra is closely related to Arabidopsis thaliana (a C3 photosynthetic plant) in an evolutionary manner and therefore offers comparison with this well studied model plant.


Medicinal Uses:

In several communities, boiled spiderplant leaves are traditionally given to mothers before and after delivery of a child, and in other situations where blood has been lost, e.g. to warriors. Similarly, an infusion of the leaves is used to treat anaemia. The leaves and seeds are used medicinally as rubefacient and vesicant, and to treat rheumatism, externally as well as internally. An infusion of the roots is used as a medicine for chest pain, the leaves to treat diarrhoea. Spiderplant seeds thrown in water can kill fish, which then float to the surface. The glands on the stems and leaves have insect repellent properties; cabbage and related crops intercropped with spiderplant suffer less from diamond back moth larvae. Similarly, in French bean intercropped with spiderplant, the beans are less affected by flower thrips and are therefore of better quality for export.

Other Uses:
The seeds are used to feed birds. The seed contains an edible polyunsaturated oil, which is extracted by simple pressing and does not need refining. The seed cake can be used as animal food.

Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.


Resources:

http://www.prota4u.org/protav8.asp?h=M4&t=Cleome,gynandra&p=Cleome+gynandra
http://vaniindia.org.whbus12.onlyfordemo.com/herbal/plantdir.asp
http://www.plantzafrica.com/plantcd/cleomegyn.htm
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cleome_gynandra

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