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Habitat : Gentiana crassicaulis is native to E. Asia – W. China. It grows on damp patches in mountainous regions. Wastelands, grasslands, roadside slopes, alpine meadows, scrub, forest margins and forests at elevations of 2100 – 4500 metres
Gentiana crassicaulis is a perennial herb, growing to 0.4 m (1ft 4in). Roots to 30 × 2 cm. Stems ascending, stout, simple, glabrous. Basal leaves petiole 5-8 cm, membranous; leaf blade narrowly elliptic to ovate-elliptic, 12-20 × 4-6.5 cm, base narrowed, margin scabrous, apex acute, veins 5-7. Stem leaves 3-5 pairs, distinctly larger toward apex, sessile, spreading, and surrounding flower cluster; petiole to 3 cm, membranous, completely connate; leaf blade ovate-elliptic to ovate-triangular, 6-16 × 3-4.5(-7) cm, base obtuse to truncate, margin scabrous, apex acute to obtuse, veins 3-5. Inflorescences crowded, many-flowered terminal clusters, rarely also few-flowered axillary whorls. Flowers sessile. Calyx tube spathelike, 4-6 mm, membranous, split on 1 side, apex truncate; lobes 1-5, dentiform, 0.5-1 mm. Corolla blue-purple, base pale yellow base or sometimes white or dark green, urceolate, 2-2.2 cm; lobes ovate-triangular, 2.5-3.5 mm, margin entire, apex acute; plicae triangular, 1-1.5 mm, oblique, margin denticulate, apex acute. Stamens inserted at middle of corolla tube; filaments 6-8 mm; anthers narrowly ellipsoid, 1.5-2.5 mm. Style 2-2.5 mm; stigma lobes oblong. Capsules sessile, ovoid-ellipsoid, 1.8-2 cm. Seeds light brown, ellipsoid, 1.2-1.5 mm. Fl. and fr. Jun-Nov
In general, gentians require a moist well-drained soil in a sheltered position, a certain minimum of atmospheric humidity, high light intensity but a site where temperatures are not too high. They are therefore more difficult to grow in areas with hot summers and in such a region they appreciate some protection from the strongest sunlight. Most species will grow well in the rock garden. This species is easily grown in most soils and usually produces an abundance of fertile seed. A moisture loving plant, preferring to grow with full exposure to the sun but with plenty of underground moisture in the summer, it grows better in the north and west of Britain. This species is not very hardy in the colder areas of the country, it tolerates temperatures down to between -5 and -10°c. Closely related to G. tibetica. Plants are intolerant of root disturbance.
Seed – best sown as soon as it is ripe in a light position in a cold frame. It can also be sown in late winter or early spring but the seed germinates best if given a period of cold stratification and quickly loses viability when stored, with older seed germinating slowly and erratically. It is advantageous to keep the seed at about 10°c for a few days after sowing, to enable the seed to imbibe moisture. Following this with a period of at least 5 – 6 weeks with temperatures falling to between 0 and -5°c will usually produce reasonable germination. It is best to use clay pots, since plastic ones do not drain so freely and the moister conditions encourage the growth of moss, which will prevent germination of the seed. The seed should be surface-sown, or only covered with a very light dressing of compost. The seed requires dark for germination, so the pots should be covered with something like newspaper or be kept in the dark. Pot up the seedlings into individual pots as soon as they are large enough to handle and grow on in light shade in the greenhouse for at least their first winter. The seedlings grow on very slowly, taking 2 – 7 years to reach flowering size. When the plants are of sufficient size, place them out into their permanent positions in late spring or early summer. Division in March. Most members of this genus have either a single tap-root, or a compact root system united in a single root head, and are thus unsuitable for division. Cuttings of basal shoots in late spring
The roots of gentian species contain some of the most bitter compounds known and make an excellent tonic for the whole digestive system, working especially on the stomach, liver and gall bladder. The root is analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, antirheumatic, diuretic, febrifuge, hypoglycaemic and hypotensive. The root is used internally in the treatment of arthritis, allergic inflammations, low-grade fever in chronic diseases, jaundice and hepatitis. The root is harvested in the autumn and dried for later use.
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