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Herbs & Plants

Panax japonicus

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Botanical Name : Panax japonicus
Family: Araliaceae
Subfamily: Aralioideae
Genus: Panax
Species: Panax japonicus

Synonyms : P. pseudoginseng japonicus (C.A.Mey.)Hoo.&Tseng. P. repens. Max.

Common Names: Japanese Ginseng

Habitat :Panax japonicus is native to E. Asia – China, Japan. It grows in forests, forests in valleys; 1200-3600 m. S Anhui, N Fujian, Gansu, Guangxi, Guizhou, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangxi, Shaanxi, Shanxi, Sichuan, Xizang, Yunnan, Zhejiang [Bhutan, N India, Japan, Korea, Myanmar, Nepal, NE Thailand, Vietnam].
Description:
Panax japonicus is a perennial herb growing to 0.6 m (2ft). Rootstock horizontal, flagellate or moniliform. Stem straight, glabrous. Leaves 3-5, verticillate at apex of stem, palmately compound; petiole base without stipule or stipulelike appendages; leaflets 5, obovate-elliptic to narrowly elliptic, 5-18 × 2-6.5 cm, membranous, both surfaces sparsely setose on veins, base broadly cuneate to subrounded, margin serrulate or biserrate, apex acuminate or long acuminate. Inflorescence a solitary, terminal umbel 50-80(or more)-flowered; peduncle 12-21 cm, glabrous or slightly pubescent; pedicels 7-12 mm. Filaments shorter than petals. Ovary 2-5-carpellate; styles 2-5, united to middle. Fruit red, subglobose, 5-7 mm in diam.; seeds 2-5, white, triangular-ovoid, 3-5 × 2-4 mm. Flower in. May-Jun and fruit in Jul-Sep….CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES

The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs)Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It can grow in full shade (deep woodland) or semi-shade (light woodland). It prefers moist soil.
Cultivation:
We have very little information on this species and do not know if it will be hardy in Britain, though judging by its native range it should succeed outdoors in much of the country. This species has 24 chromosomes which makes it quite distinct from P. ginseng which has 44 chromosomes. The following notes are based on the general needs of the genus. Requires a moist humus rich soil in a shady position in a woodland.

Propagation:
Seed – sow in a shady position in a cold frame preferably as soon as it is ripe, otherwise as soon as the seed is obtained. It can be very slow and erratic to germinate. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle and grow them on in a shady position in the greenhouse or frame for at least their first winter. Make sure the pots are deep enough to accommodate the roots. Plant out into their permanent positions in late summer. Division in spring.

Edible Uses:…. Tea……The roots are used as a flavouring in teas and liqueurs. Some caution is advised, see the notes below on toxicity.

Medicinal Uses:

Expectorant; Febrifuge; Stomachic; Tonic.

Expectorant, tonic. A decoction of the root is expectorant, febrifuge and stomachic.

Other Uses: …Soap…..The root contains up to 5% saponins and it might be possible to utilize them as a soap.

Known Hazards: The root contains up to 5% saponins. Saponins are found in many foods, such as some beans, and although they are fairly toxic to people they are poorly absorbed by the body and most pass straight through without any problem. Thorough cooking will also break them down. Saponins are much more toxic to some creatures, such as fish, and hunting tribes have traditionally put large quantities of them in streams, lakes etc in order to stupefy or kill the fish.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.
Resources:
https://species.wikimedia.org/wiki/Panax_japonicus
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Panax+japonicus
http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=2&taxon_id=200015247

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Herbs & Plants

Magnolia liliiflora

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Botanical Name : Magnolia liliiflora
Family: Magnoliaceae
Genus: Magnolia
Subgenus: M. subg. Yulania
Section: M. sect. Yulania subsect. Yulania
Species: M. liliiflora
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Magnoliales

Synonyms : M. obovata. non Thunb. M. purpurea. M. quinquepeta. (Buc-Holz.)Dandy. Lassonia quinquepeta.

Common Names : Mu-Lan, Woody Orchid, Lily Magnolia,Mulan magnolia, Purple magnolia, Red magnolia, Lily magnolia, Tulip magnolia, Jane magnolia and Woody-orchid

Habitat: Magnolia liliiflora is native to southwest China (in Sichuan and Yunnan), but cultivated for centuries elsewhere in China and also Japan. It grows in slopes and forests edges at elevations of 300 – 1600 metres in Fujian, Hubei, Sichuan and NW Yunnan Provinces.
Description:
Magnolia liliiflora is a deciduous shrub, exceptionally a small tree, to 4m tall (smaller than most other magnolias). Bloom Color: Pink, Purple. Main Bloom Time: Early summer, Early fall, Late summer, Mid summer, Mid fall. Form: Spreading or horizontal, Upright or erect. It blooms profusely in early spring with large showy flowers, before the leaf buds open.The seeds ripen from Sep to November. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Beetles…...CLICK  &  SEE THE  PICTURES

Cultivation:
Landscape Uses:Border, Specimen. Best grown in a warm position in a moderately rich free soil of an open texture. Prefers a neutral to acid soil but tolerates alkaline soils so long as they are deep and rich in humus. Plants cannot be grown on limy or chalky soils. The branches are brittle so a sheltered position is required. This species is said to be fairly wind tolerant. It is very tolerant of atmospheric pollution. Plants are hardy to about -20°c, but they require the protection of a wall when grown in northern Britain. The fleshy roots are easily damaged and any transplanting is best done during a spell of mild moist weather in late spring. The flowers, which start to be produced when the plant is less than a metre tall, are deliciously scented. The young wood is aromatic. Special Features:Attractive foliage, Extended bloom season in Zones 9A and above, Fragrant flowers, Blooms are very showy.

Propagation :
Seed – best sown as soon as it is ripe in a cold frame. Stored seed must be kept cold over the winter and should be sown in late winter in a cold frame[200]. The seed usually germinates in the spring but it can take 18 months. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle and grow them on in light shade in a cold frame or greenhouse for at least their first winter. They can be planted out into their permanent positions when they are more than 15cm tall, though should be well mulched and given some protection from winter cold for their first winter or two outdoors. Layering in early spring .

Medicinal Uses:
Analgesic; Anodyne; Carminative; Febrifuge; Sedative; Tonic.

The flowers and unopened flower buds are analgesic, anodyne, carminative, febrifuge, sedative and tonic. The main effect of this herb is to constrict blood vessels in the nasal passages and so it is taken internally in the treatment of sinusitis, allergic rhinitis and colds with a runny nose or catarrh. In excess it can cause dizziness. This herb is incompatible with Astragalus membranaceus. The flowers are harvested in the spring and can be used fresh or dried.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Magnolia_liliiflora
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Magnolia+liliiflora

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Herbs & Plants

Dumur (Ficus racemosa)

Botanical Name :Ficus racemosa
Family: Moraceae
Genus: Ficus
Species: F. racemosa
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Rosales

syn.: Ficus glomerata

Common Names:Cluster Fig Tree, Indian Fig Tree or Goolar (Gular) Fig]

Names in regional languages:-
Attikka in Sinhala
Atti in Kannada
Medi Pandu in Telugu
Malaiyin munivan in Tamil
Aththi in Tamil
Aththi in Malayalam.
Umbar)  or Oudumbar in Marathi.
Dumur in Bengali
Dumri in Nepal

Habitat :Ficus racemosa grows Moist areas, beside rivers and streams, occasionally in streams; 100-1700 m. S Guangxi, Guizhou, Yunnan  This tree is found in India, Indonesia, Myanmar, Nepal, New Guinea, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Vietnam; Australia.

Description:
Ficus racemosa Trees are  25-30 m tall, d.b.h. 60-90 cm; monoecious. Bark grayish brown, smooth. Branchlets, young leaf blades, and figs with bent hairs or densely covered with white soft pubescence. Branchlets brown. Stipules ovate-lanceolate, 1.5-2 cm, membranous, pubescent. Leaves alternate; petiole 2-3 cm; leaf blade elliptic-obovate, elliptic, or narrowly elliptic, 10-14 × 3-4.5(-7) cm, ± leathery, abaxially pale green, pubescent when young, glabrescent, and ± scabrous, adaxially dark green and glabrous, base cuneate to obtuse, margin entire, apex acuminate to obtuse; basal lateral veins 2, secondary veins 4-8 on each side of midvein. Figs in a tumorlike aggregate on short branchlets of old stem, occasionally axillary on leafy shoot or on older leafless branchlets, paired, reddish orange when mature, pear-shaped, 2-2.5 cm in diam., basally attenuated into a stalk, apical pore navel-like, flat; peduncle ca. 1 cm; involucral bracts triangular-ovate. Male, gall, and female flowers within same fig. Male flowers: near apical pore, sessile; calyx lobes 3 or 4; stamens 2. Gall and female flowers: pedicellate; calyx lobes linear, apex 3- or 4-toothed; style lateral; stigma clavate. Fl. May-Jul.

Click to saee the pictures. >..(01)......(1):….(2) :....(3)  : ...(4)  :

Edible Uses:
In India particularly in Bengal the fruits are eaten as vegitable.

Medicinal Uses:
Ficus racemosa Linn. (Moraceae) is a popular medicinal plant in India, which has long been used in Ayurveda, the ancient system of Indian medicine, for various diseases/disorders including diabetes, liver disorders, diarrhea, inflammatory conditions, hemorrhoids, respiratory, and urinary diseases. F. racemosa is pharmacologically studied for various activities including antidiabetic, antipyretic, anti-inflammatory, antitussive, hepatoprotective, and antimicrobial activities. A wide range of phytochemical constituents have been identified and isolated from various parts of F. racemosa. In this review, a comprehensive account of its traditional uses, phytochemical constituents, and pharmacological effects is presented in view of the many recent findings of importance on this plant.

The bark of Audumbar/Oudumbar tree is said to have healing power. In countries like India, the bark is rubbed on a stone with water to make a paste and the paste is applied over the skin which is afflicted by boils or mosquito bites. Allow the paste to dry on the skin and reapply after a few hours. For people whose skin is especially sensitive to insect bites; this is a very simple.

Other Uses:
In ancient times both Hindu and Buddhist ascetics on their way to Taxila, (Original name is Taksha Sila) travelling through vast areas of Indian forests used to consume the fruit during their travels. One challenge to vegetarians were the many fig wasps that one finds when opening a gular fig. One way to get rid of them was to break the figs into halves or quarters, discard most of the seeds and then place the figs into the midday sun for an hour. Gular fruit are almost never sold commercially because of this problem.Fruits are very good food to birds.

The Ovambo people call the fruit of the Cluster Fig eenghwiyu and use it to distill Ombike, their traditional liquor.

Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ficus_racemosa
http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=2&taxon_id=242322427
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20645741

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Callicarpa arborea Roxb

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Botanical Name : Callicarpa arborea Roxb.
Family : Verbenaceae
Common Names :Khoja, Bormala,Guren (Np), Maaraa (Rai), Bori (Tha.)

Habitat :Mixed forests on mountain slopes; 1000-2500 m. Guangxi, SE Xizang, S Yunnan [Bangladesh, Bhutan, Cambodia, India, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, Thailand, Vietnam].250-2000 m; Himalaya (Kumaun to Bhutan).

Description:
Trees ca. 8 m tall; branchlets, inflorescences, and petioles densely tomentose, hairs stellate or verticillately branched. Leaf blade elliptic, oblong-elliptic, or ovate, 13-37 X 7-13 cm, leathery, abaxially densely yellow-brown stellate tomentose, adaxially dark green and shiny, base cuneate to rounded, margin entire. Cymes 6-11 cm across; peduncle 4-angled, longer than petioles. Calyx cup-shaped, truncate or nearly so, outside densely gray stellate tomentose. Corolla purple, ca. 3 mm. Stamens much longer than corolla. Ovary densely stellate tomentose. Fruit purple-brown, ca. 2 mm in diam. Fl. May-Jul, fr. Aug-Dec.
Click to see the picture

Medicinal Uses:

Click to see :BIOLOGICALLY ACTIVE NATURAL PRODUCTS OF THE GENUS CALLICARPA

Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=2&taxon_id=200019235
http://vaniindia.org.whbus12.onlyfordemo.com/herbal/plantdir.asp
http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=110&taxon_id=200019235
http://www.crcnetbase.com/doi/abs/10.1201/9781420006803.ch37

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Rhododendron molle

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Botanical Name : Rhododendron molle
Family : Ericaceae
Genus :
Rhododendron
Synonyms: Azalea mollis – Blume.,Azalea sinensis – Lodd.,Rhododendron sinense – (Lodd.)Sw.
Common Name: Chinese Azalea ,

Habitat :   Rhododendron molle     is  native to  E. Asia – China.  Grows amongst coarse grasses and shrubs, also in thin pine woods.Woodland Garden; Dappled Shade; Shady Edge;

It grows in pinus forests, thickets on mountain slopes, exposed grassy hillsides, ridges; near sea level to 2500 m. Anhui, Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Sichuan, Yunnan, Zhejiang.

Description:

Rhododendron molle  is a  decidious  Shrubs, 0.5–2 m tall; branches densely gray-white-pubescent, also sparsely setose when young. Petiole 2–6 mm, puberulent and ± setose; leaf blade papery, oblong to oblong-lanceolate, 5–11 × 1.5–3.5 cm; base cuneate; margin ciliate; apex obtuse and mucronate; abaxial surface densely gray-white-pubescent, yellow-brown setose along midrib; adaxial surface sparsely to densely puberulent when young. Inflorescence terminal, racemose-umbellate: flowers opening before or with the leaves; many-flowered. Pedicel 1–2.5 cm, pubescent and sparsely setose; calyx lobes small, rounded, pubescent and setose-ciliate; corolla broadly funnelform, yellow or golden yellow, with dark red flecks on lobes, ca. 4.5 × 5–6 cm; tube cylindric, tapering towards base, ca. 26 mm wide, outer surface puberulent; lobes 5, elliptic or ovate-oblong, ca. 2.8 cm, puberulent on outer surface; stamens 5, unequal; filaments flat, puberulent below; ovary conical, ca. 4 mm, densely gray-white-pubescent, also sparsely setose; style to 6 cm, glabrous. Capsule conical-cylindric, 5-ribbed, 25–35 mm, puberulent and sparsely setose. Fl. Mar–May, fr. Jul–Aug.

CLICK TO SEE THE PICTURES..>………..(01)..……..(1)....(2).(3)…(4)..…...(5)...(6)..…..(7).

It is hardy to zone 7. It is in flower in May. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Insects.

The plant prefers light (sandy) and medium (loamy) soils and requires well-drained soil. The plant prefers acid soils and can grow in very acid soil. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland). It requires moist soil.


Cultivation :

Succeeds in a most humus-rich lime-free soils except those of a dry arid nature or those that are heavy or clayey. Prefers a peaty or well-drained sandy loam[1]. Succeeds in sun or shade, though it prefers a shady position. A pH between 4.5 and 5.5 is ideal[1]. Succeeds in a woodland though, because of its surface-rooting habit, it does not compete well with surface-rooting trees. Plants need to be kept well weeded, they dislike other plants growing over or into their root system, in particular they grow badly with ground cover plants, herbaceous plants and heathers. Plants form a root ball and are very tolerant of being transplanted, even when quite large, so long as the root ball is kept intact. A very ornamental plant, it is the parent of many cultivars. Plants in this genus are notably susceptible to honey fungus.

Propagation:

Seed – best sown in a greenhouse as soon as it is ripe in the autumn and given artificial light. Alternatively sow the seed in a lightly shaded part of the warm greenhouse in late winter or in a cold greenhouse in April. Surface-sow the seed and do not allow the compost to become dry. Pot up the seedlings when they are large enough to handle and grow on in a greenhouse for at least the first winter. Layering in late July. Takes 15 – 24 months. Cuttings of half-ripe wood, August in a frame. Difficult

Medicinal Actions & Uses
Anaesthetic; Analgesic; Sedative.

The flowers are analgesic, anaesthetic and sedative. They are applied externally in the treatment of arthritis, caries, itch, maggots and traumatic injuries.  The root is used in the treatment of arthritis, rheumatism and traumatic injuries.

Other Uses

Insecticide.

The powdered flowers have a mild insecticidal effect.

.

Cultivars
There are some named forms for this species, but these have been developed for their ornamental value and not for their other uses. Unless you particularly require the special characteristics of any of these cultivars, we would generally recommend that you grow the natural species for its useful properties. We have, therefore, not listed the cultivars in this database

Known Hazards: The plant is very toxic. The pollen of many if not all species of rhododendrons is also probably toxic, being said to cause intoxication when eaten in large quantities.

Disclaimer:The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://www.pfaf.org/database/plants.php?Rhododendron+molle
http://en.wikiversity.org/wiki/BCP/Rhododendron_molle
http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=2&taxon_id=200016492

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