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Suppliments our body needs

Kefir

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Alternative Names:keefir, kephir, kewra, talai, mudu kekiya, milkkefir, búlgaros

Definition:
Kefir is a fermented milk drink that originated in the Caucasus region. It is prepared by inoculating cow, goat, or sheep’s milk with kefir grains. Traditional kefir was made in skin bags that were hung near a doorway; the bag would be knocked by anyone passing through the doorway to help keep the milk and kefir grains well mixed.

....CLICK & SEE

Overview:
Kefir grains are a combination of bacteria and yeasts in a matrix of proteins, lipids, and sugars. This symbiotic matrix forms grains that resemble cauliflower. Today, kefir is becoming increasingly popular due to new research into its health benefits. Many different bacteria and yeasts are found in the kefir grains, which are a complex and highly variable community of micro-organisms.

Traditional kefir is fermented at ambient temperatures, generally overnight. Fermentation of the lactose yields a sour, carbonated, slightly alcoholic beverage, with a consistency similar to thin yogurt. Kefir fermented by small-scale dairies early in the 20th century achieved alcohol levels between 1% and 2%, but kefir made commercially with modern methods of production has less than 1% alcohol, possibly due to reduced fermentation time.

Variations that thrive in various other liquids exist. They may vary markedly from kefir in both appearance and microbial composition. Water kefir (or kefir d’acqua) is grown in water with sugar (sometimes with added dry fruit such as figs, and lemon juice) for a day or more at room temperature.

Making Kefir;
Production of traditional kefir requires kefir grains which are a gelatinous community of bacteria and yeasts. Kefir grains contain a water soluble polysaccharide known as kefiran that imparts a rope-like texture and feeling in one’s mouth. Kefir grains cannot be produced from scratch, but the grains grow during fermentation, and additional grains are produced. Kefir grains can be purchased or acquired from other hobbyists, see below. Kefir grains appear white to yellow and are usually the size of a walnut, but may be as small as a grain of rice.

Health and nutrition
One can change the nutrient content by simply fermenting for shorter or longer periods. Both stages have different healthful benefits. For instance, kefir over-ripened (increases sour taste) significantly increases folic acid content. Kefir also aids in lactose digestion as a catalyst, making it more suitable than other dairy products for those who are lactose intolerant. The kefiran in kefir has been shown to suppress an increase in blood pressure and reduce serum cholesterol levels in rats.

Drinking kefir
While some drink kefir straight, many find it too sour on its own and prefer to add fruits, honey, maple syrup or other flavors or sweeteners. Frozen bananas, strawberries, blueberries or other fruits can be mixed with kefir in a blender to make a smoothie. Vanilla, agave nectar and other flavorings may also be added. It is a breakfast, lunch and dinner drink popular across all areas of the former Soviet Union and Finland, where it it is known as an affordable health drink

Different milk types
Kefir grains will successfully ferment the milk from most mammals, and will continue to grow in such milk. Typical milks used include cow, goat, and sheep, each with varying organoleptic and nutritional qualities.

In addition, kefir grains will ferment milk substitutes such as soy milk, rice milk, and coconut milk, as well as other sugary liquids including fruit juice, coconut water, beer wort and ginger beer. However, the kefir grains may cease growing if the medium used does not contain all the growth factors required by the bacteria (which are all present in mammalian milk), so it is best to only use excess kefir grains for trying alternative fermentation media.

Milk sugar is, however, not essential for the synthesis of the polysaccharide that makes up the grains (kefiran), and scientific studies have demonstrated that rice hydrolysate is a suitable alternative medium. Additionally, it has been shown that kefir grains will reproduce when fermenting soy milk, although they will change in appearance and size due to the differing proteins available to them.

Culinary uses & benefits
Kefir is one of the main ingredients in Lithuanian cold beet soup (šaltibarš?iai, commonly known as cold borscht) and Russian summer soup (okroshka). Other variations of kefir soups and foods prepared with kefir are popular across the former Soviet Union.

Others enjoy kefir, in lieu of milk, on cereal or granola.

Kefir is a cultured, enzyme-rich food filled with friendly micro-organisms that help balance your “inner ecosystem.” More nutritious and therapeutic than yogurt, it supplies complete protein, essential minerals, and valuable B vitamins.

*Kefir is simple and inexpensive to make at home.

*Kefir is used to restore the inner eco-system after antibiotic therapy.

*Kefir can be made into a delicious smoothie that kids love.

*Kefir is excellent nourishment for pregnant and nursing women, the elderly, and those with compromised immunity.


What if I’m lactose intolerant, don’t do dairy or don’t digest milk products well – is kefir right for me?

The beneficial yeast and friendly bacteria in the kefir culture consume most of the lactose (or milk sugar). Eat kefir on an empty stomach first thing in the morning before (or for) breakfast and you’ll be delighted to find it can be easily digested — as numerous people who have been lactose intolerant for years have discovered.

You may click to see:->

Answers to Frequently Asked Questions about Kefir

Both kefir and yogurt are cultured milk products

The Body Ecology Diet and Kefir

Discover the Incredible Health-Promoting Benefits of Kefir
Kefir recipes

Resources:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kefir

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Suppliments our body needs

Probiotic

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Definition:
Probiotics are “live microorganisms, which, when administered in adequate amounts, confer a health benefit on the host.” (Microorganisms are tiny living organisms—such as bacteria, viruses, and yeasts—that can be seen only under a microscope.)

Probiotics are not the same thing as prebiotics—nondigestible food ingredients that selectively stimulate the growth and/or activity of beneficial microorganisms already in people’s colons. When probiotics and prebiotics are mixed together, they form a synbiotic.

Probiotics are available in foods and dietary supplements (for example, capsules, tablets, and powders) and in some other forms as well. Examples of foods containing probiotics are yogurt, fermented and unfermented milk, miso, tempeh, and some juices and soy beverages. In probiotic foods and supplements, the bacteria may have been present originally or added during preparation.

Most probiotics are bacteria similar to those naturally found in people’s guts, especially in those of breastfed infants (who have natural protection against many diseases). Most often, the bacteria come from two groups, Lactobacillus or Bifidobacterium. Within each group, there are different species (for example, Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium bifidus), and within each species, different strains (or varieties). A few common probiotics, such as Saccharomyces boulardii, are yeasts, which are different from bacteria.

Probiotic bacterial cultures are intended to assist the body’s naturally occurring gut flora, an ecology of microbes, to re-establish themselves. They are sometimes recommended by doctors, and, more frequently, by nutritionists, after a course of antibiotics, or as part of the treatment for gut related candidiasis. Claims are made that probiotics strengthen the immune system to combat allergies, excessive alcohol intake, stress, exposure to toxic substances, and other diseases. In these cases, the bacteria that work well with our bodies may decrease in number, an event which allows harmful competitors to thrive, to the detriment of our health.

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Maintenance of a healthy gut flora is, however, dependent on many factors, especially the quality of food intake. Including a significant proportion of prebiotic foods in the diet has been demonstrated to support a healthy gut flora and may be another means of achieving the desirable health benefits promised by probiotics.

Adverse Effects:-
There is no published evidence that probiotic supplements are able to completely replace the body’s natural flora when these have been killed off; indeed bacterial levels in faeces disappear within days when supplementation ceases. While the oral use of probiotics is considered safe and even recommended by World Health Organization under specific guidelines , in some specific situations (such as critically ill patients) they could be potentially harmful. In one therapeutic clinical trial, a probiotic cocktail have been shown to increase the death rates of patients with acute pancreatitis , but was given through tube feeding directly in the intestine instead of the usual oral way since oral re-feeding following acute pancreatitis increases morbidity and mortality. Some other therapeutic use of probiotics have been shown to be beneficial for other types of patients.

Potential benefits:-
Experiments into the benefits of probiotic therapies suggest a range of potentially beneficial medicinal uses for probiotics. For many of the potential benefits, research is limited and only preliminary results are available. It should be noted that the effects described are not general effects of probiotics. All effects can only be attributed to the strain(s) tested, not to the species, nor to the whole group of LAB (or other probiotics).

Managing Lactose Intolerance
As lactic acid bacteria actively convert lactose into lactic acid, ingestion of certain active strains may help lactose intolerant individuals tolerate more lactose than what they would have otherwise. In practice probiotics are not specifically targeted for this purpose, as most are relatively low in lactase activity as compared to the normal yogurt bacteria.

Prevention of Colon Cancer
In laboratory investigations, some strains of LAB have demonstrated anti-mutagenic effects thought to be due to their ability to bind with heterocyclic amines, which are carcinogenic substances formed in cooked meat. Animal studies have demonstrated that some LAB can protect against colon cancer in rodents, though human data is limited and conflicting. Most human trials have found that the strains tested may exert anti-carcinogenic effects by decreasing the activity of an enzyme called ?-glucuronidase (which can generate carcinogens in the digestive system). Lower rates of colon cancer among higher consumers of fermented dairy products have been observed in some population studies.

Cholesterol Lowering
Animal studies have demonstrated the efficacy of a range of LAB to be able to lower serum cholesterol levels, presumably by breaking down bile in the gut, thus inhibiting its reabsorption (which enters the blood as cholesterol). Some, but not all human trials have shown that dairy foods fermented with specific LAB can produce modest reductions in total and LDL cholesterol levels in those with normal levels to begin with, however trials in hyperlipidemic subjects are needed.

Lowering Blood Pressure
Several small clinical trials have shown that consumption of milk fermented with various strains of LAB can result in modest reductions in blood pressure. It is thought that this is due to the ACE inhibitor-like peptides produced during fermentation.

Improving Immune Function and Preventing Infections
LAB are thought to have several presumably beneficial effects on immune function. They may protect against pathogens by means of competitive inhibition (i.e., by competing for growth) and there is evidence to suggest that they may improve immune function by increasing the number of IgA-producing plasma cells, increasing or improving phagocytosis as well as increasing the proportion of T lymphocytes and Natural Killer cells. Clinical trials have demonstrated that probiotics may decrease the incidence of respiratory tract infections and dental caries in children. LAB foods and supplements have been shown to be effective in the treatment and prevention of acute diarrhea, and in decreasing the severity and duration of rotavirus infections in children and travelers’ diarrhea in adults.

Helicobacter pylori
LAB are also thought to aid in the treatment of Helicobacter pylori infections (which cause peptic ulcers) in adults when used in combination with standard medical treatments.

Antibiotic-associated diarrhea
A meta-analysis suggested probiotics may reduce antibiotic-associated diarrhea. A subsequent randomized controlled trial also found benefit in elderly patients.

Reducing Inflammation
LAB foods and supplements have been found to modulate inflammatory and hypersensitivity responses, an observation thought to be at least in part due to the regulation of cytokine function. Clinical studies suggest that they can prevent reoccurrences of inflammatory bowel disease in adults, as well as improve milk allergies and decrease the risk of atopic eczema in children.


Improving Mineral Absorption

It is hypothesized that probiotic lactobacilli may help correct malabsorption of trace minerals, found particularly in those with diets high in phytate content from whole grains, nuts, and legumes.[27]


Prevents Harmful Bacterial Growth Under Stress

In a study done to see the effects of stress on intestinal flora, rats that were fed probiotics had little occurrence of harmful bacteria latched onto their intestines compared to rats that were fed sterile water.

Irritable Bowel Syndrome and Colitis
B. infantis 35624, sold as Align, was found to improve some symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome in women in a recent study. Another probiotic bacterium, Lactobacillus plantarum 299V, was also found to be effective in reducing IBS symptoms. Additionally, a probiotic formulation, VSL3, was found to be effective in treating ulcerative colitis. Bifidobacterium animalis DN-173 010 may help.

Synbiotics:
It is also possible to increase and maintain a healthy bacterial gut flora by increasing the amounts of prebiotics in the diet such as inulin, raw oats, and unrefined wheat.

As probiotics are mainly active in the small intestine and prebiotics are only effective in the large intestine, the combination of the two may give a synergistic effect. Appropriate combinations of pre- and probiotics are synbiotics.

Synbiotics have also been defined as metabolites produced by ecoorgan or by synergistic action of prebiotics and probiotics e.g. short chain fatty acids, other fatty acids, amino acids, peptides, polyamines, carbohydrates, vitamins, numerous antioxidants and phytosterols, growth factors, coagulation factors, various signal molecules such as cytokine-like bacteriokines.

Foods that contain probiotic:
Probiotics are available in foods and dietary supplements (for example, capsules, tablets, and powders) and in some other forms as well. Examples of foods containing probiotics are yogurt, fermented and unfermented milk, miso, tempeh, and some juices and soy beverages. In probiotic foods and supplements, the bacteria may have been present originally or added during preparation.It is found plenty in garlic,honey, leeks,onions and whole grains.

The most common form for probiotics are dairy products and probiotic fortified foods. However, tablets, capsules, powders and sachets containing the bacteria in freeze dried form are also available.

TOP KILLERS OF PROBIOTICS:

*Overuse of prescription antibiotics
*Sugar
*GMO foods
*Inflammatory gluten
*Emotional stress
*Medications
*Alcohol (except for red wine)
*Lack of exercise
*Over-sanitation
*Smoking
*Poor sleep habits

Research:
Research about probiotics shows both benefits and harm.

A 2007 study at University College Cork in Ireland showed that a diet including milk fermented with Lactobacillus bacteria prevented Salmonella infection in pigs.

A 2007 clinical study at Imperial College London showed that preventive consumption of a commercially available probiotic drink containing L casei DN-114001, L bulgaricus, and S thermophilus can reduce the incidence of antibiotic-associated diarrhea and C difficile-associated diarrhea.

In a double-blind, placebo-controlled therapeutic study on the effects of a probiotic cocktail on pancreatitis at University Medical Center Utrecht (UMC), 24 out of 296 patients died between 2004 and 2007, with more deaths among those receiving the probiotic cocktail directly in the intestine. According to the spokesman of UMC, it is likely that some of these deaths would not have occurred without the probiotics, although other therapeutic trials conducted on probiotics were more positively conclusive
You may click to see:->Beneficial effects of probiotic strains

Probiotics and Colorectal Cancer

The Probiotics Revolution

Sources:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Probiotic
http://www.medicinenet.com/probiotics/article.htm

Categories
Ailmemts & Remedies

Rheumatic Diseases

It’s not widely known, but eye problems, visual impairment and even blindness are not uncommon features of many forms of arthritis and rheumatic disease. Dr Badal Pal and Dr Sathianathan Panthakalam, of Withington Hospital, Manchester, explain.

Common, inflammatory joint disease

The three main problems in rheumatoid arthritis are dry eyes, which affects one quarter of RA patients; keratitis (inflammation of the cornea); and scleritis (inflammation of the sclera, the white outer layer of the eyeball) of which RA is one of the most common causes. Patients may also develop secondary Sjögren’s Syndrome due to salivary gland abnormality which also causes a dry mouth. In scleritis, the sclera can become thin leading to perforation.

Juvenile chronic arthritis:-
Rare form of inflammatory arthritis affecting children from six months upwards

In most cases of JCA, the eyes are unaffected for up to three years, when complications may occur, so it is important for children at risk to have their eyes checked regularly. Up to 18 per cent of youngsters with JCA have a form of uveitis after having JCA for five years. Uveitis is inflammation of the uvea – a layer of tissues made up of the iris and choroid membrane and the middle of the three layers of the eyeball – which causes irritation, reddening of the eye, and blurred or loss of vision. It can be treated by steroid drops and immuno-suppresives. Children at the highest risk are those aged under nine, with a few affected joints. They need screening every three months at the age of two, then regularly until they reach ten. Youngsters with many affected joints, or with systemic onset disease, and all children over the age of nine, are considered low risk.

Systemic lupus erythematosus:-…………[amazon_link asins=’1497477026,0128019174′ template=’ProductCarousel’ store=’finmeacur-20′ marketplace=’US’ link_id=’adf4af8a-f278-11e6-8a3d-ff698e10f0bd’]
Autoimmune disease affecting many organs in the body

Eye damage in patients with lupus vary from minor problems to severe retinopathy (inflammation of the iris or choroid which can lead to visual impairment, even blindness). Five per cent of patients develop scleritis. Retinal vasculitis (inflammation of the arteries) can occur, and patients can develop cotton wool spots at the back of the eyeball, retinal bleeding and swelling of the optic disc. Double vision can also occur,

Systemic sclerosis (scleroderma):-………….[amazon_link asins=’0781737443,0683017403′ template=’ProductCarousel’ store=’finmeacur-20′ marketplace=’US’ link_id=’aa8116ad-f279-11e6-9c2a-057285caa235′]
Rare, serious condition affecting the skin, joints and internal organs

The most common complaint is dryness in the eyes. A minority of patients develop retinopathy with cotton wool spots at the back of the eyeball, retinal haemorrhages and blockage of retinal arteries.

Polymyositis and dermatomyositis:-……………[amazon_link asins=’B01DRY76CA,B00LZXN5R6′ template=’ProductCarousel’ store=’finmeacur-20′ marketplace=’US’ link_id=’fcfef2aa-f279-11e6-855e-f9243fa97110′]
Similar automimmune diseases causing inflammation of the muscles. Dermatomyositis also affects the skin

The typical lilac discolouration (heliotropic) rashes on the eyelids are seen in 40 per cent of patients. Ocular myopathy (muscle wasting) can occur in a small proportion of patients, leading to double vision, and a few people develop retinopathy.

Seronegative arthropathies:-………….

A group of non-rheumatoid inflammatory diseases

Acute uveitis is the most important disease in this group of patients:

Ankylosing spondylitis:-………………..[amazon_link asins=’1502403757,B01LY0BST5′ template=’ProductCarousel’ store=’finmeacur-20′ marketplace=’US’ link_id=’6e0ee2ad-f27a-11e6-867f-ad7e00152c80′]
Rheumatic disease affecting the spine, resulting in stiffness in the back

Uveitis occurs in 20 per cent of patients. Only one eye is usually affected at one time, but both eyes may become affected during the course of the disease.

Reiter’s Syndrome:-…………………….
Also known as reactive arthritis; affects tendons and tissues as well as joints

Conjunctivitis is the most common symptom, seen in 30–60 per cent of patients. Uveitis is less frequent in early disease, but can occur in up to 40 per cent of patients.

Psoriatic spondyloarthropathies:-……………[amazon_link asins=’B002UUTGI0′ template=’ProductCarousel’ store=’finmeacur-20′ marketplace=’US’ link_id=’f91148a4-f27a-11e6-8dd9-ff5db91cb907′]
A form of inflammatory arthritis, similar to RA

Uveitis occurs in up to 15 per cent of patients, and is frequently accompanied by conjunctivitis, dry eyes or keratitis. It can be chronic or acute.

Arthritis associated with inflammatory bowel disease
Arthritis occurs in association with Crohn’s disease, ulcerative colitis and Whipple’s disease.

Uveitis is seen in 10 per cent of these patients. Crohn’s disease seems to be frequently associated with uveitis (less often with ulcerative colitis).

Other eye lesions seen occasionally in this group of patients are episcleritis – inflammation of the superficial vessels of the sclera – or peripheral corneal ulceration. The likelihood of eye lesions increase in those with arthritis, spondylitis and skin symptoms.

Beh§et’s disease:-…………….[amazon_link asins=’0128032677′ template=’ProductCarousel’ store=’finmeacur-20′ marketplace=’US’ link_id=’756e981c-f27b-11e6-9c0a-77a6bebd8a59′]

A rare disorder of oral and genital ulcers, inflammatory eye disease and skin lesions

Eye involvement is the most serious symptom in Beh§et’s patients. It occurs in 70 per cent of patients, and 25 per cent will go blind. Those most at risk are men, particularly those who developed the condition at a young age. Women are less severely affected. Patients develop eye disease within two to three years of developing the condition. Anterior uveitis is fairly easy to treat, but postererior uveitis and retinal vasculitis are more serious. After four years of eye disease, up to 85 per cent of patients have some form of visual impairment.

Wegener’s granulomatosis:-
A form of vasculitis

Eye problems develop in about 50 per cent of patients. The eye socket is infiltrated with granulomatous tissue; the eyes become prominent, and become reddened because of scleritis. Patients sometimes have visual impairment because of the compression of the optic nerve by granulomatous tissue.

Sarcoidosis:-…………………[amazon_link asins=’1478719990,0595321143′ template=’ProductCarousel’ store=’finmeacur-20′ marketplace=’US’ link_id=’97d2c330-f27b-11e6-bc19-0d9411a69a1c’]
Rare skin condition also affecting the lungs, eyes and the musculoskeletal system

Between 30 and 40 per cent of patients will develop eye problems. The most common problem is acute or chronic relapsing uveitis leading to dry eyes. Five per cent of patients develop optic nerve neuropathy (a disease of the peripheral nerves causing weakness or numbness) with a significant loss of sight.

Giant cell arteritis:-
Inflammation of blood vessels commonly in the head

Giant cell arteritis is an emergency condition, and an important cause of preventable blindness in old people. Twenty five per cent of patients develop eye disease and suddenly lose the sight in one eye. Blindness is usually due to loss of blood supply, and subsequent damage to the optic nerve. Treatment is immediate, high dose steroids, to prevent blindness in the other eye, as recovery is unusual.

Ocular side effects of anti-rheumatic therapy:-
Most of these drugs cause no significant side effects, but cortisteroids and antimalarial drugs can have toxic effects.

Antimalarial drugs, hydroxychoroquine and chloroquine, which are used in RA, lupus and other related disorders, can lead to irreversible retinal damage and corneal opacity. Patients on these drugs have their eyes examined once a year.

Corticosteroids can lead to corneal and scleral thinning, and cataracts are common after higher doses of steroids. Raised intra ocular pressure is another common side e

*Sclera…. white outer layer of the eye Retina inner most light-sensitive layer of the eye

*Conjunctiva…. transparent membrane on the front part of the sciera iris pigmented tissue surrounding the pupil – in front of the lens – allowing light to enter the eye.

*Cornia……... front part of the eye overlying the pupil, iris and lens. it is part of the sclera

*Choroid….… middle layer of the eye, alsocalled the uvea. it contains blood vessels and a pigment that absorbs excess light – this prevents blurring

*Optic nerve…… main nerve travelling from the back of the eye carrying signals to the brain for the eye to see

*Vitreous body.jelly-like substance separating the front part of the eye and the back part where the retina and optic nerve are located.

Click to see also:->
Inflammatory conditions of the eye associated with rheumatic diseases.

EYE INVOLVEMENT IN THE SPONDYLOARTHROPATHIES

Ophthalmologic manifestations of rheumatic diseases

Sources:

http://www.arc.org.uk/news/arthritistoday/106_2.asp

Categories
Ailmemts & Remedies Pediatric

Baby Colic

Definition:Colic is a form of pain which starts and stops abruptly.

Spasmodic pain in the adomen in infants,accompained by irritability or crying. Colic also refers to condition of gas or the digestive irritability in infants up to three months old. It is often due to alkaline, high-sodium internal conditions, but can also be caused by overfeedin, awallowing of air, or emotional upset.
Infant colic (also known as baby colic and three month colic) is a condition in which an otherwise healthy baby cries or screams frequently and for extended periods, without any discernible reason……………….CLICK & SEE

The condition typically appears within the first two weeks of life and almost invariably disappears, often very suddenly, before the baby is three to four months old . It is more common in bottle-fed babies, but also occurs in breast-fed infants. The crying frequently occurs during a specific period of the day, often in the early evening.

Since the cause is not conclusively established and the amount of crying differs between babies, there is no general consensus on the definition of “colic”. Having ruled out other causes of crying, a common rule of thumb is to consider a baby “colicky” if it cries intensely more than three days a week, for more than three hours, for more than three weeks in a month.

From the age of about 3 weeks, many babies start to cry vigorously at approximately the same time each day, usually in the evening. This crying sounds different from crying at other times, and the baby may also draw up his or her legs. During these episodes, the baby will usually not respond to any form of comfort, such as feeding or holding, for more than a few minutes. the baby may continue crying for up to 3 hours.

Although the may appear to be in pain, colic is not due to an illness, and the crying does not cause permanent harm. However, parents may find the condition distressing. Episodes of crying that do not have this pattern are not called colic. The cause of colic is unknown, and it is thought to be due to abdominal pain or gas. however, crying may be worsened by tiredness, an unsettled environment, or a baby’s temperament.

Causes

There is no commonly accepted explanation for colic. Traditionally, colic was ascribed to abdominal pain resulting from trapped gas in the digestive tract. This theory is not yet discredited, and some recent scientific evidence seems to support it, yet it is no longer universally accepted as the general cause.

There is solid and mounting evidence that the causes are related to gut flora, from multiple studies which have shown that colicky babies have different gut flora patterns, which includes a lack of Lactobacillus acidophilus. Some of these studies suggest the administering of a probiotic, such as Lactobacillus acidophilus, will improve the condition. Probiotics have been shown to improve other conditions associated with colic, such as lactose intolerance, necrotizing enterocolitis, and gastric inflammation. In addition to that probiotics have been shown to generally improve the health of children who take them.

Some doctors claim that it is a combination of a baby’s sensitive temperament, the environment, and its immature nervous system which makes him/her cry easily and without control. Others believe that it originates in problems in the baby’s digestive system, specifically because of the buildup of gas which cannot be released. New studies at the Colic Clinic at Brown University demonstrate that nearly half of babies with colic have mild gastroesophageal reflux. Some cases may be the result of lactose intolerance.

Recent research raises a number of hypotheses including the onset of melatonin production by the pineal gland (which does not begin until 12 weeks of age, about the time colic seems to disappear), circadian rhythms,and smoking and stress of the mother in the third trimester.

Because of the links between prenatal stress, birth trauma, maternal stress etc, and colic, it has also been suggested that some ‘colic’, or excessive crying may actually be a healthy stress release requiring support and facilitation rather than suppression or ‘cure’.

Treatment
There is currently no generally-accepted medical treatment for colic, and the approach taken by medical professionals varies substantially from country to country and indeed from doctor to doctor. Many believe that the condition is currently untreatable, and is best left to run its course. Other doctors prescribe simethicone, which treats trapped gas; some parents report that this is effective, but for many others it is not, and research suggests that it is not useful.

One study showed a moderate success when infants with colic were treated with dicyclomine, an anti-spasmotic drug commonly found in some anti-diarrheal medications.

Other studies have found success with probiotics such as Lactobacillus reuteri, which were intended to reduce gas.

Gripe water is believed by some to relieve the symptoms associated with baby colic, teething and baby’s gas.

In addition to herbal teas it is believed that the organoleptic effects of certain herbs can help calm and relieve colic symptoms.

Scientists warn that further studies are necessary before any specific cure should be recommended.

There is general agreement that soothing measures, such as pacifiers, listening to white noise and rocking, are often effective in calming the baby during crying periods. Also known as the “cuddle cure”, the five S’s are known as Swaddling, placing the baby on their Side or Stomach, Swinging the baby, making a Shhh sound in the baby’s ear, and giving the baby something to Suck on. Some parents take turns holding the baby upright (which may reduce the pain and crying) to enable the other parent to catch up on sleep. Babies with lactose intolerance or reflux cry harder and longer when left to lie on their backs, but parents are not advised to put the baby to sleep on their front as it is considered a risk factor for Sudden Infant Death Syndrome.

Various tactics, such as changes in diet or routine, an increase in fresh air or certain herbal teas, are popularly believed to cure colic. There is also the theory that rubbing warm olive oil on the hands and feet, then rubbing the stomach with olive oil in a clockwise motion will cure colic. While some of these may help in certain cases, none of them is known to be universally effective. The widespread belief in them may be partly due to the suddenness with which colic naturally resolves itself. Many parents keep trying different approaches until the colic suddenly stops, at which point they presume that the last thing they tried was the cure.

Some breastfed babies have problems digesting milk proteins, or have a milk protein sensitivity(milk allergy) due to the mother’s diet. The proteins from cow’s milk are able to pass through the mother’s milk to the baby. Because baby’s intestines are still developing this sensitivity causes gas that is extremely painful. It can also cause the excessive spitting up and reflux. It can be helped with reflux medication, but not cured. The only cure is to have the mother completely avoid all milk products, even foods with traces of milk. Although this has been documented, it is still under debate. This is because La Leche League experts agree that there is already enough stress on a new breastfeeding relationship without having to deal with radical diet changes as well, and blaming the mother’s milk for baby’s malady puts pressure on mother to wean unnecessarily. Formula may actually be more harmful than helpful in this situation, and will not cure the colic.

In cases where ‘colic’ or excessive crying is possibly the infants innate healing mechanism helping them to recover from birth trauma or other past or current stress, appropriate holding and facilitation techniques may be able to increase the effectiveness of the release process and reduce the overall amount of crying time needed. In any case parents may benefit from learning these techniques, as this can help them to cope better psychologically with their child’s distress, and to feel more empowered in the midst of an extremely trying situation.

Click to learn Ten Effective and Comprehensive Tips to Help Your Colicky Baby

Natural Herbal Remedy for Colic
Childhood Colic – American Institute for Preventive Medicine

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What might be done?
You should try to arrange your day so you can comfort your baby when he or she is crying. If you have problems coping and require advice and support, consult your baby’s doctor. You should also consult the doctor if your baby develops additional symptoms, such as fever, which may indicate an underlying infection. the doctor will examine your baby and exclude other causes of the crying. Occasionally, he or she may suggest that you try giving your baby an over-the-counter remedy to relieve the colic. however, the treatment is only helpful in some cases. Colic disappears suddenly, on its own, usually when a baby reaches about 3 months of age.

Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.This is purely for educational purpose.

Resources:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Baby_colic
http://www.charak.com/DiseasePage.asp?thx=1&id=321

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Collagenous Colitis and Lymphocytic Colitis

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What are collagenous colitis and lymphocytic colitis?

Inflammatory bowel disease is the general name for diseases that cause inflammation in the intestines, most often referring to Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis. Collagenous colitis and lymphocytic colitis are two other types of bowel inflammation that affect the colon. The colon is a tube-shaped organ that runs from the first part of the large bowel to the rectum. Solid waste, or stool, moves through the colon to be eliminated. Collagenous colitis and lymphocytic colitis are not related to Crohn’s disease or ulcerative colitis, which are more severe forms of inflammatory bowel disease....CLICK & SEE 

Collagenous colitis and lymphocytic colitis are also called microscopic colitis. Microscopic colitis means there is no sign of inflammation on the surface of the colon when viewed with a colonoscopy or flexible sigmoidoscopy two tests that let a doctor look inside your large intestine. Because the inflammation isn’t visible, a biopsy is necessary to make a diagnosis. A doctor performs a biopsy by removing a small piece of tissue from the lining of the intestine during a colonoscopy or flexible sigmoidoscopy.

What are the symptoms?

The symptoms of collagenous colitis and lymphocytic colitis are the same—chronic, watery, non-bloody diarrhea. Abdominal pain or cramps may also be present. People with collagenous colitis and lymphocytic colitis may suffer from ongoing diarrhea while others have times when they are symptom free.

What causes collagenous colitis and lymphocytic colitis?

Scientists are not sure what causes collagenous colitis or lymphocytic colitis. Bacteria and their toxins, or a virus, may be responsible for causing inflammation and damage to the colon. Some scientists think that collagenous colitis and lymphocytic colitis may result from an autoimmune response, which means that the body’s immune system destroys healthy cells for no known reason.

Who gets collagenous colitis and lymphocytic colitis?

Collagenous colitis is most often diagnosed in people between 60 and 80 years of age. However, some cases have been reported in adults younger than 45 years and in children. Collagenous colitis is diagnosed more often in women than men.

People with lymphocytic colitis are also generally diagnosed between 60 and 80 years of age. Both men and women are equally affected.

How are they diagnosed?

Some scientists think that collagenous colitis and lymphocytic colitis are the same disease in different stages. The only way to determine which form of colitis a person has is by performing a biopsy.

A diagnosis of collagenous colitis or lymphocytic colitis is made after tissue samples taken during a colonoscopy or flexible sigmoidoscopy are examined with a microscope.

Collagenous colitis is characterized by a larger-than-normal band of protein called collagen inside the lining of the colon. The thickness of the band varies; so several tissue samples from different areas of the colon may need to be examined.

With lymphocytic colitis, tissue samples show an increase of white blood cells, known as lymphocytes, between the cells that line the colon. The collagen is not affected.

Treatment

Treatment for collagenous colitis and lymphocytic colitis varies depending on the symptoms and severity of the case. The diseases have been known to resolve on their own, although most people suffer from ongoing or occasional diarrhea.

Lifestyle changes are usually tried first. Recommended changes include reducing the amount of fat in the diet, eliminating foods that contain caffeine and lactose, and avoiding over-the-counter pain relievers such as ibuprofen or aspirin.

If lifestyle changes alone are not enough, medications can be used to help control symptoms.

  • Treatment usually starts with prescription anti-inflammatory medications, such as mesalamine (Rowasa or Canasa) and sulfasalazine (Azulfidine), in order to reduce swelling.
  • Steroids, including budesonide (Entocort) and prednisone are also used to reduce inflammation. Steroids are usually only used to control a sudden attack of diarrhea. Long-term use of steroids is avoided because of side effects such as bone loss and high blood pressure.
  • Anti-diarrheal medications such as bismuth subsalicylate (Pepto Bismol), diphenoxylate atropine (Lomotil), and loperamide (Imodium) offer short-term relief.
  • Immunosuppressive agents such as azathioprine (Imuran) reduce the inflammation but are rarely needed.

For extreme cases of collagenous colitis and lymphocytic colitis that have not responded to medication, surgery to remove all or part of the colon may be necessary. However, surgery is rarely recommended. Collagenous colitis and lymphocytic colitis do not increase a person’s risk of getting colon cancer.

Collagenous colitis and lymphocytic colitis do not increase a person’s risk of getting colon cancer.

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For More Information

Crohn’s & Colitis Foundation of America Inc.
386 Park Avenue South, 17th floor
New York, NY 10016–8804
Phone: 1–800–932–2423 or 212–685–3440
Fax: 212–779–4098
Email: info@ccfa.org
Internet: www.ccfa.org

Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.This is purely for educational purpose

Source:http://digestive.niddk.nih.gov/ddiseases/pubs/collagenouscolitis/index.htm