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Herbs & Plants

Camel Thorn(Alhagi maurorum)

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Botanical Name :Alhagi maurorum
Family: Fabaceae/Leguminosae
Subfamily: Faboideae
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Order: Fabales
Genus: Alhagi
Species: A. maurorum
SynonymsAlhagi camelorum – Fisch.,Alhagi persarum – Boiss.&Buhse., Alhagi pseudalhagi – (M.Bieb.)Desv. ex B.Keller.&Shap., Hedysarum pseudalhagi – M.Bieb.
Common Name : Camelthorn. Manna tree,

Habitat: This shrub is native to the region extending from the Mediterranean to Russia but has been introduced to many other areas of the world, including Australia, southern Africa, and the western United States.   Edges of ditches, waste and often saline places etc in Turkey. Grows in dry barren places.

Description:
The decidious perennial plant grows from a massive rhizome system which may extend over six feet deep into the ground. New shoots can appear over 20 feet from the parent plant. Above the ground the plant rarely reaches four feet in height. It is a heavily-branched gray-green thicket with long spines along the branches. It bears small bright pink to maroon pea flowers and small legume pods which are brown or reddish and constricted between the seeds. The seeds are mottled brown beans.
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The plant, which is grayish green and hairless, has simple, entire leaves that are alternately arranged. The leaf shape is oval to lance-shaped. The small (3/8 inch), pea-like flowers are pinkish purple to maroon and are borne on short, spine-tipped branches that arise from the leaf axils. The reddish-brown to tan fruits are constricted between the seeds, with a short narrow beak at the end.

Camelthorn is a noxious weed in its non-native range. It is a contaminant of alfalfa seed and grows readily when accidentally introduced to a cultivated field. It has a wide tolerance of soils, thriving on saline, sandy, rocky, and dry soils. It does best when growing next to a source of water, such as an irrigation ditch. It is unpalatable to animals and irritating when it invades forage and grazing land.

It is hardy to zone 0. It is in flower in July. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs)It can fix Nitrogen.
The plant prefers light (sandy) and medium (loamy) soils and requires well-drained soil. The plant prefers acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils and can grow in saline soil. It cannot grow in the shade. It requires dry or moist soil.

Cultivation :
Requires a sunny position in a well-drained light or medium soil. Plants are not very hardy in Britain, they can be grown outdoors in the summer but require protection in the winter. The stems of the plant are covered in sharp spines. Like the closely related gorse (Ulex europaea) the flowers have a pineapple scent. (A slightly strange report because the gorse flowers have a strong coconut fragrance.) This species has a symbiotic relationship with certain soil bacteria, these bacteria form nodules on the roots and fix atmospheric nitrogen. Some of this nitrogen is utilized by the growing plant but some can also be used by other plants growing nearby.

Propagation
:-
Seed – pre-soak the seed for 12 hours in warm water and sow March/April in a warm greenhouse. When large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on in a greenhouse for at least the first winter. Plant out into their permanent positions in the summer. Cuttings of young shoots in a frame.

Edible Uses:-
Edible Parts: Manna.

A sweet-tasting manna is exuded from the twigs at flowering time. It is exuded during hot weather according to one report. It contains about 47% melizitose, 26% sucrose, 12% invert sugar. Another manna is obtained from the pods – it is sweet and laxative. Root – cooked. A famine food, it is only used in times of need .

Medicinal Actions &  Uses
:-
Diaphoretic; Diuretic; Expectorant; Laxative.

The whole plant is diaphoretic, diuretic, expectorant and laxative. An oil from the leaves is used in the treatment of rheumatism. The flowers are used in the treatment of piles.


Scented Plants

Flowers: Fresh
The flowers have a pineapple scent.

Resources:
http://www.pfaf.org/database/plants.php?Alhagi+maurorum
http://www.wildflowers.co.il/english/plant.asp?ID=183
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alhagi_maurorum

http://www.texasinvasives.org/invasives_database/detail.php?symbol=ALMA12

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Categories
Dry Fruit Herbs & Plants

Haritaki(Chebulic myroblan)

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Botanical Name: Terminalia Chabula
Family: Combretaceae
Genus: Terminalia
Species: T. chebula
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Myrtales

Common Names: Hadrida,Harar,Chebulic myroblan,Black myroblan,Harada, Yellow- or chebulic myrobalan

Habitat : Terminalia Chabula is native to South Asia from India and Nepal east to Southwest China (Yunnan), and south to Sri Lanka, Malaysia and Vietnam. There appears to be no common name in English but harad which seems to be a variant of the Hindi name haritaki has been used in publications. It is found in the deciduous forests of Indian subcontinent, dry slopes up to 900 m (3000 ft) in elevation

Description:
Terminalia chebula is a medium to large deciduous tree growing to 30-metre (98 ft) tall, with a trunk up to 1-metre (3 ft 3 in) in diameter. The leaves are alternate to subopposite in arrangement, oval, 7–8-centimetre (2.8–3.1 in) long and 4.5–10-centimetre (1.8–3.9 in) broad with a 1–3-centimetre (0.39–1.18 in) petiole. They have an acute tip, cordate at the base, margins entire, glabrous above with a yellowish pubescence below.[citation needed. The fruit is drupe-like, 2–4.5-centimetre (0.79–1.77 in) long and 1.2–2.5-centimetre (0.47–0.98 in) broad, blackish, with five longitudinal ridges. The dull white to yellow flowers are monoecious, and have strong unpleasant odour. They are borne in terminal spikes or short panicles. The fruits are smooth ellipsoid to ovoid drupes, yellow to orange brown in colour, single angled stone.

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Terminalia Chebula is a tree with a rounded crown and spreading branches. Its principal constituents are chebulagic, chebulinic acid and corilagin. Its fruits have laxative, stomachic, tonic and alterative properties.

Terminalia chebula is called the “king of medicines” and always listed first in Ayurveda because of its extraordinary healing power. In Ayurveda it is known to prevent and cure of many diseases and eliminate all waste from the body.At the same time it is known to promote tissue growth and health.

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Haritaki (Terminalia chebula) is a common herbaceous plant, which is very extensively used in the preparation of many ayurvedic medicines.Terminalia chebula is a tree with a rounded crown and spreading branches. Its principal constituents are chebulagic, chebulinic acid and corilagin. Its fruits have laxative, stomachic, tonic and alternative properties and helps in removing toxins and fats from the body, resulting in their reduced absorption.It is also known as an adaptogen, and hepatoprotective drug.
Historical Ayurvedic uses suggest to be used in cough conditions, asthma, abdominal distention, tumors, heart disease, skin disease, and itchin.

Cultivation & Uses:
This tree yields smallish, ribbed and nut-like fruits which are picked when still green and then pickled, boiled with a little added sugar in their own syrup or used in preserves. The seed of the fruit, which has an elliptical shape, is an abrasive seed enveloped by a fleshy and firm pulp. It is regarded as a universal panacea in Ayurveda and in the Traditional Tibetan medicine.

Fruit; seven types are recognized (i.e. vijaya, rohini, putana, amrita, abhaya, jivanti and chetaki), based on the region the fruit is harvested, as well as the colour and shape of the fruit. Generally speaking, the vijaya variety is preferred, which is traditionally grown in the Vindhya Range of west-central India, and has a roundish as opposed to a more angular shape.

Chemical composition:

Researchers have isolated a number of glycosides from Haritaki, including the triterpenes arjunglucoside I, arjungenin, and the chebulosides I and II. Other constituents include a coumarin conjugated with gallic acids called chebulin, as well as other phenolic compounds including ellagic acid, 2,4-chebulyl-?-D-glucopyranose, chebulinic acid, gallic acid, ethyl gallate,punicalagin, terflavin A, terchebin, luteolin, and tannic acid.[6][5] Chebulic acid is a phenolic acid compound isolated from the ripe fruits.   Luteic acid can be isolated from the bark.

T. chebula also contains terflavin B, a type of tannin while chebulinic acid is found in the fruits

Medical Uses:

It is useful in asthma, sore throat, vomiting, eye diseases, heart diseases, hiccup etc. It is also useful in healing of wounds and scalds. It is used as gargle against inflammation of mucous membrane of mouth. It is also used in tanning of leather and purification of petroleum.

Many ayurvedic medicinal formulations are prepared from the fruits of the Haritaki plant. The extract obtained from Haritaki fruit contains a substance which has antibacterial and anti fungal properties. This substance inhibits the growth of bacteria and fungi such as E. coli. Escherichia coli is the most common organism, which is responsible for many types of infections such as infections of the urinary tract. Haritaki extract is very useful in the treatment of infections caused by E.coli. Haritaki is also believed to have powerful effect on parasites such as Amoeba giardia and many others.

The extract for the Haritaki plant is used widely in many ayurvedic formulations. It is used in the preparation of medicines for the treatment of infectious diseases like leucorrhoea, chronic ulcers, pyorrhea and other types of fungal infections of the skin. Many research studies indicated that the oil obtained from the kernel of the Haritaki plant had certain substances, which increased the motility of the gastro intestinal tract. This type of action was similar to that of castor oil. Haritaki is used as a natural cleanser of the digestive system. It improves the functioning of the liver spleen and the colon and hence it is widely used as a digestive tonic.

Many clinical trials were undertaken on patients with chronic constipation problem. From these studies it was evident that the extract obtained from Haritaki has the property of evacuating the bowel and increasing the frequency of stools. Haritaki is also used in combination with other herbs to prepare a formulation called Triphala. This medicine is widely used as Anti aging formula. It is also used for increasing the immunity of the body.

Haritaki is also used as a purgative in ayurvedic treatments. It is also used as a tonic and expectorant. Haritaki is also known to pocess strong anti-mutagenic properties. Haritaki is used in the treatment of mouth ulcers, stomatitis, asthma, cough, candidiasis, gastroenteritis, skin diseases, leprosy ect. It is also used for treatment of intermittent fever, rheumatic pain and fever, wounds and arthritis. Haritaki is one of the best herbs for treatment of Vatadosha. It is used as a natural remedy for Vata disturbances like flatulence, indigestion ect. Haritaki is contradicted in person with weak digestion and also in pregnancy. Haritaki is also believed to improve intelligence and alertness in a person.

Like Chinese rhubarb, chebulic myrobalan may be used as a treatment for diarrhea and dysentery. The fruit’s tannins protect the gut wall from irritation and infection, and tend to reduce intestinal secretions.  Likewise, the fruit helps to counter acidic indigestion and heartburn.  A decoction of chebulic myrobalan may be used as a gargle and mouthwash, as a lotion for sore and inflamed eyes, and as a douche for vaginitis and excessive vaginal discharge.  The dried fruits and seeds are prescribed in Ayurvedic medicine for such illnesses as dermatosis, edema, and urinary infections.  It is also considered an excellent blood purifier.  Finely powdered, it is used as a dentifrice, and for bleeding or ulcerated gums. Coarsely powdered and smoked in a pipe, it is used to relieve asthma.  TCM: Indications: Chronic diarrhea and dysentery; prolapse of rectum; asthma and coughs due to empty lungs; leukorrhea; menorrhagia

Variour uses in Ayurveda:
Terminalia Chebula & The Three Humors:
Haritaki is useful in vitiation of all the three humors. It is better esp. in Vata disorders.

Topical Use Of Terminalia Chebula:
Its paste with water is found to be anti-inflammatory, analgesic and having purifiying and healing capacity for wounds. Its decoction as a lotion is surgical dressing for healing the wound earlier.

Equal parts of three myrobalans and catechu are made in a paste with clarified butter or some bland oil work as an ointment in chronic ulcerations, ulcerated wounds and other skin diseases with discharge. These ointments could be a substitute for Gall ointments used in Britain.

These are used for astringent purpose in hemorrhoids as well. Its decoction is used as gargle in oral ulcers, sore throat. Its powder is a good astringent dentrifice in loose gums, bleeding and ulceration in gums.

Terminalia Chebula & Abdominal Disorders:
It is good to increase the appetite, as digestive aid, Liver stimulant, as stomachic, as gastrointestinal prokinetic agent, and mild laxative.

Haritaki has proven gastrokinetic effect i.e. it helps in moving the contents of stomach earlier. So it can be used after surgeries and as adjuvant with other drugs that interfere with gastric motility as antihistaminics, atropine like drugs.

Base on its comprehensive properties, it promotes appetite and helps in digestion.

It stimulates the liver and protects it further by expelling the waste excretory products from the intestines.

The powder of Haritaki has been used in chronic diarrhea, sprue with good results. It should be used as hot infusion in these disorders. It is indicated in Protracted diarrhea with hematochezia and prolapse of rectum.

For persons with excessive gas in intestine, flatulence, it is a good herb that can be taken daily. it will relieve these conditions smoothly.

One compound Chebulagic acid from Haritaki has shown antispasmodic action like that of Papaverine.

Being a mild laxative, it is a mild herbal colon cleanse. With its other properties, it provides some help in conditions with Liver and Spleen enlargement and in Ascites. It is not a strong purgative like other herbs as Senna. It does the cleansing action very smoothly. Further it can be taken for a long time without any ill effects.

In Ayurveda haritaki is the best for ‘Srotoshodhana’ or purifying the channels of body.

Terminalia Chebula & Central Nervous System:
It is a good nervine. It is used in nervous weakness, nervous irritability. It promotes the receiving power of the five senses.

Terminalia Chebula For Heart & Blood Vessels:
It is adjuvant in hemorrhages due to its astringent nature. It helps in edema and various inflammations.

Terminalia Chebula For Lungs & Airways:

It is good for Chronic cough, coryza, sorethroat and asthma. It is used with other herbs in many holistic herbal formulations in Ayurveda.

Haritaki For Reproductive Or Sexual Health:
Being anti-inflammatory, and astringent, it is useful in urethral discharges like spermatorrhea, vaginal discharges like leucorrhea. It can be given as adjuvant in atonic conditions of Uterus.

Haritaki For Kidney & Urinary Bladder:

It is helpful in Renal calculi, dysurea, and retention of urine.

Haritaki For Skin Disorders:
It is useful in skin disorders with discharges like allergies, urticaria and other erythematous disorders.

General Uses Of Terminalia Chebula:

It is given as adjuvant herb in Chronic fever. On long term use it is helpful in gaining weight in the emaciated persons and in losing weight in obese persons.

When taken with meals it sharpens the intellect, increases strength, stimulates the senses, expels the urine, stool and other waste materials from the body. It saves the person from the vitiating effects of bodily humors. Thus it is considered as an alterative and adaptogen.

Haritaki reduces the ill effects of fat rich, creamy and oily food. T. chebula is the definite aid for persons who habitually overeat. Further it can supplement the Cholesterol normalizing drugs.

Haritaki is reputed for its alterative, adaptogenic and tonic effect when used throughout the year with different substances in different six seasons of the year. Want to follow more about Seasonal use of Haritaki – Ritu Haritaki.

You will find the graphics for personal use to get help and motivation for such use of haritaki.

Terminalia Chebula With Other Herbs:
If we review all the herbal formulations in Ayurveda’s all classical texts, we will find haritaki to be one of the most frequently used ayurvedic herbs. In most of the compounds it is used as minor adjunct. In many others it is used as the foundation base of the entire formula – like in most of the electuaries or jams. It is the one of the prominent herb in formulations for asthma, cough, tonics, skin diseases, abdominal disorders.

Ayurvedic Holistic Approach With Terminalia Chebula:

The author Bhava Prakash in his Materia Medica relates haritaki to be used with sugar in Pitta disorders, with salt in Vata disorders, with dried ginger in Kapha disorders.

Modern Clinical Research & Terminalia Chebula:

Haritaki can serve to act as an effective alternative to modern prokinetic drugs like metaclopramide.

anti-bacterial and antioxidant properties

Some preliminary evidence of its capability to be useful in HSV Herpes simplex virus.

Some anti-tumor activity and effect in inhibiting the HIV virus.

Anthraquinone and Sennoside like purgative activity. Ability to evacuate the bowel.

Wide antibacterial and antifungal activity, esp. against E. coli.

We may learn some home remedies for digestive disorder from haritaki from this site.

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Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Terminalia_chebula

http://www.ayurvedic-medicines.com/herbs/haritaki.html,

http://www.iloveindia.com/indian-herbs/terminalia-chebula.html

http://www.holistic-herbalist.com/terminalia-chebula.html

http://www.herbnet.com/Herb%20Uses_C.htm

http://www.herbnet.com/Herb%20Uses_C.htm

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