Tag Archives: Hawaii

Cerbera manghas

 

Botanical Name : Cerbera manghas
Family: Apocynaceae
Genus: Cerbera
Species: C. manghas
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Gentianales

Common Names: Cerbera , Sea mango

Indigenous Names:
*Madagascar – Tanguin, Samanta, Tangena
*Samoa – Leva
*Tonga – Toto
*Fiji – Vasa
*Indonesia, Malay, Sunda – Bintaro….CLICK & SEE :
*Sri Lanka /Sinhalese – Kaduru
*Japan / Ryukyuan – Mifukuragi (also applied for the Japanese common name of this species

Habitat:
Cerbera manghas is naturally distributed from the Seychelle Islands in the Indian Ocean eastward to French Polynesia. It occupies
coastal habitats and is often associated with mangrove forests.This tree has been introduced to Hawaii and other tropical locations as an
ornamental.
Description:
Cerbera manghas is a shrub or a small to medium-sized tree up to 12 metres (39 ft) tall with white latex in all parts, glabrous; bole up to 70 cm in diameter; bark thick,
rough, peeling off, with large lenticels, grey to dark brown; branches thick and succulent, with many conspicuous leaf scars. Leaves   arranged spirally, clustered at the ends of branches, simple and entire; stipules absent; petiole 1–4.5 cm long; blade narrowly obovate, 5–30  cm × 1–8 cm, cuneate at base, shortly acuminate at apex, leathery, pinnately veined with 15–40 pairs of lateral veins. Inflorescence a  terminal cyme up to 25 cm × 15 cm, many-flowered; peduncle 1.5–12 cm long; bracts about as long as sepals, deciduous. Flowers bisexual,  regular, 5-merous, fragrant; pedicel 0.5–3 cm long; sepals ovate or obovate, (0.5–)1–3.5 cm × c. 0.5 cm, spreading to recurved; corolla tube  funnel-shaped, 1.5–5.5 cm long, widened at apex, pale green with white or pale yellow scales in the throat, hairy inside, lobes obliquely  elliptical or obovate, 1.5–3 cm × 1–2 cm, spreading to recurved, white but pink at base; stamens inserted just below the top of corolla tube, included, covered by scales of corolla tube, anthers sessile; ovary superior, globose, consisting of 2 separate carpels, style long and slender,  pistil head consisting of a 5-ridged basal part, a veil and a cone-shaped apex. Fruit consisting of 1 or 2 separate or basally fused, drupe-like,  ellipsoid follicles 5–12 cm × 3–7 cm, rounded at both ends, dark red when mature, indehiscent, usually 1-seeded. Seed flattened orbicular, c.  2.5 cm in diameter, with small wing at apex. Seedling with hypogeal germination..CLICK & SEE :
The flowers of Cerbera manghas are pollinated by insects. The fruits, which are fibrous inside, float in water and can be distributed by sea  currents; they are quite commonly washed up on shores…..…CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES

Properties:

The seeds contain glycosides derived from the cardenolides tanghinigenin and digitoxigenin, such as cerberin, neriifolin, thevetin B and 2’-O-acetyl-thevetin B. The principal cardenolides contained in the bark and roots are gentiobiosyl-thevetoside and glucosyl-thevetoside along with other thevetosides derived from tanghinigenin. The amount of cardenolides in the leaves varies according to the season. Some of the cardenolides showed antiproliferative activity against human colon cancer, breast cancer, lung cancer and epidermoid carcinoma cell lines, as well as anti-oestrogenic activity. Cerberin acts on plain muscle preparations as a definite stimulant both with regard to tone and peristaltic movements. As such it behaves as a parasympatomimetic poison. It acts on both the rhythm and amplitude of the heart. In moderate doses cerberin has positive inotropic properties, but in high, toxic doses it produces a negative inotropic and chronotropic effect. Phytochemical investigations also revealed the presence of a series of lignans derived from olivil (cerberalignans) and monoterpenoids such as cerberidol. Ethanolic extracts of Cerbera manghas have shown selective activity against vesicular stomatis virus (VSV). Olivil, carinol and cycloolivil showed antioxidant activities.
The wood is lightweight to medium-weight, with the white to pale yellow-brown heartwood not demarcated from the sapwood; grain is straight to slightly interlocked, texture fine and uneven. The shrinkage upon seasoning is moderate, and the wood works easily. It is not durable, highly susceptible to blue-staining fungi, and resistant to preservative treatment under pressure.

Medicinal Uses:
Used much like digitalis.
The seeds of Cerbera manghas are used in traditional medicine in Madagascar to treat cardiac disorders. However they are very poisonous and were used until the middle of the 19th century as ordeal poison. In tropical Asia the seeds are used to treat scabies and itch, to prepare a hair tonic and as fish poison, the bark is used as a laxative and antipyretic and in the treatment of dysuria and ringworm, the flowers to treat haemorrhoids, and roots, bark and leaves to prepare a purgative.

Other Uses:
In Sri Lanka, this wood is used for making masks particularly because it is a light wood. The wood is also used in tropical Asia for mouldings, interior trim, fruit cases, core veneer, matches, shuttering, clogs, plain furniture and carving, and also for charcoal. Cerbera manghas is planted as an ornamental and the fibrous fruits, of which the skin and soft parts have decayed, are used in flower arrangements.

Mythology:.…….Because of its deadly poisonous seeds, the genus name is derived from Cerberus, the hell dog from the Greek mythology, thus
indicating the toxicity of the seeds. In Madagascar, the seeds were used in sentence rituals to poison kings and queens.

Known Hazards: ……Poison….The leaves and the fruits contain the potent cardiac glycoside cerberin, which is extremely poisonous if   ingested.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources::
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cerbera_manghas
http://www.herbnet.com/Herb%20Uses_C.htm
http://uses.plantnet-project.org/en/Cerbera_manghas_(PROTA)

Matico

Botanical Name : Piper angustifolium
Family: Piperaceae
Genus:     Piper
Species: P. aduncum
Kingdom: Plantae
Order:     Piperales

Synonyms: Artanthe elongata. Stephensia elongata. Piper granulosum. Piper elongatum. Yerba soldado. Soldier’s Herb. Thoho-thoho. Moho-moho.

Common Names : Matico  or Soldier’s herb, gusanillo, herbe du soldat, higuillo,wer-ui-qui-yik higuillo de hoja, hoja santa, jaborandi falso, jawawa, jointwood, kakoro, malembe toto,tupa burraco, man-anihs, matico pepper, matico, maticoblätter, matika, matiko, menuda, moco-moco, moho-moho, mucumucu, pimenta de fruto ganxoso, pimenta-de-fruto-ganchoso, upnpoingpoing, pimenta-de-macaco, pimenta-matico, Santa Maria negro, shiatani, soldaten kraut, soldier’s herb, spiked pepper, tapa-curaco, tokondé,

Habitat:Matico is native to Southern Mexico, the Caribbean, and much of tropical South America. It is grown in tropical Asia, Polynesia, and Melanesia and can even be found in Florida, Hawaii, and Puerto Rico.

Description:
Matico is a tropical, evergreen, shrubby tree that grows to the height of 6 to 7 meter (20 to 23 ft) with lance-shaped leaves that are 12 to 20 centimeter (5 to 8 in) long.The tree produces cord-like, white to pale yellow, inflorescence spikes that contain many minute flowers that are wind-pollinated and that soon develop into numerous tiny drupes with black seeds. The seeds are then scattered easily by bats and birds. From these many seeds, it can form large stands of quickly-growing shrubby trees that can choke out other native vegetation. Established plants also thicken into clumps or stands by suckers arising from the root crown. In some countries Matico is considered as an invasive weed.
CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES
In parts of New Guinea, although Matico is notorious for drying out the soil in the areas where it is invasive, the wood of this plant is nonetheless used by local residents for a myriad of uses such as for fuel and fence posts.

Edible Uses: The fruits are used as a condiment and for flavoring cocoa.It is sometimes used as a substitute for long pepper.

Medicinal Uses:
Part Used:  The dried leaves.

Constituents: A volatile oil, slightly dextrogyrate, containing in some specimens Matico camphor. Some of the later specimens of oil are said to contain not camphor but asarol. A crystallizable acid called artanthic acid and a little tannin and resin are also found.

In the Amazon Rainforest, many of the native tribes use matico leaves as an antiseptic.It is effective as a topical application to slight wounds, bites of leeches, or after the extraction of teeth. The under surface of the leaf is preferred to the powder for this purpose. In Peru, it was used for stopping hemorrhages and treating ulcers, and in European practice in the treatment of diseases of the genitals and urinary organs, such as those for which cubeb was often prescribed.

Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://www.botanical.com/botanical/mgmh/m/matico24.html
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Piper_aduncum

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Coffee senna

Botanical Name :Senna occidentalis
Family: Fabaceae
Subfamily: Caesalpinioideae
Tribe: Cassieae
Genus: Senna
Species: S. occidentalis
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Fabales

Synonyms: Cassia occidentalis L.,Ditremexa occidentalis (L.) Britt. & Rose

Common Names:auaukoi in Hawaii, coffee senna, coffeeweed, Mogdad coffee, negro-coffee, senna coffee, Stephanie coffee, stinkingweed or styptic weed.

Habitat :Coffee senna grows throughout the tropics and subtropics (Liogier 1988, Stevens and others 2001) including the United States from Texas to Iowa eastward, Hawaii, the Pacific Island Territories, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands (Natural Resources Conservation Service 2002). It appears to be of South American or New World origin (Haselwood and Motter 1966, Henty and Pritchard 1975, Raintree 2002).

Description:
Senna occidentalis varies from a semi-woody annual herb in warm temperate areas to a woody annual shrub or sometimes a short-lived perennial shrub in frostfree areas (Haselwood and Motter 1966, Henty and Pritchard 1975, Holm and others 1997). It usually’ matures at from 0.5 to 2.0 m in height. In Brazil it is reported to reach 5 to 8 m in height (Raintree 2002). Coffee senna produces a hard, woody tap root with relatively few laterals. It usually has a single purplish stem and sparse branching. Young stems are four-angled, becoming rounded with age. The crushed foliage has an unpleasant odor. Compound alternate leaves have four to six pairs of glabrous leaflets and a gland near the base of the petiole. Leaflets are ovate to ovate-lanceolate, pointed at the tip and rounded at the base.

click to see the pictures….>…..(01).....(1)....(2).…….(3).…....(4)..………(5).....

Senna occidentalis are few-flowered axillary racemes with yellow-petaled flowers about 2 cm across. The legumes (pods) are brown, flat, slightly curved and 5 to 12 cm long. They contain 40 or more brown to dark-olive, ovoid seeds about 4 mm long. The species has 2n = 26, 28 chromosomes (Henty and Pritchard 1975, Liogier 1988, Long and Lakela 1976, Stevens and others 2001).

Edible Uses:
Mogdad coffee seeds can be roasted and used as a substitute for coffee. They have also been used as an adulterant for coffee. There is apparently no caffeine in mogdad coffee.

Despite the claims of being poisonous, the leaves of this plant, Dhiguthiyara in Dhivehi, have been used in the diet of the Maldives for centuries in dishes such as mas huni and also as a medicinal plant.

Active Ingredients
Anthroquinones- dianthrone; Anthracene derivatives (2.5-3.5%): chief components sennosides A, A1, B, C and D. Naphthacene derivatives: including 6-hydroxymusizin glucoside, tinnevellin-6-glucosides. Laxative effect is due to the action of sennosides and their active metabolite, rhein anthrone in the colon. Effect occurs 8-12 hours after administration.

Medicinal Uses:
Laxative use, antifungal, decreases fever, cutaneous anti-infective, antispasmodic, antirheumatic, anti-inflammatory, Used for treatment of urinary infections and hemorroids. Purgative and cleansing. In Africa and Asia the leaves and seed pod were used to treat anemia, bronchitis, constipation, jaundice and skin problems.

Known Hazards:The plant is reported to be poisonous to cattle. The plant contains anthraquinones. The roots contain emodin and the seeds contain chrysarobin (1,8-dihydroxy-3-methyl-9-anthrone) and N-methylmorpholine.

Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider

Resources:
http://www.fs.fed.us/global/iitf/pdf/shrubs/Senna%20occidentalis.pdf
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cassia_occidentalis
http://www.bu.edu/bhlp/Clinical/cross-cultural/herbal_index/herbs/Senna%20Occidentalis.html

 

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Kalo Jam (Eugenia Jambolana )

Botanical Name:Eugenia Jambolana
Family: Myrtaceae
Genus: Syzygium
Species: S. cumini
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Myrtales

Syn. Syzygium jambolanum, Eugenia cumini

Common Names:Kalo jaml(in bengali), jambul/jambhul/jambu/jambula/jamboola, Java plum, jamun, jaam/kalojaam, jamblang, jambolan, black plum, Damson plum, Duhat plum, Jambolan plum or Portuguese plum. Malabar plum may also refer to other species of Syzygium. This fruit is called Jamun in Hindi, Urdu and Punjabi, Neredu Pandu in Telugu, Naaval Pazham in Tamil, Naaval Pazham in Malayalam, Nerale Hannu in Kannada, Jam in Bengali, Jamukoli in Oriya and Jambu in Gujarat. In the Philippines, common names include duhat in the Tagalog-speaking regions, lomboy in the Cebuano-speaking areas and inobog in Maguindanao.  It is called Dhanbu in Maldives and Dhuwet/Juwet in Javanese. Among its names in Portuguese are jamelão, jambolão, jalão, joão-bolão, manjelão, azeitona-preta, baga-de-freira, brinco-de-viúva and guapê, always with lower case, the early four derived from the Konkani name jambulan. They are called rotra in the Malagasy language (Madagascar).

Habitat:
Kalo Jam  is  native to Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, the Philippines, and Indonesia.

The tree was introduced to Florida, USA in 1911 by the USDA, and is also now commonly grown in Suriname and Trinidad and Tobago. In Brazil, where it was introduced from India during Portuguese colonization, it has dispersed spontaneously in the wild in some places, as its fruits are eagerly sought by various native birds such as thrushes, tanagers and the Great Kiskadee. This species is considered an invasive in Hawaii, USA. It is also illegal to grow, plant or transplant in Sanibel, Florida.

Description:
Kalo Jam  is an evergreen tropical tree in the flowering plant. It is  a slow growing species, it can reach heights of up to 30 m and can live more than 100 years. Its dense foliage provides shade and is grown just for its ornamental value. At the base of the tree, the bark is rough and dark grey, becoming lighter grey and smoother higher up. The wood is water resistant. Because of this it is used in railway sleepers and to install motors in wells. It is sometimes used to make cheap furniture and village dwellings though it is relatively hard to work on.
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The leaves which are an aroma similar to turpentine, are pinkish when young, changing to a leathery, glossy dark green with a yellow midrib as they mature. The leaves are used as food for livestock, as they have good nutritional value.

Kala Jambul trees start flowering from March to April. The flowers of are fragrant and small, about 5 mm in diameter. The fruits develop by May or June and resemble large berries. The fruit is oblong, ovoid, starts green and turns pink to shining crimson black as it matures. A variant of the tree produces white coloured fruit. The fruit has a combination of sweet, mildly sour and astringent flavour and tends to colour the tongue purple.

The seed is also used in various alternative healing systems like Ayurveda (to control diabetes, for example.), Unani and Chinese medicine for digestive ailments.

The leaves and bark are used for controlling blood pressure and gingivitis. Wine and vinegar are also made from the fruit. It has a high source in vitamin A and vitamin C.

Syzygium cumini has been spread overseas from India by Indian emigrants and at present is common in former tropical British colonies.

Edible Uses:
The black ripen fruits are delicious to eat and highlt nutritius.

Medicinal Uses:
* Diabetes
Properties: * Carminative * Hypoglycemic
Constituents:  oleanolic acid,

The seed, leaf, bark, and fruit are used to make medicine.

Kalo Jam is widely used in folk medicine for diabetes.

It is also used for digestion disorders including gas (flatulence), bowel spasms, stomach problems, and severe diarrhea (dysentery).

Another use is treatment of lung problems such as bronchitis and asthma.

Some people use Kalo Jam  as an aphrodisiac to increase interest in sexual activity, and as a tonic.

In combination with other herbs, jambolan seed is used for constipation, diseases of the pancreas, stomach problems, nervous disorders, depression, and exhaustion.

Jambolan is sometimes applied directly to the mouth and throat to reduce pain due to swelling (inflammation). It is also applied directly to the skin for skin ulcers and inflammation of the skin.

The fruit and seeds of the Kalo Jam  tree have long been used in Eastern traditional medicine, and are gaining more interest here in the West for the treatment of diabetes. Practitioners of Ayurveda in India value jambul for lowering blood sugar and researchers are investigating its potential as a male contraceptive. Jambul is used in Unani and Chinese medicine for digestive ailments. The leaves and bark are used for controlling blood pressure and gingivitis. Wine and vinegar are also made from the fruit. It has a high source in vitamin A and vitamin C.

click to see to learn more :

Other Uses:
Cultural and religious significance

According to Hindu tradition, Rama subsisted on the fruit in the forest for 14 years during his exile from Ayodhya.   Because of this, many Hindus regard S. cumini as a ‘fruit of the gods,’ especially in Gujarat, India, where it is known locally as jamboon.

Lord Krishna has been described as having skin the color of S. cumini. In Hindu mythology several protagonists have been described as having the color of S. cumini.

Maharashtra:
In Maharashtra, S. cumini (locally known as j?mbh?? Marathi :??????) leaves are used in marriage pandal decorations. There is famous Marathi song “Jambhul pikalya zada khali…”. The seeds are used in tisanes for diabetes

Andhra Pradesh:
This tree is called Neredu   in Telugu. Besides the fruits, wood from Neredu tree is used in Andhra Pradesh to make bullock cart wheels and other agricultural equipment. Culturally, beautiful eyes are compared to this fruit. In the great epic of India Mahabharatha Sri Krishnas'[Lord Vishnu] body color is compared to this fruit as well.

Tamil Nadu:
There is a very famous legend that is associated with Auvaiyar (also Auvayar) in Tamil Nadu , a prominent female poets/ethicist/political activist of Sangam period (Tamil literature), and Naval Pazham(Jambu) in Tamil Nadu. Auvaiyar, believing to have achieved everything that is to be achieved, said to have been pondering over her retirement from Tamil literary work while resting under Naval Pazham tree. But she was met with and was wittily jousted by a disguised Lord Murugan (regarded as one of the guardian deities of Tamil language), who later revealed himself and made her realize that there is still a lot more to be done and learnt. Following this awakening, Auvaiyar is believed to have undertaken a fresh set of literary works, targeted at children.

Kerala:
In Malayalam the tree is called njaval and its fruit are njavalpazham. The fruit is particularly plentiful in Kollam.

Kannada:
In Kannada the tree is called Nerale mara and its fruit are Nerale Hannu Nerale hannu is widely used by diabetes patients as they thought it cures the same. The bears like this fruit. This tree is found liberally every where in village areas of Karnataka.

Known Hazards:
Kalo Jam seed and bark contains chemicals that might lower blood sugar, but extracts from jambolan leaf and fruit don’t seem to affect blood sugar. Jambolan also contains chemicals that might protect against oxidation damage, as well as chemicals that reduce swelling. so it is adviced  to Monitor blood sugar levels carefully – do not change insulin dosage without the guidance of a physician.

Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider

Resources:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Syzygium_cumini
http://www.anniesremedy.com/herb_detail430.php

http://www.webmd.com/vitamins-supplements/ingredientmono-530-JAMBOLAN.aspx?activeIngredientId=530&activeIngredientName=JAMBOLAN

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Madhabilata (Hiptage benghalensis)

Botanical Name :Hiptage benghalensis
Family: Malpighiaceae
Genus: Hiptage
Species: H. benghalensis
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Malpighiales

Common Names:Hiptage, Helicopter Flower • Hindi: Madhavi lata  • Manipuri: Madhabi • Kannada: Madhvi • Bengali: Madhabilata or Madhumalati • Tamil:Vasantakaala malligai

Habitat : Madhavi lata is a native of India, Southeast Asia and the Philippines. It has been recorded as a weed in Australian rain forests and is invasive in Mauritius, Réunion, Florida and Hawaii where it thrives in dry lowland forests, forming impenetrable thickets and smothering native vegetation. The Florida Exotic Pest Plant Council (FLEPPC) listed H. benghalensis among Category II plants in 2001, which are species that have shown a potential to disrupt native plant communities

Its habitat is variable and prefers climates ranging from warm temperate to tropical. In Hawai’i, where H. benghalensis is considered a weed, as it is in Australia, Mauritius and Réunion, it grows from sea level to 1,000 m (3,281 ft). H. benghalensis is cultivated for its white-pink scented flowers.

Description:
Madhavi lata is a vine like plant that is often cultivated in the tropics for its attractive and fragrant flowers. A woody climbing shrub with clusters of pink to white and yellow fragrant flowers and 3-winged, helicopter-like fruits. Flowers have very interesting shape and look like a decorative accessory, with fluffy-toothed edges. The fragrance is very strong and pleasant, resembles fruity perfume. Leaves are narrow and drooping. This plant can be trimmed as a bush, and can be crown in container, too. Used medicinally in India. Make sure to provide lots of light for profuse blooming. The genus name, Hiptage, is derived from the Greek hiptamai, which means “to fly” and refers its unique three-winged fruit known as “samara”. The fruit is carried by wind because of its papery wings.

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Madhavi lata flowers intermittently during the year, and produces fragrant flowers borne in compact ten-to-thirty-flowered axillary racemes. The flowers are pink to white, with yellow marks. Fruits are samaras with three spreading, papery oblanceolate to elliptic wings, 2–5 cm long, and propagate via wind or by cuttings.

Medicinal uses:
Madhavi lata is occasionally cultivated for medicinal purposes in the alternative medicine practice ayurveda: the leaves and bark are hot, acrid, bitter, insecticidal, vulnerary and useful in the treatment of biliousness, cough, burning sensation, thirst and inflammation; it also has the ability to treat skin diseases and leprosy.

The bark, leaves and flowers are aromatic, bitter, acrid, astringent, refrigerant, vulnerary, expectorant, cardiotonic, anti-inflammatory and insecticidal. They are useful in burning sensation, wounds, ulcers, cough, asthma.

Othewr Uses:
Madhavi lata is widely cultivated in the tropics for its attractive and fragrant flowers; it can be trimmed to form a small tree or shrub or can be trained as a vine

Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://www.flowersofindia.net/catalog/slides/Madhavi%20Lata.html
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hiptage_benghalensis