Categories
Ailmemts & Remedies

Oedema

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Oedema or Å“dema (British English), Edema (American English), formerly known as dropsy or hydropsy, is the increase of interstitial fluid in any organ. Generally, the amount of interstitial fluid is in the balance of homeostasis. Increased secretion of fluid into the interstitium or impaired removal of this fluid may cause edema.

Generation of interstitial fluid is regulated by the Starling equation of tissue fluid which states that it depends on the balance of osmotic pressure and of hydrostatic pressure which act in opposite directions across the semipermeable capillary walls. Consequently, anything that increases oncotic pressure outside blood vessels (for example inflammation), or reduces oncotic pressure in the blood (states of low plasma osmolality, for example cirrhosis) will cause edema. Increased hydrostatic pressure inside the blood vessel (for example in heart failure) will have the same effect. If the permeability of the capillary walls increases, more fluid will tend to escape out of the capillary, as can happen when there is inflammation.

Abnormal removal of interstitial fluid is caused by obstruction of the lymphatic system, for example due to pressure from a cancer or enlarged lymph nodes, destruction of lymph vessels by radiotherapy, or infiltration of the lymphatics by infection such as elephantiasis.

Oedema (oidema, swelling) is the abnormal accumulation of excess fluid in the interstitial spaces (Mosby, 1997). Oedema may have a multitude of causes, and it is important for the clinician to determine this cause. The simplest way to do this is ask yourself “is the oedema bilateral?” and “on palpation, is it soft (pitted) or indurated (non-pitted)?” (Nelson, 1992).

If the condition is bilateral, then it is most likely of a systemic origin, which is causing venous hypertension. The most common cause of this is congestive heart failure, usually simply due to ageing. Other systemic causes include renal and thyroid conditions. Bilateral oedema is usually pitted and involves the entire lower leg and foot to the level of the digits.

If the condition is unilateral, oedema is most likely due a localised abnormality. The most common cause is DVT, but may include lymphangiactasis, lymphatic obstruction, varicose vein, previous trauma with venous obstruction, or failure of the muscle pump due to AFO’s or neuromuscular conditions that cause apropulsive gait (Nelson, 1992).

Most unilateral oedema is also pitted, however lymphatic-originated oedema will be seen as indurated.

Oedema basically prevents “ideal” tissue perfusion. Depending on the cause, in the early stages this may have no impact on the patient’s life, as there is adequate perfusion for tissue sustainance. However, long-term oedema can manifest into a number of conditions, due to the pressure being directly exerted onto blood vessels and surrounding tissues. These include: haemosiderin, telangiactasia, cellulitis, varicosities, and venous ulceration (LTU PM331 manual).

As mentioned above, the calf “muscle-pump” that is activated during normal gait helps greatly assists in return blood to the heart against gravity, so it is worth being aware that patient’s with an apropulsive gait or wheel chair bound patients may develop oedema and require calf exercises.
So the podiatrist must be aware of oedema as it can be a good indicator of venous insufficiency and lymphatic problems; and may also elicit other manifestations.

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Peripheral edema

Edema without a modifier usually refers to peripheral or dependent edema, the accumulation of fluid in the parts of the body that are most affected by gravity. In ambulatory people these are the legs, although in those who are bedbound the first manifestation may be sacral edema. If severe enough, peripheral edema may progress to involve the abdominal or even thoracic wall (this may be referred to as generalized edema or anasarca). In particular edema states (e.g. nephrotic syndrome, see below), periorbital edema (around the eyes) may be present.

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Some phenomena may distinguish different causes of peripheral edema. Most peripheral edema is pitting edema – pressing down will lead to a shift in the interstitial fluid and the formation of a small pit that resolves over seconds. Non-pitting edema may reflect lymphedema, a form of edema that develops when the lymph vessels are obstructed, or myxedema, which occurs in Grave’s disease.

Causes of peripheral edema are:

high hydrostatic pressure of the veins, leading to poor reabsorption of fluid
venous obstruction, e.g. deep vein thrombosis (typically one-sided)
congestive heart failure
varicose veins
asymmetric compression of thigh and leg (e.g., knee pads, tight jeans)
low oncotic pressure
cirrhosis
malnutrition
nephrotic syndrome (renal protein loss)
epidemic dropsy
obstruction of lymph drainage
infection
cancer
fibrosis after surgery
filariasis
inflammation (active secretion of fluid into the interstitial space due to increased membrane permeability by inflammatory mediators):
allergic conditions (e.g. angioedema)
any other form of inflammation (tumor – or swelling – is one of the main characteristics of inflammation)

Organ-specific Oedema
Edema of specific organs (cerebral edema, pulmonary edema, macular edema) may also occur, each with different specific causes to peripheral edema, but all based on the same principles. Ascites is effectively edema within the peritoneal cavity, as pleural effusions are effectively edema in the pleural cavity. Causes of edema which are generalized to the whole body can cause edema in multiple organs and peripherally. For example, severe heart failure can cause peripheral edema, pulmonary edema, pleural effusions and ascites.

Common and usually harmless appearances of cutaneous edema are observed with mosquito bites and skin contact with certain plants (urticaria).

Edema may be found in the eyes after corrective surgery.

Symptoms:
People with oedema may notice that a ring on their finger feels tighter than in the past, or they might have difficulty in putting on shoes, especially toward the end of the day. They may also notice a puffiness of the face around the eyes, or in the feet, ankles, and legs. When oedema is present, pressure on the skin, such as from the elastic band on socks, may leave an indentation that is slow to disappear. Oedema of the abdomen, called ascites, may be a sign of serious underlying disease and must be immediately evaluated by a doctor.

Modern Medical treatments:
Over the counter diuretics containing ammonia chloride and caffeine (Aqua-Ban) may be used to relieve symptoms related to oedema or water retention when taken five to six days before menses. More severe edematous conditions require medical attention.

Treatment of oedema with prescription medications is limited to the use of diuretics,
commonly referred to as “water pills.” Agents often used include the thiazide diuretics, such as hydrochlorothiazide (HydroDIURIL), indapamide (Lozol), and metolazone (Zaroxolyn®); loop diuretics including furosemide (Lasix, bumetanide (Bumex), and torsemide (Demadex); and potassium-sparing diuretics, such as spironolactone (Aldactone), triamterene (Dyazide, Maxzide), and amiloride (Midamor).

Commonly, treatment consists of managing the underlying condition, which may include inadequate nutrition; liver, heart, and kidney disease; or obstruction of blood or lymph flow. In some cases, a salt-restricted diet may be recommended.


Dietary changes that may be helpful:

High salt intake should be avoided, as it tends to lead to water retention and may worsen oedema in some people. A controlled trial found that a low-salt diet (less than 2,100 mg sodium per day) resulted in reduced water retention after two months in a group of women with unexplained oedema.Strictly avoid fried & fatty food, salt and curd.Go for vegetables like drumstick, green banana,gourd, patola, bitter gourd, ripe papaya.

Lifestyle changes that may be helpful:
If the oedema is affecting one limb, the limb should be kept elevated whenever possible. This allows fluid to drain more effectively from the congested area. To decrease fluid build-up in the legs, people should avoid sitting or standing for long periods of time without moving.Do not indulge in daytime nap ,Move about and avoid sedentary habits .

Nutritional supplements that may be helpful:

Several double-blind trials2 have found that 400 mg per day of coumarin, a flavonoid found in a variety of herbs, can improve many types of oedema, including lymphedema after surgery. However, a large double-blind trial detected no benefit using 200 mg coumarin twice daily for six months in women who had arm oedema after mastectomy (surgical breast removal).6 (Coumarin should not be confused with the anticlotting drug Coumadin,)

A group of semi-synthetic flavonoids, known as hydroxyethylrutosides are also beneficial for some types of oedema. One double-blind trial found that 2 grams per day of hydroxyethylrutosides reduced ankle and foot oedema in people with venous disorders after four weeks.

Another double-blind trial found that 3 grams per day of hydroxyethylrutosides significantly reduced lymphedema of the arm or leg and lessened the associated uncomfortable symptoms.

A combination of the flavonoids diosmin (900 mg per day) and hesperidin (100 mg per day) has been investigated for the treatment of a variety of venous circulation disorders.

However, in a double-blind trial, this combination was not effective for lymphedema caused by breast cancer treatments.

In a preliminary study, individuals with lymphedema of the arm or head-and-neck region were treated with approximately 230 mcg of selenium per day, in the form of sodium selenite, for four to six weeks. A quality-of-life assessment showed an improvement of 59%, and the circumference of the edematous arm was reduced in 10 of 12 cases.

Because coumarin, hydroxyethylrutosides, and diosmin are not widely available in the United States, other flavonoids, such as quercetin, rutin, or anthocyanosides (from bilberry), have been substituted by doctors in an attempt to obtain similar benefits. The effect of these other flavonoids against oedema has not been well studied. Also, optimal amounts are not known. However, in one study, quercetin in amounts of 30–50 mg per day corrected abnormal capillary permeability (leakiness),13 an effect that might improve oedema. A similar effect has been reported with rutin at 20 mg three times per day.14 Doctors often recommend 80–160 mg of a standardized extract of bilberry, three times per day.

Whereas vitamin B6 is sometimes recommended for reducing oedema, no research has investigated its effectiveness.


Herbs that may be helpful

A double-blind trial found that a formula containing butcher’s broom extract, the flavonoid hesperidin, and vitamin C, which is used in Europe to treat venous and lymphatic system disorders, was superior to placebo for reducing lymphedema. The amount of butcher’s broom extract typically used is 150 mg two or three times per day.

Herbs that stimulate the kidneys were traditionally used to reduce oedema. Herbal diuretics do not work the same way that drugs do, thus it is unclear whether such herbs would be effective for this purpose. Goldenrod (Solidago cnadensis) is considered one of the strongest herbal diuretics.16 Animal studies show, at very high amounts (2 grams per 2.2 pounds of body weight), that dandelion leaves possess diuretic effects that may be comparable to the prescription diuretic furosemide (Lasix. Human clinical trials have not been completed to confirm these results. Corn silk (Zea mays) has also long been used as a diuretic, though a human study did not find that it increased urine output. Thus, diuretic herbs are not yet well supported for use in reducing oedema.

Aescin, isolated from horse chestnut seed, has been shown to effectively reduce post-surgical oedema in preliminary trials. A form of aescin that is injected into the bloodstream is often used but only under the supervision of a qualified healthcare professional.

Horsetail has a diuretic (urine flow increasing) action that accounts for its traditional use in reducing mild oedema. Although there is no clinical research that yet supports its use for people with oedema, the German government has approved horsetail for this use. The volatile oils in juniper cause an increase in urine volume and in this way can theoretically lessen oedema; however, there is no clinical research that yet supports its use for people with oedema.

Cleavers is one of numerous plants considered in ancient times to act as a diuretic. It was therefore used to relieve oedema and to promote urine formation during bladder infections.

Herbs :Punarnava (Borhaavia diffusa) and Hasti sundi

Ayurvedic Supplement: 1.Sothari Madhur, 2.Sothari Lauh. 3. Punarnavaristha (BUY)

Yoga Option:Pranayam and Meditation

Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.

Resources:

http://www.allayurveda.com/ail_oedema.htm

http://www.latrobe.edu.au/podiatry/vascular/oedema.html

en.wikipedia.org


Categories
Ailmemts & Remedies

Congestive Heart Failure

It’s the most frequent cause of hospitalization in people over age 65 — and a serious condition that usually requires rigorous, lifelong treatment. Along with lifestyle changes and drugs, supplements can help ease symptoms of this ailment……...CLICK & SEE

Symptoms
Extreme fatigue and weakness.
Shortness of breath after very little exertion or while reclining.
Severe cough that produces reddish brown sputum.
Unexplained extremely rapid or irregular heartbeat.
Swelling (edema) of the extremities, especially ankles and feet.

When to Call Your Doctor
If you regularly feel extremely fatigued and short of breath after limited exertion.
If you experience severe breathlessness or chest pain, which may indicate a heart attack — call an ambulance at once.
If you have congestive heart failure and you develop fever or rapid or irregular heartbeat or symptoms worsen.

What It Is
In congestive heart failure (CHF), a weakened, or failing, heart doesn’t pump as efficiently as it should. As a result, not enough oxygen-rich blood gets delivered to all parts of the body. Often simply called heart failure, CHF typically lingers and worsens over time. As blood flow from the heart slows, the blood returning to the heart backs up, leading to “congestion” in the tissues. Fluid can accumulate in the lungs, causing shortness of breath; can pool in the ankles, making them swell up; or can produce myriad other symptoms.


What Causes It

A heart attack, which scars the heart and interferes with its pumping ability, frequently results in CHF. Other causes include persistent high blood pressure, chronic lung disease, long-term drug or alcohol abuse, and infections of the heart muscle or valves.

How Supplements Can Help
Various medications can strengthen the heart’s pumping action, expand blood vessels, increase blood flow, and eliminate excess fluid from the body. In consultation with your doctor, all these supplements can be taken long term along with conventional drugs to help slow the progression of CHF. Benefits may appear within three to four weeks.

What Else You Can Do
Get plenty of rest and don’t undertake strenuous activity.
Eat smaller, more frequent meals, which require less energy to digest.
Reduce your salt intake and avoid caffeine, alcohol, and tobacco.
Regular walking and other types of mild aerobic exercise help many patients with CHF. However, always check with your doctor before beginning any exercise program.

Supplement Recommendations
Vitamin C/Vitamin E
Coenzyme Q10
Hawthorn
Carnitine
Taurine
Magnesium
Ginkgo Biloba
Thiamin

Vitamin C/Vitamin E
Dosage: 1,000 mg vitamin C 3 times a day; 400 IU vitamin E daily.
Comments: Check with your doctor if taking anticoagulant drugs.

Coenzyme Q10
Dosage: 100 mg twice a day.
Comments: For best absorption, take with food.

Hawthorn
Dosage: 100-150 mg 3 times a day.
Comments: Standardized to contain at least 1.8% vitexin.

Carnitine
Dosage: 1,000 mg L-carnitine twice a day on an empty stomach.
Comments: When using for longer than 1 month, add a mixed amino acid complex (follow package directions).

Taurine

Dosage: 500 mg L-taurine twice a day on an empty stomach.
Comments: When using for longer than 1 month, add a mixed amino acid complex (follow package directions).

Magnesium

Dosage: 400 mg twice a day with food.
Comments: Do not take if you have kidney disease.

Ginkgo Biloba
Dosage: 40 mg 3 times a day.
Comments: Standardized to have at least 24% flavone glycosides.

Thiamin

Dosage: 200 mg a day.
Comments: Also called vitamin B1.
Source:Your Guide to Vitamins, Minerals, and Herbs

Categories
Ailmemts & Remedies

Arrhythmias

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The heart, workhorse of the body, beats more than 100,000 times a day, pumping life-giving blood through thousands of miles of arteries, capillaries, and veins. Irregular heart rhythms — or arrhythmias — can disrupt this process and require careful medical evaluation…..click & see

Symptoms
Heart palpitations or pounding heartbeats.
Fluttering in the chest or neck.
Fatigue, light-headedness.
Shortness of breath, chest pain, fainting spells.
Often there are no symptoms; your doctor may find an arrhythmia during a routine exam.

When to Call Your Doctor
If you notice frequent irregularities in your heartbeat or suddenly become light-headed, dizzy, or weak.
If someone suddenly loses consciousness, or has severe chest pain or shortness of breath — call an ambulance right away.
Reminder: If you have a medical condition, talk to your doctor before taking supplements.

What It Is
Arrhythmias are abnormal rhythms of the heart. They may be as fleeting as a single missed beat, or they may be more serious, causing the heart to beat irregularly or unusually fast or slowly for extended periods.

What Causes It
For many people with arrhythmias, the cause is unclear. However, some cases can be traced to a heart condition, such as coronary artery disease, a heart valve defect, or in rare cases, an infection of the heart. Thyroid or kidney disease, certain drugs, and imbalances of magnesium or potassium in the body can contribute to arrhythmias. Abnormal rhythms may also be induced by a high intake of caffeine or alcohol, heavy smoking, and stress.

How Supplements Can Help
It’s important to remember that some arrhythmias can be serious. The supplements listed in the chart are meant to complement — not to replace — standard treatments. Never discontinue a heart drug without consulting your doctor first. All the supplements can be used together, but your doctor should determine which ones you should take and in what order. They may work within a week, but often need to be used long term.
Magnesium supplements often benefit people with heart-rhythm disorders, many of whom are deficient in this mineral. Magnesium is vital for coordinating the activity of nerves (including those that initiate heartbeats) and muscles (including the heart). According to a study in the Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 232 people who had frequent arrhythmias significantly reduced their likelihood of abnormal heart rhythms after just three weeks by increasing their intake of magnesium and potassium.

Also valuable is hawthorn, an herb that has been used as a heart tonic for centuries: It increases blood flow to the heart, making it beat more strongly and restoring rhythm. Coenzyme Q10 also helps steady heart rhythm and may be particularly useful for people who have previously suffered a heart attack or have another form of heart disease.

In addition, fish oils are being extensively studied for treating heart ailments; early results strongly suggest that they are effective at relieving arrhythmias. In a recent study from Denmark, 55 heart attack survivors were given capsules of either fish oils or olive oil (placebo). After three months, those receiving the fish oils did significantly better on heart tests, indicating that they were less likely to suffer from serious arrhythmias.

Other supplements may stabilize heart rhythm as well. Some recommend the herb cactus grandiflorus; it is often used with hawthorn. The trace mineral manganese, which promotes healthy nerves, and the amino acids taurine and carnitine increase oxygen supply to the heart. Taken as a tea, pill, or tincture (30 drops three times a day), the herb astragalus has been found to contain various substances that stabilize heart rhythm. Doctors also occasionally prescribe potassium supplements to prevent arrhythmias, though for most people, eating fresh fruits and vegetables is a better way to get adequate supplies of this mineral.

What Else You Can Do

Reduce or eliminate caffeine and alcohol.

Supplement Recommendations
Magnesium
Hawthorn
Coenzyme Q10
Fish Oils
Cactus
Manganese
Amino Acids
Astragalus

Magnesium
Dosage: 400 mg twice a day.
Comments: Do not take if you have kidney disease.

Hawthorn
Dosage: 100-150 mg 3 times a day.
Comments: Standardized to contain at least 1.8% vitexin.

Coenzyme Q10

Dosage: 50 mg twice a day.
Comments: For best absorption, take with food.

Fish Oils

Dosage: 1,000 mg 3 times a day.
Comments: Take only if you don’t eat fish at least twice a week.

Cactus
Dosage: 25 drops tincture 3 times a day.
Comments: Known as night-blooming cereus; may cause diarrhea.

Manganese
Dosage: 20 mg every morning.
Comments: Often included in multivitamin and mineral formulas.

Amino Acids
Dosage: 1,500 mg L-taurine twice a day; 500 mg L-carnitine 3 times a day.
Comments: For long-term use, try a mixed amino acid complex.

Astragalus
Dosage: 400 mg twice a day or 3 cups of tea a day.
Comments: Supplying 0.5% glucosides and 70% polysaccharides.

Ayurvedic Recommended Product:  Arjunin 
Ayurvedic Recommended Therapy:  Virechan

Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.This is purely for educational purpose.

 

Source:Your Guide to Vitamins, Minerals, and Herbs

Categories
News on Health & Science

News on Stem Cell Therapy

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Two recent TheraVitae patients who made their way across the globe to receive Vescell Adult Stem Cell therapy for their heart conditions. Both men are profiled in their local newspapers and their stories here.

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In the first article, Florida native, Jack Bodolay has his story told in The Ledger, a prominent newspaper in Central Florida.

In the second article, the East Oregonian details the exploits of James “Superman” Burns and talks about his new mission to spread the word about the wonders of adult stem cell therapy.

Take Heart: Stem Cell Therapy Found to Be promising
By Robin Williams Adams
The Ledger

LAKELAND — Businessman Jack Bodolay went to Thailand for help when Florida doctors couldn’t do anything more to boost his failing heart.

Stem cells from his blood were multiplied by the millions and put into his heart in an experimental procedure to improve the heart’s ability to pump blood.

The treatment at Bangkok Heart Hospital cost him between $30,000 and $35,000. Improvement wasn’t guaranteed.

Not getting it, however, would have meant giving in to his steadily worsening congestive heart failure, which the Lakeland man wasn’t willing to do.

“My thoughts were `I don’t have much time left and I’m going to do what I have to do,’ ” said Bodolay, who is 76.

His ejection fraction — the percentage of blood pumped from the heart each beat — was 20 percent or less when he left for Thailand, he said. Normal pumping ability is 50 percent to 75 percent; below 35 is low.

Four months later, he’s glad he had the procedure. His pumping percentage has increased slightly to 22 or 23, and Bodolay is optimistic that it is going up instead of down.

“I can tell I’m much stronger on the inside than I was,” he said. “If I can make the same progress in the next three months . . . I’ll be in good shape.”

In deciding to get that treatment, he was encouraged by the improved condition of singer Don Ho, well known for “Tiny Bubbles” and “The Hawaiian Wedding Song,” who had the same procedure late last year.

——————————————————————

Stem cells heal heart overseas

WESTON – Jim Burns was frustrated.

A heart attack at age 44 left him often fatigued and short of breath. Over the 23 years that followed, doctors performed quadruple bypass surgery, did angioplasty and inserted stents, but his condition gradually worsened. Burns’ options appeared to be dwindling.

“I had probably 50 heart attacks,” he said. “Your heart dies a little at a time.”

Then, one day, he saw a public television program about something called stem cell therapy. Some English researchers testing the procedure on a group of patients, saw incredible improvement, Burns remembered.

He searched the Internet for more information about the therapy and found a biotechnology company in Thailand that specializes in stem cell therapy for heart patients. The company, TheraVitae, uses VesCell stem cell treatments on patients with coronary artery disease and congestive heart failure. The company’s Web site claimed an 80 percent success rate after treating over 130 patients.

In stem cell therapy, doctors take stem cells from the patient’s own blood, multiply them in a lab and, later, reinject them into the damaged heart.

The more Burns learned, the more excited he got. Many telephone calls and blood tests later, Burns was winging his way to Thailand with his wife, Melva, with high hopes the procedure would help his weakened heart.

On July 20, doctors withdrew blood from Burns. Five days later, he sat on a steel table in a hospital operating room, watching a monitor as doctors worked.

“It took about 40 minutes,” Burns said. “They put 28 million stem cells into me.”