Tag Archives: Hematology

Bone Marrow Biopsy

Introduction: Bone marrow is the spongy material found in the center of most large bones in the body. The different cells that make up blood are made in the bone marrow. Bone marrow produces red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. Along with a biopsy (the sampling of mostly solid tissue or bone), an aspiration (the sampling of mostly liquid) is often done at the same time.

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Doctors can diagnose many problems that cause anemia, some infections, and some kinds of leukemia or lymphoma cancers by examining a sample of your bone marrow (the tissue where blood cells are made). A bone marrow biopsy is the procedure to collect such a sample. It is done using a large needle inserted through the outside surface of a bone and into the middle of the bone, where the marrow is.

Why the procedure is performed: A bone marrow aspiration and biopsy procedure is done for many reasons.

*The test allows the doctor to evaluate your bone marrow function. It may aid in the diagnosis of low numbers of red blood cells (anemia), low numbers of white blood cells (leukopenia), or low numbers of platelets (thrombocytopenia), or a high number of these types of blood cells.

*The doctor can also determine the cause of some infections, diagnose tumors, determine how far a disease, such as lymphoma, has progressed, and evaluate the effectiveness of chemotherapy or other bone marrow active drugs.

*Where the procedure is performed: Bone marrow aspirations and biopsies can be performed in doctor’s offices, outpatient clinics, and hospitals. The procedure itself takes 10-20 minutes.

Preperation for the test:
You will need to sign a consent form giving your doctor permission to perform this test. Because you will probably receive some pain medicines or anti-anxiety medications that can make you drowsy, you will need to arrange a ride home.

Tell your doctor if you have ever had an allergic reaction to lidocaine or the numbing medicine used at the dentist’s office. Also talk with your doctor before the test if you are taking insulin, or if you take aspirin, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, or other medicines that affect blood clotting. It may be necessary to stop or adjust the dose of these medicines before your test. Most people need to have a blood test done some time before the procedure to make sure they are not at high risk for bleeding complications.

*You may receive instructions about not eating food or drinking liquids before the procedure.

*Be sure to tell your doctor about any prescription medications, over-the-counter medications, as well as herbal supplements you are taking.

*Notify your doctor about all allergies, previous reactions to medications, if you have had any bleeding problems in the past, or if you are pregnant.

*Before the procedure, you will be asked to change into a patient gown.

*Your vital signs-blood pressure, heart rate, respiratory rate, and temperature-will be measured.

*Depending on your doctor, you may have an IV placed or your blood drawn.

*You may be given some medicine to help you relax.

*You may be asked to position yourself on your stomach or your side depending on the site the doctor chooses to use.

Risk Factors:
You will be asked to sign a consent form before the procedure. You will be notified of the alternatives as well as the potential risks and complications of this procedure.

Risks are minimal.

Possible risks include these:

*Persistent bleeding and infection

*Pain after the procedure

*A reaction to the local anesthetic or sedative

Having a sample taken is not harmful for your bone or bone marrow. Injury of nearby tissue from the biopsy is very uncommon. You might have some buttock soreness for a few days, and you may have some bruising at the biopsy site. A few individuals have an allergy or a side effect from the pain medicine or anti-anxiety medicine.

What happens when the test is performed?
Most patients have this test done by a hematologist in a clinic procedure area. You wear a hospital gown during the procedure. A sedative may be injected at this time. (If you are prescribed a sedative in pill form, you will be instructed to take it ahead of time.)

*Most patients have bone marrow sampled from the pelvis. You lie on your stomach and the doctor feels the bones at the top of your buttock. An area on your buttock is cleaned with soap. A local anesthetic is injected to numb the skin and the tissue underneath the skin in the sampling area. This causes some very brief stinging.

*The doctor will choose a place to withdraw bone marrow. Often this is the hip (pelvic bone), but it also can be done from the breastbone (sternum), lower leg bone (tibia), or backbone (vertebra).

*The chosen site will be cleaned with a special soap (iodine solution) or alcohol. After the skin is clean, sterile towels will be placed around the area. It is important that you do not touch this area once it has become sterile.

*Local anesthetic, usually lidocaine, will be injected with a tiny needle at the site. Initially, there may be a little sting followed by a burning sensation. After a few minutes, the site will become numb. A needle is then placed through the skin and into the bone. You may feel a pressure sensation.

*For the bone marrow aspiration, a small amount of bone marrow is then pulled into a syringe.

*A bone marrow biopsy is then usually performed. A somewhat larger needle is then put in the same place and a small sample of bone and marrow is taken up into the needle.

*After taking the liquid sample, the doctor carefully moves the needle a little bit further into the bone marrow to collect a second sample of marrow called a core biopsy. This core biopsy is a small solid piece of bone marrow, with not just the liquid and cells but also the fat and bone fibers that hold them together. After the needle is pulled out, this solid sample can be pushed out of the needle with a wire so that it can be examined under a microscope. Pressure is applied to your buttock at the biopsy location for a few minutes, until you are not at risk of bleeding. A bandage is placed on your buttock.
Must you do anything special after the test is over?
You will feel sleepy from the medicines used to reduce pain and anxiety.
After the local anesthetic wears off over the next few hours, you may have some discomfort at the biopsy site. Your doctor will advise you about pain medication.Once these medicines have worn off (a few hours after the test), you can return to normal activities, but you should not drive or drink alcohol for the rest of the day.

You should keep the bandage on for 48 hours, and then it should be removed.

After the test:
The samples taken from your bone marrow will be sent to a laboratory and the pathologist for analysis. Several tests are done including looking at the bone marrow under a microscope. The results of these tests will usually be available in a few days. Your doctor will give you instructions for follow-up.

When to Seek Medical Care:
Call your doctor if you notice signs of spreading redness, continued bleeding, fever, worsening pain, or if you have other concerns after this procedure.

Go to a hospital’s emergency department if these conditions develop:

*If your bleeding will not stop with direct pressure
*If you see thick discharge from the wound
*If you have a persistent fever
*If you feel lightheaded

How long is it before the result of the test is known?
Some parts of your bone marrow biopsy report may be available within a day, but some tests require special stains or tests that can take longer, in some cases up to one week.

Resources:
https://www.health.harvard.edu/fhg/diagnostics/bone-marrow-biopsy.shtml
http://www.emedicinehealth.com/bone_marrow_biopsy/article_em.htm

Beauty of the Beetroot

Scientists have discovered that beetroot has a remarkable effect on lowering blood pressure. Maria Fitzpatrick tries a medically approved new juice...

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Have you ever considered swapping your morning glass of fresh orange for freshly squeezed beetroot? Thought not – but in light of a remarkable discovery, it may be worth downing the inky, purple-red stuff with your cornflakes. And, thanks to the launch this month of a scrumptious new juice, getting your daily dose won’t require a pinch of the nose or scrubbing stubborn, deep purple stains off your chopping board.

Earlier this year, scientists at Barts and the London School of Medicine found that beetroot juice can have as great an effect on blood pressure as conventional drugs.

Led by Professor Amrita Ahluwalia of the William Harvey Research Institute – the renowned pharmacology centre that discovered how aspirin can prevent heart attacks and strokes – the research team found that just three hours after drinking 500ml of the juice (the equivalent of eating five medium-sized beetroots) there was a significant decrease in volunteers’ blood pressure. The remarkable effects were still noticeable 24 hours later.

That such an inexpensive and bounteous vegetable may lower blood pressure makes beetroot worthy of its new-found status as the first “super-root”. However, the woody consistency, off-putting earthy aroma and overly sweet taste (delete as applicable), of its raw juice have long prevented more of us taking a glug – which is a shame, given that one in three adults in the UK now suffers from hypertension and could benefit from a regular 250ml dose, the equivalent of an average glass.

According to the Blood Pressure Association, a third of sufferers don’t even realise they have the condition, which results in an estimated 350 “preventable” strokes or heart attacks every day.
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So how does beetroot work in the body? Like other superfoods, it has antioxidants in abundance, and is rich in iron, boron and folic acid. Betanene, which gives it its deep colour, is even more potent an antioxidant than polyphenols, the plant chemicals thought to be a key reason for people whose diets are rich in leafy vegetables having lower blood pressure.

But, says Professor Ben Benjamin, a consultant in Acute Medicine at the Peninsula Medical School in Plymouth and member of the research team, it is beetroot’s capacity to absorb and store exceptionally high levels of nitrate that earns it the super-root title. Nitrates are nutrients found in soil which all plants need to build protein, and which the body harnesses in its battle against blood pressure.

“When nitrate is present in high concentration in saliva, bacteria on the tongue converts it into a more reactive chemical, nitrite,” Prof Benjamin explains. “When the nitrite is swallowed, it is easily converted into nitric oxide, a chemical which is continually produced by our blood vessels to make them relax and hence keep blood pressure low. So dramatically increasing the levels of nitrate with beetroot juice increases this effect.”

Along with its anti-hypertensive effects, the study also found that the high levels of nitrates in beetroot juice work like aspirin does to prevent blood clots, and help to protect the lining of the blood vessels.

So encouraged were researchers by the magnitude of the blood pressure effect that they approached a Suffolk-based natural drinks company to produce a bottled beetroot juice that would make it easy for people to introduce the root into their diet.

The resulting juice, HeartBeet, is certainly palatable, and definitely good for you. A “no bits” blend of crushed organic roots, with a touch of apple juice (10 per cent) to balance out the taste, it is now on sale in selected Holland & Barrett stores. Unlike other juices already available, seven per cent of its proceeds will go directly back into funding cardiovascular research.

It’s rare for the medical community to put its weight so boldly behind the power of nature over pharmacology. According to Prof Benjamin, it is testament to the importance of the findings, which he believes could lead the way to proving that high blood pressure can be treated by altering diet alone, and with fewer – if any – conventional drugs.

“Currently, treatment for high blood pressure involves a cocktail of aspirin, statins, beta blockers, and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors. Many people really don’t like taking all the tablets, especially since they often don’t feel unwell, and the treatment is essentially lifelong.”

One patient with high blood pressure, 60-year-old David Kelsall from Stoke-on-Trent, is already reaping the rewards of drinking a glass of beetroot juice a day. “I discovered that my blood pressure was higher than normal when my doctor was testing for something else,” he says. “It was 165/90mmHg – not life-threateningly serious, but none the less I was anxious to do something about it.”

Before committing to medication, he decided to give beetroot juice a try. “I drank three bottles of liquidised beetroot a week. Less than four weeks after the first test, I had my blood pressure taken again, and it had already levelled out to 150/90mmHg.” (A normal blood pressure reading would be in the range of 120/80mmHg.) “Now, a few months later, it is under control and normal. I am still drinking the juice, and I’m going to continue doing so. It may not help everyone, but it’s helped me.”

A growing body of research around the world suggests that the crucial nitrates in beetroot may also contribute to protecting us against other diseases, including infections and stomach ulcers – yet more reason to drink up. Having established a connection with blood pressure, scientists are now assessing just how much – or, rather, how little – of the juice is required for it to be effective.

If nothing else, beetroot’s health credentials give us all a reason to be smug: for once, the British country garden has come up with a foodstuff that trumps those in the Mediterranean “wonder diet”. And right now is the perfect time to grow your own. Beetroot seeds won’t germinate in temperatures below 7°C, or when there’s any inkling of ground frost, so early- to mid-summer is ideal to start planting. It can take as little as 10 weeks for a crop to mature, so you could be serving beetroot juice at your final summer barbecue of the year. We should all drink to that!
# HeartBeet organic beetroot juice (£1.49 for 25cl) is available from major Holland & Barrett stores (0870 606 6605, www.hollandandbarrett.com). For more details, call 01473 890111 or visit www.heartbeet.info

Sources: Telegraph.co.uk

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Nose Bleeds(Epistaxis)

Nosebleeds or Epistaxis are more often annoying than a serious health threat, although they can indicate the presence of other underlying illnesses.Most nosebleeds can be treated at home. They are messy and can be embarrassing, but most do not need professional medical attention. It is the relatively common occurrence of hemorrhage from the nose, usually noticed when the blood drains out through the nostrils. There are two types: anterior (the most common), and posterior (less common, more likely to require medical attention). Sometimes in more severe cases, the blood can come up the nasolacrimal duct and out from the eye. Fresh blood and clotted blood can also flow down into the stomach and cause nausea and vomiting. It accounts for only 0.001% of all deaths in the U.S.

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What are they?
Most nosebleeds start in the lower part of the septum, the semi-rigid wall that separates the two channels of the nose.It contains blood vessels that can be broken by a blow to the nose or the edge of a sharp fingernail.With these nosebleeds – known as anterior nosebleeds – bleeding can occur from one side of the nose (epistaxis) or both (epistaxis bilateral).They can usually be treated easily at home and do not require medical attention.More rarely, posterior nosebleeds start when bleeding begins high and deep within the nose.Blood flows down the back of the mouth and throat even when the patient is sitting up or standing.This more severe type of nosebleed needs immediate medical attention.

Click to see picture of  nasal anatomy

Causes:
The cause of nosebleeds can generally be divided into two categories, local and systemic factors, although it should be remembered that a significant number of nosebleeds occur with no obvious cause.

Local factors:

* Anatomical deformities, such as septal spurs or Osler-Weber-Rendu Syndrome
* Chemical inhalant
* Inflammatory reaction (eg. acute respiratory tract infections, chronic sinusitis, allergic rhinitis and environmental irritants)
* Foreign bodies
* Intranasal tumors (Nasopharyngeal carcinoma in adult, and nasopharyngeal angiofibroma in adolescent males)
* Nasal prong O2 which tends to dry the nasal mucosa
* Nasal sprays, particularly prolonged or improper use of nasal steroids
* Surgery (such as septoplasty and endoscopic sinus surgery)
* Trauma (usually a sharp blow to the face)
* Nose-picking
* Low relative humidity of air breathed occurring especially during winter seasons.
* Otic barotrauma from descent in aircraft or scuba diving.

Systemic factors:

* Drugs – Aspirin, Fexofenadine/Allegra/Telfast, warfarin, ibuprofen, clopidogrel, isotretinoin, desmopressin and others
* Alcohol (due to vasodilation)
* Allergies
* Blood dyscrasias
* Heart failure (due to an increase in venous pressure)
* Hematological malignancy
* Hypertension
* Infectious diseases
* Narcotics, particularly insufflated cocaine
* Pregnancy
* Vascular disorders
Nosebleeds are caused by the rupture of a small blood vessel called a capilliary in the nose.The most common cause of this is injury – a good bash to the nose will result in bleeding.

Nosebleeds are due to the rupture of a blood vessel within the richly perfused nasal mucosa . Rupture may be spontaneous or initiated by trauma. An increase in blood pressure (eg due to general hypertension) or local blood flow (for example following a cold or infection) will increase the likelihood of a spontaneous nosebleed. Anticoagulant medication and disorders of blood clotting can promote and prolong bleeding. Spontaneous epistaxis is more common in the elderly as the nasal mucosa (lining) becomes dry and thin and blood pressure tends to be higher. The elderly are also more prone to prolonged nose bleeds as their blood vessels are less able to constrict and control the bleeding. The vast majority of nose bleeds occur in the anterior (front) part of the nose from the nasal septum. This area is richly endowed with blood vessels (Kiesselbach’s plexus). This region is also known as Little’s area. Bleeding further back in the nose is known as a posterior bleed and is usually due to rupture of the sphenopalatine artery or one of its branches. Posterior bleeds are often prolonged and difficult to control. They can be associated with bleeding from both nostrils and with a greater flow of blood into the mouth.
The other main cause is dryness of the inside of the nose. A dry climate or heated indoor air irritates and dries out nasal membranes, causing crusts that may itch and then bleed when picked.
Other causes of nosebleeds are colds, high altitude, allergies and medications.Nosebleeds can also result from a calcium deficiency.Occasionally, nosebleeds may indicate other disorders such as bleeding disorders, cancer, high blood pressure or disease of the arteries.They can also indicate hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia, also known as Osler-Weber-Rendu syndrome.This is a disorder involving a vascular growth similar to a birthmark in the back of the nose.

Treatment
Doctors advise people with lower-septum nosebleeds to sit up straight and pinch the nostrils together firmly for 10 minutes.An ice pack can also be applied to the nose and cheeks.The pressure should then be relieved to see if the nose is still bleeding.If it is, patients are advised to pinch the nostrils for another 10 minutes.

If the nosebleed was caused by atmospheric dryness, the patient should breathe steamy air. After bleeding stops, petroleum jelly can be applied just inside the nose to prevent further bleeding.
Once bleeding has stopped, the sufferer should avoid any strenuous activity for 12 hours. Nor should they blow their nose, as this may dislodge blood clots and cause bleeding to start again.If bleeding does not stop after 30 minutes of direct pressure, patients should see a doctor.If blood runs down the back of the throat when pressure is applied to the nose, it could be a higher-septum nosebleed and require a visit to the doctor.Patients should also seek professional help if nosebleeds occur more than once a week.

The flow of blood normally stops when the blood clots, which may be encouraged by direct pressure applied by pinching the soft fleshy part of the nose. This applies pressure to Little’s area, the source of the majority of nose bleeds and promotes clotting. Pressure should be firm and be applied for at least 10 minutes while keeping the head in the neutral position[citation needed] and spitting out any blood which flows into the mouth. There is no benefit to pinching the bridge of the nose or to tilting the head backwards or forwards. Swallowing excess blood can irritate the stomach and cause vomiting. Local application of an ice pack to the forehead or back of the neck or sucking an ice cube has seen widespread practice, but has been shown to not have any statistically significant effects on nasal mucosal blood flow. In the past, it was commonly thought that the ice would help by promoting constriction of local blood vessels and thus reducing blood flow to slow down the bleed. Do not pack the nose with tissues or gauze.

The local application of a vasoconstrictive agent has been shown to reduce the bleeding time in benign cases of epistaxis. The drugs oxymetazoline or phenylephrine are widely available in over-the-counter nasal sprays for the treatment of allergic rhinitis, and may be used for this purpose.

Other products available promote coagulation include Coalgan (in Europe) or NasalCEASE (in the US). These are a calcium alginate mesh that is inserted in the nasal cavity to accelerate coagulation.

If these simple measures do not work then medical intervention may be needed to stop bleeding, possibly by an otolaryngologist (ENT doctor). In the first instance this can take the form of chemical cautery of any bleeding vessels or packing of the nose with ribbon gauze or an absorbent dressing (called Anterior nasal packing). Such procedures are best carried out by a medical professional. Chemical cauterisation is most commonly conducted using local application of silver nitrate compound to any visible bleeding vessel. This is a painful procedure and the nasal mucosa should be anaesthetised first, preferably with the addition of topical adrenaline to further reduce bleeding. If bleeding is still uncontrolled or no focal bleeding point is visible then the nasal cavity should be packed with a sterile dressing, which by applying pressure to the nasal mucosa will tamponade the bleeding point. Ongoing bleeding despite good nasal packing is a surgical emergency and can be treated by endoscopic evaluation of the nasal cavity under general anaesthesia to identify an elusive bleeding point or to directly ligate (tie off) the blood vessels supplying the nose. These blood vessels include the sphenopalatine, anterior and posterior ethmoidal arteries. More rarely the maxillary or external carotid artery can be ligated. The bleeding can also be stopped by intra-arterial embolization using a catheter placed in the groin and threaded up the aorta to the bleeding vessel by an interventional radiologist. Continued bleeding may be an indication of more serious underlying conditions.

Chronic epistaxis resulting from a dry nasal mucosa can be treated by spraying saline in the nose three times per day, lubricating the nose with ointment/creams like vasoline and installing a humidifer in the bedroom.

Application of a topical antibiotic ointment to the nasal mucosa has been shown to be an effective treatment for recurrent epistaxis. One study found it to be as effective as nasal cautery in the prevention of recurrent epistaxis in patients without active bleeding at the time of treatment (both had a success rate of approximately 50 percent.)

Nosebleeds are rarely dangerous unless prolonged and heavy. Nevertheless they should not be underestimated by medical staff. Particularly in posterior bleeds a great deal of blood may be swallowed and thus blood loss underestimated. The elderly and those with co-existing morbidities, particularly of blood clotting should be closely monitored for signs of shock.

Recurrent nosebleeds may cause anemia due to iron deficiency.

Cauterisation is the minor surgical procedure used to stop heavy nosebleeds.It involves destroying tissue with an electric current, a hot iron, or caustic chemicals.This seals the ruptured blood vessel and prevents further bleeding.This page contains basic information. If you are concerned about your health, you should consult a doctor.

You may click to see:->Natural Cures for Nose Bleed

>Nose Bleed Prevention Tips

>Natural Remedies for Nose Bleeds

> Home Remedy for Nose Bleed

Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.This is purely for educational purpose

Resources:
http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/health/262462.stm
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Epistaxis

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Leech Therapy

Definition:
The use of leeches in medical treatment. Once used as an almost universal cure, leeches were largely abandoned by medicine but in the second half of the 20th century refound a role. That role is largely in plastic and reconstructive surgery. Leeches can assist, for example, in the reattachment of severed body parts such as a finger, hand, toe, leg, ear, nose or the scalp.

The surgeon usually has little difficult connecting the two ends of small arteries, since arteries are thick-walled and relatively simple to suture. However, veins are thin-walled, fragile, and difficult to suture. The surgeon may thus get blood flowing in the reattached arteries but not in the veins. With the venous circulation severely compromised, the blood going to the reattached body part becomes congested and stagnant. The reattached part turns blue and lifeless and is at risk of being lost. It is then that leeches are summoned to treat the threatening venous insufficiency, but only when there is adequate arterial flow.

Contemporary leech therapy was pioneered by the surgeons, M. Derganc and F. Zdravic, who published a paper in 1960 describing the use of leeches to assist in tissue flap surgery — surgery in which a flap of skin is freed or rotated from an adjacent body area to cover a defect or injury. Their rationale behind this use of leeches was based on a unique property of the leech bite, namely, the creation of a puncture wound that bleeds for hours. For information related to this property of leeches, click to see: Hirudin.

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Amount of Blood patient loose in Leech Threapy:

With a treatment with 8 leech the blutverlust for the patient is including to the Nachbluten with approx. 200 to 350 ml blood. “a small Egel sucks 2 – the quantity doubles itself 3 g, more largely to 30 g, on average by the postoperative hemorrhage. Generally one counts on an average value of 20 – is limited 30 g total blood loss per leech and to setting 4 – 12 copies in a meeting ”

Leech bite is more or less painless:
The bite of a leechs is felt by the patients like Brennesseln or mosquito passes. The bite of the leechs is not painful thus. By the histamine-similar substances it can come in the process of the treatment to easy itching, similarly as with an insect bite. The leech saliva is filled with a chemical that contains a painkiller, which stops you from feeling the bite. The saliva also has a chemical, which keeps the blood from clotting.

Leech Therapy is done on Patients with an unsatisfactory blood circulation:
Is by its blood-diluting and container-extending effect the leech the ideal Therapeut for blood circulation disturbances. With multiplicity of diseases there is a connection with an unsatisfactory blood circulation. Clearly on the hand all diseases lie with our container system are connected like Thrombose, cramp veins, Haemorrhoiden, cardiac infarct, impact accumulations, calcifying the containers, Tinnitus.
At the same time it could be stated that the leech therapy can cause an improvement also with pain. Positive effects could be determined with rheumatism, Arthrose, volume disk problems, pulling, bruises, muscular pains or muscle injuries.

How Leech Therapy is accomplished:
1. Wash hands.
2. Select appropriate personal protective equipment (gloves).
3. Cleanse area with normal saline soaked sterile gauze.
4. Apply leeches with gloved hand on tweezers.
5. Allow leech to attach large posterior end first and direct smaller head end to the desired site. ( Leeches can be loaded into an empty syringe without a plunger “rear end first” and the open end of syringe is placed over the desired site to ensure proper placement. )
6. Apply the other leeches if neseseary.
7. Monitor leeches until they fill with blood (10-20 minutes). Usually the leech falls off itself (if not use salt. Leeches do not like salt and will drop off)

Assistance if the leech once not to bite wants:
With certain site conditions leech bite more badly
*with cold skin
*with smokers
*with perfume-pure
*with older humans
Remedy is possible through warms up and cleans the skin. Further measures those are helpful the skin soften and the blood circulation promote. If the leech does not want to bite at all, there is the possibility the skin with a needle to puncture still.

Side Effects of Leech Therapy:
With adequate execution of the leech therapy and attention of all contraindications heavy side effects arise very rarely. Local reactions is possible in the proximity of the point of bite, also cycle weakness occurs relatively more frequently. During a cramp vein treatment with that the leech directly on the Vene is set, gives it naturally a longer postoperative hemorrhage phase. A longer postoperative hemorrhage can put on however at any time by an appropriate druckverbandes to be stopped.

Leeches are being used in The Treatment because:
Leeches can relieve blood pooling around a muscle or skin flap better than drugs or other treatments. They are used to keep blood flow in muscle, skin and fat tissue that has been surgically moved from one part of your body to another. These tissues are also called flaps .
Why is leech therapy is used instead of other medical treatment?
In some cases, leeches do a better job by removing pooled blood than any other medical therapy
What are the benefits of leech treatment?
The benefits of treatment are not only the amount of blood that the leech removes but the anti-blood clotting enzymes in their saliva that allow blood flow from the area where they have been

The biggest barrier to leech therapy:
It has been the reaction that people have when they are told about the possible use of leeches in their care. Many people are afraid of these creatures crawling on their body.

Click to learn more about Leech Therapy:->

Leech therapy as medication

Biotherapeutics Education & Research Foundation

Demi Moore’s Beauty Secret … Leeches!

Leech Therapy – A Featured Program on PBS

Demi Moore uses leeches to cleanse her blood

Leeches therapy industry booms

Resources:
http://www.medterms.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=33718
http://www.leeches.biz/leech-therapy.htm

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Stem Cells To Cure Vascular Disease

SEOUL: South Korean scientists said Monday they used human embryonic stem cells to treat mice suffering from a vascular disease, in an experiment that could lead to cures for strokes and other ailments.

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The team, led by Pochon Cha University’s Chung Hyung-Min and Kim Byung-Soo of Hanyang University, said the stem cells were differentiated into blood vessels that were grafted onto the animals afflicted with ischemia.

Ischemia is caused by a shortage of blood to a part of the body, stemming from the constriction of blood vessels. Of the 11 mice treated, four developed new vascular cells that fully revived the damaged limb, while four suffered from a relatively mild case of necrosis. Three lost their legs due to the cut-off of blood flow.

Necrosis is a disease leading to the death of tissue and bone.

The findings appeared in the latest online issue of Circulation, a journal published by the American Heart Association. They showed 10 other mice given alternative treatment failed to recover.

“The findings showed that in the case of animals, the use of stem cells helped save limbs,” Chung told Yonhap news agency.

If further research is carried out, he said, it may help scientists create a wide range of blood vessels.
The professor was quoted as saying that such developments could lead to cures for human strokes, myocardial infections and foot ulcerations caused by diabetes.

More detailed research will be carried out in the next few years to find ways to treat vascular cell-related diseases.

Meanwhile, the identification of a new marker is making it possible to track brain stem cells for the first time, American researchers said. The achievement is already opening doors to new research into depression, early childhood development and multiple sclerosis.

Source:The Times Of India

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