Herbs & Plants


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Botanical Name :Clerodendrum inerme (Linn.) Gaertn
Family : Verbenaceae

Other Scientific Names:  Clerodendrum commersonii Spreng.,Clerodendrum nerifolium Wall. ,Volkameria commersonii Poir.,Volkameria inermis Linn. ,Volkameria nereifolia Roxb.,Clerodendrum capsulare Blanco,

Common Names: Gaertn. Ang-angri (Ilk.),Baliseng (Bis.),Busel-busel (Ilk.),Mañgoñgot (Tag.),Samin-añga (Sul.),Tabang-oñgong (P. Bis.),Seaside clerodendron (Engl.) ,Garden quinine (Engl.) ,Sorcerer’s bush (Engl.),Wild jasmine (Engl.) ,Ku lang shu (Chin.)

Habitat : Mañgoñgot is found along the seashore and beside tidal streams throughout the Philippines. It also occurs in India to Formosa, and through Malaya to tropical Australia and Polynesia.

This plant is an erect or somewhat straggling shrub 1 to 4 meters high. The leaves are ovate, oblong-ovate, or elliptic-ovate, 4 to 8 centimeters long, 2 to 5 centimeters wide, shinning, smooth, entire, and pointed at the tip. The inflorescence (cyme) is usually composed of three flowers and is borne in the axils of the leaves. The calyx is green, narrowly funnel-shaped, and furnished with 5 very short teeth. The corolla is about 3 centimeters long and comprises a slender, white tube spreading, purple-tinged lobes which are about 7 millimeters long. The stamens are long-exserted, and purple. The fruit is obovoid, about 1.5 centimeters long, and splitting into 4 pyrenes. The calyx in the fruit is about 1 centimeter in diameter.

click & see the pictures

Medicinal Uses:
Parts used: Root, leaves.

* Leaves yield a bitter principle that is entirely removed by ether; and treatment with alcohol and water yields extracts free from bitterness. The bitter principle shows a resemblance to Chiretta (Swertia chirata), a gentianaceous plant.
* Leaves also yield a fragrant stearoptin with an apple-like odor; resin; gum; brown coloring matter; and ash containing a large amount of sodium chloride (24.01% of the ash).
* Study of hexane extract of the aerial parts isolated an aliphatic glucoside characterized as pentadecanoic acid-ß-D-glucoside. A butanol extract yielded acacetin and apigenin.

*Leaves are mucilaginous and fragrant.
*Considered alterative, febrifuge and resolvent.

*In the Philippines, root decoction is used as febrifuge and alterative.
*Leaves are used in poultices as resolvent.
*Elsewhere, the root, boiled in oil, is applied like a liniment for rheumatism.
*In Guam, the bitter root, leaves and wood are used by natives as a remedy for intermittent fevers.
*Poultices of leaves used for swellings to prevent suppuration.
*Leaves and roots, in tincture and decoction, used as substitute for quinine.
*Juice of leaves and root used as alterative in scrofulous and venereal diseases.
*Poultices of leaves applied to resolve buboes.
*Leaf bath recommended for mani and for itches.
*At one time, sailors of Macassar were reported to take the fruit, seeds and roots to sea, and a decoction or pounded seeds were ingested when taken sick by ingestion of poisonous fish and crabs.
*Leaves, eaten with rice, used to increase the appetite.
*In Java, fruit used as medicine for dysentery.
*In Africa, used to treat hypertension.
*In traditional Indian medicine, leaves used for treating fever, cough, skin rahses, boils; also, for treating umbilical cord infection and cleaning the uterus.

Studies :
• Megastigmane / Iridoid Glucosides: Study of aerial parts of C. inerme yielded two megastimane glucosides (sammangaosides A and B) and an iridoid glucoside (sammangaoside C) with 15 known compounds.
Hepatoprotective: Study of ethanolic extract of C. inerme leaves in CCl4-induced liver damage in Swiss albino rats showed hepatoprotective activity with significant reduction of liver enzymes ALT, AST and alkaline phosphatase, with significant increase in glutathione level.
Hypotensive Activity: Study of aqueous extract of Clerodendrum inerme leaves showed a hypotensive effect attributted to the presence of chemical elements such as alkaloids and polyphenols. Results support its traditional use for its hypotensive effect.
• Antifungal: Study of the ethyl acetate and hexane extracts of leaves and stems of C. inerme and C. phlomidis showed both inhibited inhibition of all plant and human pathogenic fungi. The leaf extract of C. inerme inhibited plant pathogenic fungi better than the human dermatophytes.
• Antioxidant / Free Radical Scavenging Activity: Study of methanolic extract of leaves of C. inerme showed free radical scavenging activity increasing with concentration, with maximum activity at 2500 mg/mL. Antioxidant activity may be due to phenolic compounds.
• Antibacterial / Wound Healing: Study of methanol, ethyl acetate and aqueous extracts showed significant inhibition against 15 of 18 bacterial tested. Results clearly showed the leaves were effective in controlling bacterial pathogens, particular gram positive bacteria. Results also confirmed its utility as a wound-healing agent.
• Anti-Inflammatory / Analgesic: Study of the methanol extract of C. inerme in animal models exhibited anti-inflammatory activty. In addition, it showed significant analgesic activity in acetic acid induced-writhing model. The effects were attributed largely to its antioxidant and lysosomal membrane stabilizing effects.

The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.


Click to access mangongot.pdf

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Herbs & Plants


Botanical Name :Flacourtia indica (Burm. f.) Merr.
Family: Flacourtiaceae
Genus: Flacourtia
Species: F. indica
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Violales

Other Scientific Names : Gmelina indica Burm. f.,Mespilus sylvestris Burm.,Flacourtia sepiaria Roxb.,Flacourtia ranibtcgu L’ Herit. ,Myroxylon decline Blanco ,Flacourtia cataphracta Rolfe

Common Names :  Bitangol (Sbl.),Bitunogo (Tag.),Bolong (Mang.), Palutan (Ibn.), Saua-saua (Bis.),Many spiked Flacourtia (Engl.)

Habitat : Palutan is found in dry thickets at low altitude in Cagayan, Isabela, Zambales, Tarlac, Bataan, Rizal, and Batangas Provinces in Luzon; and in Mindoro. It also occurs in India to tropical Africa and Malaya.

The plant is an erect, branched, more or less spiny shrub of small tree, growing to a height of 3 meters. Spines are slender and scattered, up to 2 cm long. Leaves are obovate to oblong-ovate, 2.5 to 5 cm long, with toothed margins and rounded lobes, the based pointed with the tip rounded. Flowers are white, about 5 mm in diameter, borne on axillary or terminating short branchlets, solitary or in pairs. Fruit is rounded, about 1 cm in diameter, fleshy when fresh, smooth and purple or nearly black. The pulp is edible, fleshy and sweet, enclosing 6 to 10 small and flattened seeds.


Edible Uses: In India, fruits consumed as food by local people.

Medicinal Uses:
Parts Used: Bark and leaves.

*Bark is astringent.
*Dried leaves considered carminative, expectorant, tonic and astringent.

*Infusion of the bark used for hoarseness and as a gargle.

*In Madagascar, the bark is titurated in oil and used as a rheumatic liniment.

*The ashes of the roots are used for kidney ailments.

*Dried leaves are used in asthma, bronchitis, phthisis and catarrh of the bladder.

*Juice of fresh leaves and tender stalks used for fevers.

*As an antiperiodic for infants, 5 to 10 drops are placed in water or in mother’s milk.

*Also used in phthisical coughs, dysentery, diarrhea and indigestion during dentition.

*In Bengal, used as a tonic during parturition.

*The fruit is used for bilious disorders and to relieve nausea and vomiting.

*In India, used as an antiviral.

*In Sabah, roots used for headaches, leaves for colic.

*In Tanzania, fruit used for jaundice and enlarged spleens; leaves and roots for schistosomiasis, malaria and diarrhea. Also, the roots are used for hoarseness, pneumonia, intestinal worms; and as astringent, diuretic and analgesic.

Studies :-
Hepatoprotective / Paracetamol-Induced Hepatotoxicity: Study of extracts of aerial parts of F indica in paracetamol-induced hepatic necrosis in rat models exhibited hepatoprotective effects probably mediated through the inhibition of the microsomal metabolizing enzymes.
• Hepatoprotective / CCL4-Induced Hepatotoxicity: Study results conclude that aqueous extract of leaves of F indica protects the liver against oxidative damages and can be used as an effective protector against CCl4-induced hepatic damage.
• Antimalarial: Study reports on the antiplasmodial activity of the AcOEt extract and three major constituents of Flacourtia indica.

The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.


Click to access palutan.pdf

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Herbs & Plants

Headache tree

Botanical Name:Premna integrifolia Blanco
Family: Lamiaceae
Genus: Premna
Species: P. serratifolia
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Lamiales

Other scientific names:Premna nauseosa Blanco,Premna latifolia Roxb.  ,Premna leucostoma Naves ,Premna mucronata Schaue,Premna timoriana Hallier ,Premna serratifolia L.

Common names  : Agrau (Ilk.),Areu (Sbl.0),Alagau-gubat (Tag.), Malamulauin (Tag.),Ananghit (Tag.),Mulauin-aso (Tag.), Anghit (Tag.) Headache tree (Engl.), Angsuan (Bik.), Ansuan (Bik.)

Local Names :Alagaw-dagat, Alagaw-baybay, Alagaw

Sanskrit : Angnimantha,Marathi: Arani,Tagalog: Alagaw

Habitat :Indigenous to East Africa, India, Bangladesh, coasts/islands of the Indian ocean, Japan, China, Taiwan, coasts of Southeast Asia (including the Philippines), Papua New Guinea, Australia, Polynesia and Melanesia.  Coastal environment / Coastal thickets

Description :
A shrub or small tree reaching a height of 10 meters; slightly hairy to smooth. Leaves are elliptic-ovate to oblong-ovate, 6 to 10 cm long, 3 to 6 cm wide, pointed at the tip and pointed or rounded at the base. The flowers are small, greenish or greenish white, numerous, borne on terminal inflorescences (cymes), and up to 5 cm long and 6 cm wide. Calyx is green, equally 4-toothed and 1 to 1.5 cm long. Corolla is 4 mm long and hairy inside. Stamens are white. Fruid is rounded, fleshy, dark purple, 4 to 5 mm long.

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Trunk :  Usually bent, much-branched

Leaves :  Opposite; Ovate, margin entire (reports of serration in some literatures), firm, glossy rich green

Fruit :  Drupe; Small, clustered at the terminal ends of the branch, rounded, green to deep purple to nearly black

Fruiting season :  Immature fruits seen on October

Traits :  Drought tolerant; Evergreen; Salt spray tolerant; Large shrub or Small tree; Tolerant of infertile soil; Wind hardy

Edible Uses:Leaves are eaten as vegetable.


*Stem bark contains three alkaloids: premnine, ganiarine, ganikarine.
*Premnine and ganiarine have sympathomimetic actions.

Medicinal Uses:
Parts used:Leaves, bark.

Properties and Constituents:
* Leaves have a rank odor when crushed.
* Used as cardiotonic, antibiotic, anticoagulant, stomachic, carminative, hepatoprotective, galactagogue, laxative.

Various parts of the plant are used in traditional and in Indian Ayurvedic medicine:

*Leaves sometimes used as a “nganga” component, substitute for Piper betle with seeds of Areca catechu.
*Leaves used for variety of stomach ailments.
*Leaves are Lactating women eat the leaves for breastmilk production;
*Root bark used for fevers, liver complaints, rheumatism, neuralgia.
*In Myanmar, roots and stem bark used as laxative, carminative and stomachic. Decoction of whole plant used for fevers, rheumatism and neuralgia. source
*In Ayurveda, roots are incorporated in many formulations.

• Antibacterial: The alcoholic extract of the root bark showed good antibacterial activity against gram-positive organisms in a preliminary screening.
• Immunomodulatory Activity: The roots of both plants of C. phlomidis and Premna integrifolia are incorporated in many valued Ayurvedic formulations. In a study evaluating the roots for immunomodulatory potential, both roots showed immunoprophylactic effect with C phlomidis showing higher response to specific immune activity. In no specific immune activity, both roots showed equal response.
• The effect of Premna integrifolia Linn. (Verbenaceae) on blood glucose in streptozotocin induced type 1 and type 2 diabetic rats.
• Hypoglycemic activity: In a study of 30 hypoglycemic plants from indigenous folk medicines, Preman integrifolia wsas one of 24 samples that showed significant blood glucose lowering activity.
• Premnazole / Anti-Inflammatory Activity: Premnazole, an isoxazole alkaloid from Premna integrifolia and Gmelina arborea exhibited signnificant anti-inflammatory activity in rats, comparable to that of phenylbutazone.
Cardiac Stimulant Activity: PS contains alkaloids and iridoid glycoside. Study suggests that the ethanol extract produced a cardiotonic effect and the aqueous extract produced a ß-adrenergic effect.
Hepatoprotective / Cytotoxic Activity: Study showed the alcoholic extract with significant hepatoprotective activity evidenced by decrease of serum enzymes, bilirubin and lipid peroxidation, comparable to drug silymarin. It also exhibited significant in-vitro cytotoxic activity. Results showed the alcoholic extract not only as an effective hepatoprotective agent, but with also significant antitumor activity.
• Antiparasitic Activity: In a study of 18 medicinal plants in New Caledonia evaluated in vitro against several parasites, Scaevola balansae and Premna serratifolia were the most active against Leishmania donovani.

Other Uses: Wood for simple implements like boat paddles; Bark used as rope or cordage  ; Firewood

The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider