Herbs & Plants (Spices)

Ferula gummosa

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Botanical Name : Ferula gummosa
Familia: ApiaceaeGalbanum
Subfamily: Apioideae
Genus: Ferula
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Apiales
Tribe: Scandiceae
Subtribes: Ferulinae
Species: Ferula gummosa

Synonyms : Ferula galbaniflua. Bioss.&Buhse.

Common Names: Galbanum
Vernacular names:-
Akan: Prekese
italiano: Galbano

Habitat :Ferula gummosa is native to W. Asia – Central Iran, Turkey and southern Russia. It grows on herbaceous slopes in steppes.

Ferula gummosa is a perennial herb growing to 1 m (3ft 3in) by 1 m (3ft 3in).
It is in flower from May to June, and the seeds ripen from Jun to August. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Flies.The plant is self-fertile.

Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and prefers well-drained soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It cannot grow in the shade. It prefers dry or moist soil.

Succeeds in most soils. Requires a deep fertile soil in a sunny position. This species is not hardy in the colder areas of the country, it tolerates temperatures down to between -5 and -10°c. Another report says that it tolerates temperatures down to at least -15°c and should therefore succeed outdoors in most parts of the country. Plants are intolerant of root disturbance due to their long taproot. They should be planted into their final positions as soon as possible. The flowers have an unpleasant smell.

Seed – best sown as soon as the seed is ripe in a greenhouse in autumn. Otherwise sow in April in a greenhouse. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots as soon as they are large enough to handle. Plant them out into their permanent positions whilst still small because the plants dislike root disturbance. Give the plants a protective mulch for at least their first winter outdoors. Division in autumn. This may be inadvisable due to the plants dislike of root disturbance.
Edible Uses:
Edible Uses: Condiment…….The gum resin obtained from the root is used as a celery-like food flavouring.
Medicinal Uses:
The whole plant, but especially the root, contains the gum resin ‘galbanum‘. This is antispasmodic, carminative, expectorant and stimulant. It is used internally in the treatment of chronic bronchitis, asthma and other chest complaints. It is a digestive stimulant and antispasmodic, reducing flatulence, griping pains and colic. Externally it is used as a plaster for inflammatory swellings, ulcers, boils, wounds and skin complaints.

Other Uses:
The aromatic gum resin ‘Galbanum’ is obtained from wounds made in the stem. It is collected by removing soil from around the top of the root and then cutting a slice off the root and can also be obtained from incisions made in the stem. It is used medicinally and is also an ingredient of incense. It was an important ingredient of the incense used by the Israelites

The whole plant, but especially the root, contains the gum resin “galbanum”. A study of the comparative effects of galbanum gum and two standard binding agents–polyvinylpyrolidone and acacia–on characteristics of acetaminophen and calcium carbonate compacts was made. The Ferula gummosa gum was extracted and its swelling index was determined. Acetaminophen and calcium carbonate granules were prepared using the wet granulation method and were evaluated for their micromeritics and flow properties, while the compacts were evaluated for mechanical properties using the hardness, tensile strength and friability. The drug release from acetaminophen compacts were assessed using dissolution studies. The dry powder of Ferula gummosa gum resin (galbanum) yielded 14% w/w of gum using distilled water as extraction solvent. The swelling index indicates that galbanum gum swelled to about 190% of initial volume in distilled water. Thus galbanum gum has the ability to hydrate and swells in cold water. The bulk and tapped densities and the interspace porosity (void porosity) percent of the granules prepared with different binders showed significant difference. The hardness and tensile strength of acetaminophen and calcium carbonate compacts containing various binders was of the rank order PVP > acacia > galbanum gum (p < 0.05) and the friability percent was of the reverse order (p < 0.05). The ranking for the dissolution rate of tablets containing the different binders was PVP> galbanum gum > acacia. The results of mechanical properties of acetaminophen and calcium carbonate compacts indicate that galbanum gum could be useful to produce tablets with desired mechanical characteristics for specific purposes, and could be used as an alternative substitute binder in pharmaceutical industries.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

News on Health & Science

FDA Announces 20 Dangerous Drugs You Should NOT Be On

drugs, pharmaceuticals, medicine, dangerous drugs, FDA, big pharma, pharmaceutical companies, pharmaceutical industry, GDP, gross domestic product, power, influenceA 2007 federal law requires the FDA to disclose all its investigations into reports of possibly drug-related adverse events. The first of this series of quarterly reports has been released. It includes adverse events reported between January 1 and March 31, 2008.

Here’s the list of drugs and the adverse events that have been reported:

  1. Arginine Hydrochloride Injection (R-Gene 10) — Pediatric overdose due to labeling and packaging confusion
  2. Desflurane (Suprane) — Cardiac arrest
  3. Duloxetine (Cymbalta) — Urinary retention
  4. Etravirine (Intelence) — Hemarthrosis (blood in a joint)
  5. Fluorouracil Cream (Carac) and Ketoconazole Cream (Kuric) — Adverse events due to name confusion
  6. Heparin — Anaphylactic-type (life-threatening allergic) reactions
  7. Icodextrin (Extraneal) — Hypoglycemia (low blood sugar)
  8. Insulin U-500 (Humulin R) — Dosing confusion
  9. Ivermectin (Stromectol) and Warfarin — Drug interaction
  10. Lapatinib (Tykerb) — Hepatotoxicity (liver toxicity)
  11. Lenalidomide (Revlimid)Stevens-Johnson syndrome (a deadly drug reaction)
  12. Natalizumab (Tysabri) — Skin melanomas (deadly skin cancer)
  13. Nitroglycerin (Nitrostat) — Overdose due to labeling confusion
  14. Octreotide Acetate Depot (Sandostatin LAR) — Ileus (bowels not moving)
  15. Oxycodone Hydrochloride Controlled-Release (OxyContin) — Drug misuse, abuse, and overdose
  16. Perflutren Lipid Microsphere (Definity) — Cardiopulmonary reactions (lung/heart problems)
  17. Phenytoin Injection (Dilantin) — Purple glove syndrome (discoloration, pain, and swelling of the hand that may lead to amputation)
  18. Quetiapine (Seroquel) — Overdose due to sample pack labeling confusion
  19. Tebivudine (Tyzeka) — Peripheral neuropathy (tingling or numbness in the extremities)
  20. Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF) Blockers — Cancers in children and young adults
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Herbs & Plants


Part Used : Roots,Stem bark
Habitat : Throughout India upto 900 m, cultivated occasionally.
Description :
It is a perennial climber. It exudes a milky juice. The roots are long, slender, fleshy and much branched. Stems are very long, twining, twisted and tough and brown. The leaves are small and ovate. There are few flowering cymes with white flowers. The features of the plant have been studied. The stem of 0perculina turpethum was found to be identical with commercial black nisoth. The drug available as safed nisoth in the market is Marsdenia tenacissima. Powdered root when exposed to UV light has a bluish yellow fluorescence.

Characteristics and Constituents :
Turpethum roots contain a glycoside resin which is mainly concentrated in the root bark. It contains an ether soluble glycoside, turpethin, ?-turpethin and ?-turpethin.The total ash is 4.2%. Resin content 9-10.50%.

The ethanolic extract obtained from roots of Operculina turpethum (Convolvulaceae) were evaluated for hepatoprotective activity in rats by inducing liver damage by paracetamol. The ethanol extract at an oral dose of 200 mg/kg exhibited a significant protective effect by lowering serum levels of glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, glutamic pyruvic transaminase, alkaline phosphatase and total bilirubin. These biochemical observations were supplemented by histopathological examination of liver sections. Silymarin was used as positive control.

Medicinal Uses :

In constipation, it is an effective laxative. It is used in periodic fevers. In the treatment of anaemia accompanied by splenomegaly, it is used along with other therapy. It is also used to relieve flatulence and colic. In the treatment of obesity, it is used to decrease fat.

It also has anthelmintic expectorant, antipyretic, anti-inflammatory and purgative properties. It is one of the plants mentioned in the literature having claims of activity against liver disorders.

Turpeth has long been used in India as a cathartic, a drug which induces active movement of bowels. Only the dried roots of the white variety with its bark intact finds its place there.

Dropsy:Turpeth is a valuable drug in the trteatment of dropsy.The tuberous root mixed with chebulic mycroban (harad) are specially beneficial in such disorders.

Gouts: For the treatment of gout it is adminstered in same way as for dropst affections.

Jaundice: In Ayurveda, turpet is considered to be one of the two major drugs with which the treatment of jaundice should be started, the other drug kutuki . One or two teaspoonful of the powder of both two drugs may be adminstered with hot water twice daily.

Constipation: Turpethis used as a purgative. It has almost the same properities as the true jalap (Laxative) and can be used with advantage as its substitute. It is superior to the herb rhubarb. Its powdered roos are used as a purgative and to relieve chronic constipation.

Rheumatic diseases: The drug is beneficial in treating rheumatic and paralytic diseases.A single dose of about 5 grams should be taken daily.

Other uses: Turpeth is also effective for other diseases like melancholia, leprosy, enlargement of spleen and paralysis.Its efficiency increases when mixed with chebulic myroblan.

Click to read research paper on Protective effect of root extract of operculina turpethum linn. Against paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity in rats

Click to buy the herb

The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.


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