Categories
Herbs & Plants

Larrea tridentata

[amazon_link asins=’B00B7V6T1K,B01A2UKMT6,B072K9C557,B000FLGTEU,B000AKO4J8,B00E4R1YLO,B0001OP4JC,B00E4R1WTS,B00WOGYN2O’ template=’ProductCarousel’ store=’finmeacur-20′ marketplace=’US’ link_id=’595a9b95-6ab3-11e7-9c7a-21ef405a4e65′]

Botanical Name: Larrea tridentata
Family: Zygophyllaceae
Genus: Larrea
Species: L. tridentata
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Zygophyllales

Synonyms : L. divaricata. L. mexicana.

Common Name : Creosote Bush – Chaparral

Habitat : Larrea tridentata is a prominent species in the Mojave, Sonoran, and Chihuahuan Deserts of western North America, and its range includes those and other regions in portions of
southeastern California, Arizona, southern Nevada, southwestern Utah, New Mexico and Texas in the United States, and northern Chihuahua and Sonora in Mexico. The species grows as far
east as Zapata County, Texas, along the Rio Grande southeast of Laredo near the 99th meridian west. It grows in desert areas.

Description:
Larrea tridentata is an evergreen shrub growing to 1 to 3 metres (3.3 to 9.8 ft) tall, rarely 4 metres (13 ft). The stems of the plant bear resinous, dark green leaves with two opposite lanceolate    leaflets joined at the base, with a deciduous awn between them, each leaflet 7 to 18 millimetres (0.28 to 0.71 in) long and 4 to 8.5 millimetres (0.16 to 0.33 in) broad. The flowers are up to 25     millimetres (0.98 in) in diameter, with five yellow petals. Galls may form by the activity of the creosote gall midge. The whole plant exhibits a characteristic odor of creosote, from which the   common name derives. In the regions where it grows its smell is often associated with the “smell of rain”.

CLICK   &  SEE   THE PICTURES

As the creosote bush grows older, its oldest branches eventually die and its crown splits into separate crowns. This normally happens when the plant is 30 to 90 years old. Eventually the old
crown dies and the new one becomes a clonal colony from the previous plant, composed of many separate stem crowns all from the same seed.

Cultivation:
Requires a moderately fertile moisture-retentive soil in full sun or light shade. This species is not hardy in the colder areas of the country, it tolerates temperatures down to between -5 and –
10°c. The plant is resinous and aromatic.

Propagation :
Seed – we have no information for this species but suggest sowing the seed in a greenhouse in spring. When they are large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and
grow them on in the greenhouse for at least their first winter. Plant them out into their permanent positions in late spring or early summer, after the last expected frosts. Cuttings of new     growth in spring in a frame

Edible Uses: Condiment; Tea.

The flower buds are pickled in vinegar and used as a caper substitute. The stems and leaves are a tea substitute. The twigs are chewed to alleviate thirst. A resin is obtained from the leaves
and twigs, it delays or prevents oils and fats from becoming rancid.

Medicinal Uses:
Chaparal is used for treating such ailments as: tuberculosis, bowel complaints, stomach ulcers and bowel disorders, cancers, and colds and flu. It is found to be beneficial to the walls of
capillaries throughout the body, and so are good to take regularly in cases of capillary fragility. Chaparal contains N.D.G.A.. It is responsible for inhibiting several enzyme reactions, including
lipo oxyginase, which is responsible for some unhealthy inflammatory and immune-system responses. It has been shown to reduce inflammatory histamine responses in the lung, which is good    news for asthma sufferers. N.D.G.A. is one of the most highly anti-oxidant substances known to man. Several types of tumors, such as those in uterine fibroids and fibrosystic breast disease,   can be helped immensely by a concentrated extract of the plant. Chaparal can improve liver function, causing the liver metablolism to speed up, clearing toxins, and improving the livers’   ability to synthesize fatty acids into high density lipids (HDLs….the good quality cholesterol). The low density lipids levels (LDLs….the poor quality cholesterol) decrease. The strong anti-   oxident effects of Larrea t. appear to repair free radical damage caused by drugs such as cocaine and amphetamines.

External uses of the herb include poultices placed on aching joints, and the tea or a fomentation (applied several times per day and left on the area) for such things as ringworm, skin
fungi, and athletes’ foot. Has also been used for reducing fibroids A study in the Journal of Dental Research showed chaparral mouthwash reduced cavities by 75%.

Lipoxygenase and 5-hydroxyeicosatatraenois acid are usually high in the synovial fluid of arthritis sufferers which means Chapparal’s ability to inhibit these can help here as well.
Larrea contains active flavonoids and ligans that, in addition to being anti-oxidants, act as antifungals, antibiotics, and antivirals. It is in this last capacity, as an antiviral that prompted
investigations into its ability to inhibit the spl promoter HIV and as an inhibitor of Herpes simplex-1 in cell cultures; as well as Kaposi’s sarcoma virus. Clinical evaluations consisted of
testimonies from close to 36 persons. Larrea was prepared as an extract in an aloe-based lotion and was effective in reversing symptoms in nearly all cases of HSV-1 and shingles within 12-24
hours and in greatly reducing the severity of sores from Kaposi’s sarcoma in people in full-blown AIDS. The lotion proved to work faster and to be more effective than acyclovir, the main drug   for herpes.

When applied to the skin as a tea, tincture, or salve, Chaparral slows down the rate of bacterial grown and kills it with its antimicrobial activity. Chaparral will also help dry skin,
brittle hair and nails and cracks in the hands or feet.

Known Hazards : Acute hepatitis associated with oral use. Contact dermatitis also reported. Not considered safe as a herbal remedy

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with   your own health care provider.
Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Larrea_tridentata
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Larrea+tridentata
http://www.herbnet.com/Herb%20Uses_C.htm

Categories
Ailmemts & Remedies

Behçet’s Disease

Definition:
Behcet’s disease is a rare, chronic disorder involving inflammation of blood vessels throughout the body. It is marked by recurrent oral and genital ulcers and eye inflammation.It is  an autoimmune response where the immune system turns on the body, causes inflammation of parts of the body. In particular, small blood vessels around the body become inflamed, a condition known as vasculitis.

CLICK & SEE

The cause of Behcet’s remains unknown, but it’s often preceded by a viral infection, for example, which may trigger the autoimmune process, causing the body to attack its own blood vessels and making them inflamed. Experts in the field of Behcet’s research agree the causes may be genetic.

Life for people with Behcet’s is made more difficult because of misunderstandings about the illness. With the appearance of ulcers on the mouth and genitals, it’s often incorrectly assumed the condition is infectious and sexually transmitted – it’s not either of these.

You may click to see more pictures  of Bechcet’s disesse

The disease was first described in 1937 by Dr. Hulusi Behçet, a dermatologist in Turkey. Behçet’s disease is now recognized as a chronic condition that causes canker sores or ulcers in the mouth and on the genitals, and inflammation in parts of the eye. In some people, the disease also results in arthritis (swollen, painful, stiff joints), skin problems, and inflammation of the digestive tract, brain, and spinal cord.

Sign & Symptoms;
Integumentary system (Skin and mucosa):
Nearly all patients present with some form of painful oral mucocutaneous ulcerations in form of aphthous ulcers or non-scarring oral lesions. The oral lesions are similar to those found in inflammatory bowel disease and can be relapsing. Painful genital ulcerations usually develop on the vulva and the scrotum and cause scarring in 75% of the patients. Additionally, patients may present with erythema nodosum, cutaneous pustular vasculitis, and lesions similar to pyoderma gangrenosum.

Ocular system (eyes):…..
Inflammatory eye disease can develop early in the disease course and lead to permanent vision loss in 20% of the cases.  Ocular involvement can be in form of posterior uveitis, anterior uveitis, or retinal vasculitis. Anterior uveitis presents with painful eyes, conjuctival redness, hypopyon, and decreased visual acuity, while posterior uveitis presents with painless decreased visual acuity and visual field floaters. A rare form of ocular (eye) involvement in this syndrome is retinal vasculitis which presents with painless decrease of vision with possibility of floaters or visual field defects.

Gastrointestinal tract (bowels)
GI manifestations include abdominal pain, nausea, diarrhea with or without blood and often involves the ileocecal valve.

Pulmonary (lungs)
Lung involvement is typically in form of hemoptysis, pleuritis, cough, fever, and in severe cases can be life threatening if the outlet pulmonary artery develops an aneurysm which ruptures causing severe vascular collapse and death from bleeding in the lungs.

Musculoskeletal system (muscle, joint)

Arthralgia is seen in up to half of patients, and is usually a non-erosive poly or oligoarthritis of primarily the large joints of the lower extremities.

Neurological system:
Neurological involvements range from aseptic meningitis, to vascular thrombosis such as dural sinus thrombosis and or organic brain syndrome manifesting with confusion, seizures, and memory loss. They oftern appear late in the progression of the disease but are associated with a poor prognosis.

Causes:
The exact cause of Behçet’s disease is unknown. Most symptoms of the disease are caused by inflammation of the blood vessels. Inflammation is a characteristic reaction of the body to injury or disease and is marked by four signs: swelling, redness, heat, and pain. Doctors think that an autoinflammatory reaction may cause the blood vessels to become inflamed, but they do not know what triggers this reaction. Under normal conditions, the immune system protects the body from diseases and infections by killing harmful “foreign” substances, such as germs, that enter the body. In an autoimmune reaction, the immune system mistakenly attacks and harms the body’s own tissues.

Behçet’s disease is not contagious; it is not spread from one person to another. Researchers think that two factors are important for a person to get Behçet’s disease. First, it is believed that abnormalities of the immune system make some people susceptible to the disease. Scientists think that this susceptibility may be inherited; that is, it may be due to one or more specific genes. Second, something in the environment, possibly a bacterium or virus, might trigger or activate the disease in susceptible people.

Diagnosis:
There is no specific pathological testing or technique available for the diagnosis of the disease, although the International Study Group criteria for the disease are highly sensitive and specific, involving clinical criteria and a pathergy test.[2][3] Behçet’s disease has a high degree of resemblance to diseases that cause mucocutaneous lesions such as Herpes simplex labialis, and therefore clinical suspicion should be maintained until all the common causes of oral lesions are ruled out from the differential diagnosis.

International Study Group diagnostic guidelines:

According to the International Study Group guidelines, for a patient to be diagnosed with Behçet’s disease,[3] the patient must have oral (aphthous) ulcers (any shape, size or number at least 3 times in any 12 months period)along with 2 out of the next 4 “hallmark” symptoms:

*genital ulcers (including anal ulcers and spots in the genital region and swollen testicles or epididymitis in men)
*skin lesions (papulo-pustules, folliculitis, erythema nodosum, acne in post-adolescents not on corticosteroids)
*eye inflammation (iritis, uveitis, retinal vasculitis, cells in the vitreous)
*pathergy reaction (papule >2 mm dia. 24-48 hrs or more after needle-prick). The pathery test has a specificity of 95% to 100%, but the results are often negative in American and European patients

Despite the inclusive criteria set forth by the International Study Group, there are cases where not all the criteria can be met and therefore a diagnosis can not readily be made. There is however a set of clinical findings that a physician can rely upon in making a tenative diagnosis of the disease; essentially Behçet’s disease does not always follow the International Study Group guidelines and so a high degree of suspicion for a patient who presents having any number of the following findings, is necessary:

*mouth ulcers
*arthritis/arthralgia
*nervous system symptoms
*stomach and/or bowel inflammation
*deep vein thrombosis
*superficial thrombophlebitis
*cardio-vascular problems of an inflammatory origin
*inflammatory problems in chest and lungs
*problems with hearing and/or balance
*extreme exhaustion
*changes of personality, psychoses
*any other members of the family with a diagnosis of Behçet disease.

Pathogenesis:
The etiology is not well-defined, but it is primarily characterized by auto-inflammation of the blood vessels. Although sometimes erroneously referred to as a “diagnosis of exclusion,” the diagnosis can sometimes be reached by pathologic examination of the affected areas.

The primary mechanism of the damage is an overactive immune system that seems to target the patient’s own body. The primary cause is not well known. In fact, as of now, no one knows why the immune system starts to behave this way in Behçet’s disease. There does however seem to be a genetic component involved as first degree relatives of the affected patients are often affected in more than expected proportion for the general population.

Treatment:
There’s no cure for Behcet’s yet, but research continues and treatment is available to keep inflammation and symptoms at bay.

Current treatment is aimed at easing the symptoms, reducing inflammation, and controlling the immune system. High dose Corticosteroid therapy (1 mg/kg/d oral prednisone) is indicated for severe disease manifestations. Anti-TNF therapy such as infliximab has shown promise in treating the uveitis associated with the disease. Another Anti-TNF agent, Etanercept, may be useful in patients with mainly skin and mucosal symptoms.

Interferon alfa-2a may also be an effective alternative treatment, particularly for the genital and oral ulcers as well as ocular lesions. Azathioprine, when used in combination with interferon alfa-2b also shows promise, and Colchicine can be useful for treating some genital ulcers, erythema nodosum, and arthritis.

Thalidomide has also been used due to its immune-modifying effect. Dapsone and rebamipide have been shown, in small studies, to have beneficial results for mucocutaneous lesions.

Rest and Exercise:
Although rest is important during flares, doctors usually recommend moderate exercise, such as swimming or walking, when the symptoms have improved or disappeared. Exercise can help people with Behçet’s disease keep their joints strong and flexible.

Pathophysiology
HLA-B51 is strongly associated with Behçet’s disease Behçet disease is considered more prevalent in the areas surrounding the old silk trading routes in the Middle East and in Central Asia. Thus, it is sometimes known as Silk Road Disease. However, this disease is not restricted to people from these regions. A large number of serological studies show a linkage between the disease and HLA-B51. HLA-B51 is more frequently found from the Middle East to South Eastern Siberia, but the incidence of B51 in some studies was 3 fold higher than the normal population. However, B51 tends not to be found in disease when a certain SUMO4 gene variant is involved, and symptoms appear to be milder when HLA-B27 is present. At the current time, a similar infectious origin has not yet been confirmed that leads to Behçet’s disease, but certain strains of Streptococcus sanguinis has been found to have a homologous antigenicity.

Prognosis:
Most people with Behçet’s disease can lead productive lives and control symptoms with proper medicine, rest, and exercise. Doctors can use many medicines to relieve pain, treat symptoms, and prevent complications. When treatment is effective, flares usually become less frequent. Many patients eventually enter a period of remission (a disappearance of symptoms). In some people, treatment does not relieve symptoms, and gradually more serious symptoms such as eye disease may occur. Serious symptoms may appear months or years after the first signs of Behçet’s disease.

Risk Factors
A risk factor is something that increases your chances of getting a disease or condition. Although the exact cause of Behcet’s disease is unknown, some groups of people are more likely to develop the condition than others. Risk factors include:

*Location: the Middle East, Asia, and Japan
*Sex:
*In the US, men are more likely than women to develop this condition.
*In the Middle East, Asia, and Japan, women are more likely than men to develop Behcet’s.
*Age: 20s and 30s

Researches:
Researchers are exploring possible genetic, bacterial, and viral causes of Behçet’s disease as well as improved drug treatment. For example, genetic studies show strong association of the gene HLA-B51 with the disease, but the exact role of this gene in the development of Behçet’s is uncertain. Researchers hope to identify genes that increase a person’s risk for developing Behçet’s disease. Studies of these genes and how they work may provide new understanding of the disease and possibly new treatments.

Researchers are also investigating factors in the environment, such as bacteria or viruses, that may trigger Behçet’s disease. They are particularly interested in whether Streptococcus, the bacterium that causes strep throat, is associated with Behçet’s disease. Many people with Behçet’s disease have had several strep infections. In addition, researchers suspect that herpesvirus type 1, a virus that causes cold sores, may be associated with Behçet’s disease.

Finally, researchers are identifying other medicines to better treat Behçet’s disease. TNF inhibitors are a class of drugs that reduce joint inflammation by blocking the action of a substance called tumor necrosis factor (TNF). Although serious side effects have been reported for TNF inhibitors, they have shown some promise in treating Behçet’s disease. Examples of TNF inhibitors include etanercept and infliximab. TNF inhibitors belong to a family of drugs called biologics, which target the immune response. Also, interferon alpha, a protein that helps fight infection, has shown promise in treating Behçet’s disease. Thalidomide, which is believed to be a TNF inhibitor, appears effective in treating severe mouth sores, but its use is experimental and side effects are a concern. Thalidomide is not used to treat women of childbearing age because it causes severe birth defects.

Where Can People Get More Information About Behçet’s Disease?

•National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases (NIAMS)
Information Clearinghouse
National Institutes of Health

1 AMS Circle
Bethesda,  MD 20892-3675
Phone: 301-495-4484
Toll Free: 877-22-NIAMS (226-4267)
TTY: 301-565-2966
Fax: 301-718-6366
Email: NIAMSinfo@mail.nih.gov
Website: http://www.niams.nih.gov

•National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research (NIDCR)
National Institutes of Health
45 Center Drive, MSC 6400
Building 45, Room 4AS-25
Bethesda,  MD 20892-2510
Phone: 301-496-4261
Email: nidcrinfo@mail.nih.gov
Website: http://www.nidcr.nih.gov

•National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK)

National Institutes of Health
1 Information Way
Bethesda,  MD 20892-3560
Toll Free: 800-860-8747
TTY: 866-569-1162
Fax: 703-738-4929
Email: ndic@info.niddk.nih.gov
Website: http://www.niddk.nih.gov

•National Eye Institute (NEI)
National Institutes of Health
31 Center Drive MSC 2510
Bethesda,  MD 20892-2510
Phone: 301-496-5248
Email: 2020@nei.nih.gov
Website: http://www.nei.nih.gov

•National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS)

NIH Neurological Institute
P.O. Box 5801
Bethesda,  MD 20824
Phone: 301–496–5751
Toll Free: 800–352–9424
TTY: 301–468–5981
Website: http://www.ninds.nih.gov

•American Academy of Dermatology (AAD)
P.O. Box 4014
Schaumberg,  IL 60618-4014
Phone: 847-330-0230
Toll Free: 866-503-SKIN (7546)
Fax: 847-240-1859
Website: http://www.aad.org

•American College of Rheumatology (ACR)
2200 Lake Boulevard NE
Atlanta,  GA 30319
Phone: 404-633-3777
Fax: 404-633-1870
Website: http://www.rheumatology.org

•Dermatology Foundation
1560 Sherman Avenue, Suite 870
Evanston,  IL 60201-4808
Phone: 847-328-2256
Fax: 847-328-0509
Email: dfgen@dermatologyfoundation.org
Website: http://www.dermfnd.org

(This organization is “research only.” Contact should be made by U.S. mail or e-mail.)
•American Behçet’s Disease Association
P.O. Box 869
Smithtown,  NY 11787-0869
Phone: 631-656-0537
Toll Free: 800-7-BEHCET (723-4238)
Fax: 480-247-5377
Website: http://www.behcets.com

•American Skin Association (ASA)
346 Park Avenue S., 4th floor
New York,  NY 10010
Phone: 212-889-4858
Toll Free: 800-499-SKIN
Website: http://www.americanskin.org

•Arthritis Foundation
P.O. Box 7669
Atlanta,  GA 30357-0669
Phone: 404-872-7100
Toll Free: 800-283-7800
Website: http://www.arthritis.org

•National Organization For Rare Disorders (NORD)
55 Kenosia Avenue, P.O. Box 1968
Danbury,  CT 06813-1968
Phone: 203-744-0100
Toll Free: 800-999-6673
TTY: 203-797-9590
Fax: 203-798-2291
Email: orphan@rarediseases.org
Website: http://www.rarediseases.org

Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.This is purely for educational purpose.

Resources:
http://www.bbc.co.uk/health/physical_health/conditions/behcets1.shtml
http://www.niams.nih.gov/Health_Info/Behcets_Disease/default.asp#beh_i
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Beh%C3%A7et’s_disease
http://www.lifescript.com/Health/A-Z/Conditions_A-Z/Conditions/B/Behcets_disease.aspx?gclid=CNSczv6IkqcCFcZw5Qodbmg-cw&trans=1&du=1&ef_id=5jhNXmWk-CMAAMAQ:20110218155657:s

Enhanced by Zemanta
Categories
News on Health & Science

Propolis From Bees Could Aid Mouth Ulcers

[amazon_link asins=’B000Z96JR4,B000Q3YN3Q,B00E84AVVC,B00014EV1Y,B003ANORXA,B000MGWGMW,B00028NCV4,B0160B7Q68,B000K78ZSC’ template=’ProductCarousel’ store=’finmeacur-20′ marketplace=’US’ link_id=’20566970-6202-11e7-ac1c-edb80ca7e803′]

The healing properties of propolis – a mixture of resin and wax made by honey bees to seal and sterilise their hives – have been known for many years. But its use in medicine and food supplements has been limited because the sticky substance is not water soluble and has a strong, off-putting smell.

Now researchers at the University of Bradford’s Centre for Pharmaceutical Engineering Science have developed a way of purifying propolis that retains its medicinal properties, but makes it dissolve in water and eliminates its pungent smell. The technique has already led to the development of a new mouth ulcer gel and opens the door to a huge range of other pharmaceutical and nutraceutical applications for the substance.

Propolis is a complex chemical mix and a very useful natural product,” explains Centre Director, Professor Anant Paradkar, who led the research. “Propolis has been shown to be anti-microbial, anti-fungal, a strong anti-oxidant, non-allergenic and can boost the immune system. It also promotes wound healing and has anaesthetic properties.

“There is a substantial market for propolis-based products – particularly in China, the USA and South Asia. The main stumbling block in developing products has been the solubility and odour issues, which our formulation overcomes.”

Professor Paradkar’s team has been developing the new technique to purify propolis in collaboration with natural medicine manufacturer, Nature’s Laboratory. The researchers have helped the company develop a new propolis-based mouth ulcer gel, which has better anaesthetic, anti-microbial and anti-fungal properties than gels already on the market and is safe for use in children.

“A problem for mouth gels is that adhesion to the skin membrane inside the mouth is difficult – because of the nature of the surface, the gel can simply slide off,” says Professor Paradkar. “As propolis retains some of its stickiness even in a water soluble formulation, when it is applied to specific areas in the mouth, it adheres more effectively.”

The Centre has gained funding for a Knowledge Transfer Partnership with Nature’s Laboratory, to further develop the purification system for use at a larger scale and support the creation of new propolis-based products. The aim is, through the KTP, that the company will be able to set up a purification process to increase its own manufacturing capacity.

Source Elements4Health

Related articles
Enhanced by Zemanta
Categories
Healthy Tips

Honey Works Better than Drugs for Herpes

Mainstream physicians usually prescribe Acyclovir ointment or other topical medications to treat herpes outbreaks. But new research shows that nature has a better solution.This remedy works faster than any of the mainstream treatments, and with fewer side effects.

CLICK & SEE

Honey has long been regarded as one of the best natural wound healers and infection ?ghters. When a researcher treated patients with Acyclovir for one herpes outbreak and honey for another, overall healing time with honey was 43 percent better than with Acyclovir for sores on the lips and 59 percent better for genital sores.

According to Nutrition and Healing:

“None of the volunteers experienced any side effects with repeated applications of honey, although three patients developed local itching with the Acyclovir.”

Resources:
Nutrition and Healing November 2004
Medical Science Monitor 10(8):MT94-98; August 2004

Enhanced by Zemanta
Categories
Ailmemts & Remedies

Lip Sores & Cold Sores

[amazon_link asins=’B0063I312C,B000GG7X7G’ template=’ProductCarousel’ store=’finmeacur-20′ marketplace=’US’ link_id=’744d9fc5-fb23-11e6-9118-91b51c57fca2′]

[amazon_link asins=’B00822ZEDQ,B01GAJVPLC’ template=’ProductCarousel’ store=’finmeacur-20′ marketplace=’US’ link_id=’97cb7893-fb23-11e6-bc93-634b667e3459′]

Description
A Lip Sores & Cold Sores is a fluid-filled, painful blister that is usually on or around the lips. Other names for a cold sore are fever blister, oral herpes, labial herpes, herpes labialis, and herpes febrilis. Cold sores most often occur on the lips which distinguishes them from the common canker sore which is usually inside the mouth. Cold sores do not usually occur inside the mouth except during the initial episode. Canker sores usually form either on the tongue or inside the cheeks.

CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES

Cold sores are caused by a herpes virus. There are eight different kinds of human herpes viruses. Only two of these, herpes simplex types 1 and 2, can cause cold sores. It is commonly believed that herpes simplex virus type 1 infects above the waist and herpes simplex virus type 2 infects below the waist. This is not completely true. Both herpes virus type 1 and type 2 can cause herpes lesions on the lips or genitals, but recurrent cold sores are almost always type 1.

Oral herpes is very common. More than 60% of Americans have had a cold sore, and almost 25% of those infected experience recurrent outbreaks. Most of these persons became infected before age 10. Anyone can become infected by herpes virus and, once infected, the virus remains latent for life. Herpes viruses are spread from person to person by direct skin-to-skin contact. The highest risk for spreading the virus is the time period beginning with the appearance of blisters and ending with scab formation. However, infected persons need not have visible blisters to spread the infection to others since the virus may be present in the saliva without obvious oral lesions.

Viruses are different from bacteria. While bacteria are independent and can reproduce on their own, viruses enter human cells and force them to make more virus. The infected human cell is usually killed and releases thousands of new viruses. The cell death and resulting tissue damage causes the actual cold sores. In addition, the herpes virus can infect a cell and, instead of making the cell produce new viruses, it hides inside the cell and waits. The herpes virus hides in the nervous system. This is called “latency.” A latent virus can wait inside the nervous system for days, months, or even years. At some future time, the virus “awakens” and causes the cell to produce thou sands of new viruses that cause an active infection.

This process of latency and active infection is best understood by considering the cold sore cycle. An active infection is obvious because cold sores are pre sent. The first infection is called the “primary” infection. This active infection is then controlled by the body’s immune system and the sores heal. In between active infections, the virus is latent. At some point in the future, latent viruses become activated and once again cause sores. These are called “recurrent” infections. Although it is unknown what triggers latent virus to activate, several conditions seem to bring on infections. These include stress, illness, tiredness, exposure to sunlight, menstruation, fever, and diet.

Causes of Lip sore:
The following medical conditions are some of the possible causes of Lip sore. There are likely to be other possible causes, so ask your doctor about your symptoms.
1.Aphthous ulcer

2.Herpes simplex

3.Cold sores

4.Canker sores

5.Impetigo

6.Dermatitis

7.Contact dermatitis

8.Candidiasis

9.Leukoplakia

10.Mucocele cyst

11.Lip burn

12.Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia

13.Zinc deficiency

14.Lichen planus

15.Behcet’s syndrome

16.Erythema multiforme

17.Chancre

18.Lip cancer

19.Certain drugs

But in In general the following most common:

1) People are often allergic to products containing petroleum and even some products labeled “hypoallergenic”. Occasionally people are allergic to their toothpaste and more often to their lipstick/lip balm. Many people are allergic to Neosporin and Chap Stick. I recommend Mentholatum Lip Balm often. It comes in tube, like Chap Stick. There are also homeopathic remedies to detox the body of what it is allergically responding to.

2) Sores on the outside corners of the mouth are usually vitamin deficiencies—especially vitamin B6.

3) Sores on the top and bottom lip edge are often allergies to something being put on the lips and often this can be aggravated by sunshine.

4) Canker sores, herpes sores and cold sores are often related to what it is in the person’s life that they are   biting their tongue  about or not saying out loud and is also accentuated by stress, poor diet, not enough raw foods, and sleep issues (in combination of course).

5) Sores inside the lip and under the tongue can sometimes be viral in origin or an allergy to something. I know a few people who are allergic to nutmeg which causes a little vesicle to form under the tongue on the frenulum.

6) White sores on the mouth are usually caused from yeast (Candida). Try getting a lip product that contains Myrrh essential oil. You will also have incorporate lifestyle changes to overcome the yeast inside your system.

click to see the pictures

Click to learn more about treatment of Cold Sores, fever etc. http://www.animated-teeth.com/cold_sores/t4_cold_sores_treatments.htm

Diagnosis
Because oral herpes is so common, it is diagnosed primarily by symptoms. It can be diagnosed and treated by the family doctor, dermatologists (doctors who specialize in skin diseases) and infectious disease specialists. Laboratory tests may be performed to look for the virus. Because healing sores do not shed much virus, a sample from an open sore would be taken for viral culture. A sterile cotton swab would be wiped over open sores and the sample used to infect human cells in culture. Cells that are killed by the herpes virus have a certain appearance under microscopic examination. The results of this test are available within two to 10 days.

Oral herpes may resemble a bacterial infection called impetigo. This skin infection is most commonly seen in children and causes herpes-like blisters around the mouth and nose. Also, because oral herpes can occur inside the mouth, the blisters could be mistaken for common canker sores. Therefore, the doctor would need to determine whether the blisters are oral herpes, canker sores, or impetigo. The diagnosis and treatment of herpes infections should be covered by most insurance providers.

Treatment:
There is no cure for herpes virus infections. There are antiviral drugs available that have some effect on lessening the symptoms and decreasing the length of herpes outbreaks. There is evidence that some may also prevent future outbreaks. These antiviral drugs work by interfering with the replication of the viruses, and are most effective when taken as early in the infection process as possible. For the best results, drug treatment should begin during the prodrome stage before blisters are visible. Depending on the length of the outbreak, drug treatment could continue for up to 10 days.

Acyclovir (Zovirax) is the drug of choice for herpes infection and can be given intravenously or taken by mouth. It can be applied directly to sores as an ointment, but is not very useful in this form. A liquid form for children is also available. Acyclovir is effective in treating both the primary infection and recurrent outbreaks. When taken by mouth to prevent an outbreak, acyclovir reduces the frequency of herpes outbreaks.

During an outbreak of cold sores, salty foods, citrus foods (oranges etc.), and other foods that irritate the sores should be avoided. Wash the sores once or twice a day with warm, soapy water and pat gently to dry. Over-the-counter lip products that contain the chemical phenol (such as Blistex Medicated Lip Ointment) and numbing ointments (Anbesol) help to relieve cold sores. A bandage may be placed over the sores to protect them and prevent spreading the virus to other sites on the lips or face. Acetaminophen (Tylenol) or ibuprofen (Motrin, Advil) may be taken if necessary to reduce pain and fever.

Alternative treatment:
Vitamin and mineral supplements and diet may have an effect on the recurrence and duration of cold sores. In general, cold sore sufferers should eat a healthy diet of unprocessed foods such as vegetables, fruits, and whole grains. Alcohol, caffeine, and sugar should be avoided.
An imbalance in the amino acids lysine and arginine is thought to be one contributing factor in herpes virus outbreaks. A diet that is rich in the amino acid lysine may help prevent recurrences of cold sores. Foods which contain high levels of lysine include most vegetables, legumes, fish, turkey, and chicken. In one study, patients taking lysine supplements had milder symptoms during an outbreak, a shorter healing time, and had fewer outbreaks than patients who did not take lysine. Patients should take 1,000 mg of lysine three times a day during a cold sore outbreak and 500 mg daily on an ongoing basis to prevent recurrences. Intake of the amino acid arginine should be reduced. Foods rich in arginine that should be avoided are chocolate, peanuts, almonds, and other nuts and seeds.

Vitamin C and bioflavonoids (a substance in fruits that helps the body to absorb and use vitamin C) have been shown to reduce the duration of a cold sore outbreak and reduce the number of sores. The vitamin B complex includes important vitamins that support the nervous system where viruses can hide out. B complex vitamins can also help manage stress, an important contributing factor to the outbreak of herpes viruses. Applying the oil in vitamin E capsules directly to cold sores may provide relief. Zinc lozenges appear to affect the reproduction of viruses and also enhance the immune system. Ointments containing lemon balm (Melissa officinalis) or licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra) and peppermint (Mentha piperita) have been shown to help cold sores heal.

Prognosis
Oral herpes can be painful and embarrassing but, it is not a serious infection. There is no cure for oral herpes, but outbreaks usually occur less frequently after age 35. The spread of the herpes virus to the eyes is very serious. The herpes virus can infect the cells in the cornea and cause scarring that may impair vision.
Home Care :

Mouth sores generally last 10 to 14 days, even if you don’t do anything. They sometimes last up to 6 weeks. The following steps can make you feel better:

  • Gargle with cool water or eat popsicles. This is particularly helpful if you have a mouth burn.
  • Avoid hot beverages and foods, spicy and salty foods, and citrus.
  • Take pain relievers like acetaminophen.

For canker sores:

  • Rinse with salt water.
  • Apply a thin paste of baking soda and water.
  • Mix 1 part hydrogen peroxide with 1 part water and apply this mixture to the lesions using a cotton swab.

Nonprescription preparations, like Orabase, can protect a sore inside the lip and on the gums. Blistex or Campho-Phenique may provide some relief of canker sores and fever blisters, especially if applied when the sore initially appears.

Additional steps that may help cold sores or fever blisters:

  • Apply ice to the lesion.
  • Take L-lysine tablets.

Anti-viral medications for herpes lesions of the mouth may be recommended by your doctor. Some experts feel that they shorten the time that the blisters are present, while others claim that these drugs make no difference.

When to Contact a Medical Professional :

Call your doctor if:

  • The sore begins soon after you start a new medication
  • You have large white patches on the roof of your mouth or your tongue (this may be thrush or another type of lesion)
  • Your mouth sore lasts longer than 2 weeks
  • You are immunocompromised (for example, from HIV or cancer)
  • You have other symptoms like fever, skin rash, drooling, or difficulty swallowing

What to Expect at Your Office Visit:

Your doctor will perform a physical examination, focusing on your mouth and tongue. Medical history questions may include the following:

  • Are the sores on your lips, gums, tongue, lining of your cheeks, or elsewhere?
  • Are the sores open ulcers?
  • Are there large, white patches on the roof of the mouth or on your tongue?
  • How long have you had the mouth sores? More than 2 weeks?
  • Have you ever had sores of this type before?
  • What medications do you take?
  • Do you have other symptoms like fever, sore throat, or breath odor?

Treatment may depend on the underlying cause of the mouth sore.

A topical anesthetic (applied to a localized area of the skin) such as lidocaine or xylocaine may be used to relieve pain (but should be avoided in children).

An antifungal medication may be prescribed for oral thrush (a yeast infection).

An antiviral medication may be prescribed for herpes lesions (although, some feel that this does not shorten the length of time that the lesions are present)

Antibiotics may be prescribed for severe or persistent canker sores.

Prevention:
The only way to prevent oral herpes is to avoid contact with infected persons. This is not an easy solution because many people are not aware that they are infected and can easily infect others. Currently there are no herpes vaccines available, although herpes vaccines are being tested.

Several practices can reduce the occurrence of cold sores and the spread of virus to other body locations or people. These practices are:
*Avoidance of sun exposure to the face. Before getting prolonged exposure to the sun, apply sunscreen to the face and especially to the lips. Wearing a hat with a large brim is also helpful.
*Avoid touching cold sores. Squeezing, picking, or pinching blisters can allow the virus to spread to other parts of the lips or face and infect those sites.
*Wash hands frequently. Persons with oral herpes should wash their hands carefully before touching others. An infected person can spread the virus to others even when he or she has no obvious blisters.
*Avoid contact with others during active infection. Infected persons should avoid kissing or sexual contact with others until after the cold sores have healed.
*Wear gloves when applying ointment to a child’s sore.
*Be especially careful with infants. Never kiss the eyes or lips of a baby who is under six months old.
*Be watchful of infected children. Do not allow infected children to share toys that may be put into the mouth. Toys that have been mouthed should be disinfected before other children play with them.
*Maintain good general health. A healthy diet, plenty of sleep, and exercise help to minimize the chance of getting a cold or the flu, which are known to bring on cold sores. Also, good general health keeps the immune system strong; this helps to keep the virus in check and prevents outbreaks.

Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.This is purely for educational purpose

Resources:
http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003059.htm
http://ezinearticles.com/?Six-Common-Causes-of-Lip-Sores&id=421609
http://www.wrongdiagnosis.com/symptoms/lip_sores/causes.htm

http://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/Cold+Sore

Enhanced by Zemanta