Categories
Health Problems & Solutions

Some Health Quaries & Answers

Stop the bottle, spare the teeth  :

———————————————–

Q: My three and a half-year-old daughter has a poor appetite. She is only 10 kg while the expected weight is 15 kg (as per the pediatrician’s calculation). The doctor prescribed de-worming medication several times as well as tonics. I give her milk with Pediasure in a bottle at night. She has several decayed teeth and frequently complains of toothache.

[amazon_link asins=’B01D3F25FQ,B00UGSHBTO,B003MGUMES,B00E3L1L3M,B00E3L1PZG,B009TAQ4OI,B00BFVKJIQ’ template=’ProductCarousel’ store=’finmeacur-20′ marketplace=’US’ link_id=’3b921395-0fdc-11e7-b71a-9dfa7e27006e’]

[amazon_link asins=’1118935829,0198738269,1405138890,1605949647,3319305506,B01GCEY1M0,098202133X,1434810607′ template=’ProductCarousel’ store=’finmeacur-20′ marketplace=’US’ link_id=’fee05a6e-0fdb-11e7-b128-d9eb6b8ab94d’]
A: Your daughter probably has caries. The bottle will worsen her cavities because the milk will stick to the teeth which will allow bacteria to thrive in her mouth. These milk teeth will eventually fall off and you may feel they do not require any treatment. But food will get stuck there and cause discomfort. This will make her reluctant to eat, resulting in inadequate weight gain. Also, she is old enough to discard the bottle. You are probably giving it to her in the hope that she receives some calories. Stop the bottle and take her to a dentist. He might be able to fill the cavities.

Hiatus hernia
———————
Q: I have heart burn all the time. After some tests the doctor found that I have hiatus hernia. What should I do?
[amazon_link asins=’B0093IRA4O,0897933184,1492950440,1481969994,1847093396,B01HATM8BM,0722512228,B001QNVWJI’ template=’ProductCarousel’ store=’finmeacur-20′ marketplace=’US’ link_id=’69c24364-0fdc-11e7-a752-15df55c05dcd’]

A: The esophagus runs through the diaphragm to the stomach. It functions to carry food from the mouth to the stomach.The esophagus passes through the diaphragm just before it meets the stomach, through an opening called the esophageal hiatus.

 

A hiatal hernia occurs when part of the stomach protrudes up into the chest through the sheet of muscle called the diaphragm. This may result from a weakening of the surrounding tissues and may be aggravated by obesity and/or smoking.


Hiatus hernia is a condition where part of the stomach slides into the chest cavity. Many hiatus hernias are asymptomatic. Pain occurs because of acid reflux from the stomach into the esophagus.

You can get relief by losing weight, not lying down for an hour after food, and using medications like omeprazole and pantoprazole. If the hiatus hernia is long-standing with severe symptoms, surgery may be required.

Sugar free
—————-
Q: I am diabetic and have been taking Sugar Free in my coffee, tea and curd. Is it safe?
[amazon_link asins=’B00K7RH4SC,B00009Q95J,B0020N3NRC,B00K7RH4SC,B0019LTH3U,B0019LPM0C,B00M8ZE7EK,B00K8TQFCU,B01LYNM6MF,B002L82B2O’ template=’ProductCarousel’ store=’finmeacur-20′ marketplace=’US’ link_id=’a58f411b-0fdc-11e7-84b3-4ba6aa0337b8′]
A:
There are many natural and synthetic sugar substitutes available. In India, the ones commonly used are saccharin and aspartame. Both have been certified as safe although initially saccharin was found to cause bladder cancer in mice. Aspartame consumption should not be more than 40 mg a day. In these circumstances, perhaps it is better for you to get used to tea and coffee without sugar.

Vital fluid
—————-
Q: I am a 37-year-old woman. I am pale and the doctor said I am anaemic. My haemoglobin is 7gm. He gave me a capsule containing iron and zinc to be taken twice a day. After three months there has been no improvement. What should I do?

[amazon_link asins=’B0017O5N3W,B00IVDVRIW,B00CFBB46Q,B0017CV2CA,B00B7W679I,B019EBTOVQ,B00LDFZQ82,B00NG11OGO,B0017CV50Y’ template=’ProductCarousel’ store=’finmeacur-20′ marketplace=’US’ link_id=’d73e3761-0fdc-11e7-ad5c-4b4eeeb331a9′]

A: Your anaemia needs to be investigated. You may be losing blood because of heavy periods, piles or a stomach ulcer. Or you may have intestinal parasites that are depleting you of blood. Rarely, cancer may present itself as anaemia. If there is no cause for the anaemia other than iron and zinc deficiency, it should respond to supplements. The binding sites on the intestines for iron and zinc absorption are identical. If you consume a tablet containing both these elements they compete for the binding site and block it. To be effective, iron and zinc have to be taken as separate tablets or capsules 12 hours apart (one in the morning and the other in the evening). Or, you take iron one day and zinc the next.

Health hour
——————-
Q: My son is unable to run or jog owing to a tight work schedule. Can he follow some other form of exercise?

[amazon_link asins=’B01CQ9T36E,B00OLSJ4TU,B00YBWBYF8,B01F3FCSZQ,B01CQ9T1GQ,B00OLSIZRW,B008TTHZVQ,B01GATUQ4E,B00FAXPAGG’ template=’ProductCarousel’ store=’finmeacur-20′ marketplace=’US’ link_id=’21599f0c-0fdd-11e7-a47d-f3764035839c’]
A:
The requirements of exercise for the maintenance of health have increased from 30 minutes three times a week to an hour a day. If you son is unable to spare that kind of time, he can get more or less the same benefits by skipping or continuous stair climbing (up and down) for 20 minutes. Cross training and doing different activities probably deliver the best benefits as compared to repeating the same one. Different sets of muscles are used, producing all-round toning.

Source: The Telegraph ( Kolkata, India)

Enhanced by Zemanta
Advertisements
Categories
Ailmemts & Remedies

Hiatal Hernia

Alternative Names:Hernia – hiatal,  Hiatus hernia.

Definition:
.Hiatal hernia is a condition in which a portion of the stomach protrudes upward into the chest, through an opening in the diaphragm. The diaphragm is the sheet of muscle that separates the chest from the abdomen. It is used in breathing.

click  see to picture

The  diaphragm normally has a small opening (hiatus) that allows your food tube (esophagus) to pass through on its way to connect to your stomach. The stomach can push up through this opening and cause a hiatal hernia.
click to see picture

The esophagus runs through the diaphragm to the stomach. It functions to carry food from the mouth to the stomach.The esophagus passes through the diaphragm just before it meets the stomach, through an opening called the esophageal hiatus.

click  to see picture

A hiatal hernia occurs when part of the stomach protrudes up into the chest through the sheet of muscle called the diaphragm. This may result from a weakening of the surrounding tissues and may be aggravated by obesity and/or smoking.

.CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES
In most cases, a small hiatal hernia doesn’t cause problems, and you may never know you have a hiatal hernia unless your doctor discovers it when checking for another condition. But a large hiatal hernia can allow food and acid to back up into your esophagus, leading to heartburn and chest pain. Self-care measures or medications can usually relieve these symptoms, although a very large hiatal hernia sometimes requires surgery.

Classification:
There are two major kinds of hiatus hernia:
The most common (95%) is the sliding hiatus hernia, where the gastroesophageal junction moves above the diaphragm together with some of the stomach.

The second kind is rolling (or paraesophageal) hiatus hernia, when a part of the stomach herniates through the esophageal hiatus and lies beside the esophagus, without movement of the gastroesophageal junction. It accounts for the remaining 5% of hiatus hernias.

A third kind is also sometimes described, and is a combination of the first and second kinds.

Symptoms:
Small hiatal hernias
Most small hiatal hernias cause no signs or symptoms.

Large hiatal hernias
Larger hiatal hernias can cause signs and symptoms such as:

*Heartburn, worse when bending over or lying down
*Belching
*Chest pain
*Nausea
*Swallowing difficulty

A hiatal hernia by itself rarely causes symptoms — pain and discomfort are usually due to the reflux of gastric acid, air, or bile. Reflux happens more easily when there is a hiatal hernia, although a hiatal hernia is not the only cause of reflux.

Causes:

A hiatal hernia occurs when weakened muscle tissue allows your stomach to bulge up through your diaphragm. It’s not always clear why this happens, but pressure on your stomach may contribute to the formation of hiatal hernia.

How a hiatal hernia forms
Your diaphragm is a large dome-shaped muscle that separates your chest cavity from your abdomen. Normally, your esophagus passes into your stomach through an opening in the diaphragm called the hiatus. Hiatal hernias occur when the muscle tissue surrounding this opening becomes weak, and the upper part of your stomach bulges up through the diaphragm into your chest cavity.

Possible causes of hiatal hernia  are:
*Injury to the area
*An inherited weakness in the surrounding muscles
*Being born with an unusually large hiatus
*Persistent and intense pressure on the surrounding muscles, such as when coughing, vomiting, or straining during a bowel movement or while lifting heavy objects.

The following are risk factors that can result in a hiatus hernia.

*Increased pressure within the abdomen caused by:
*Heavy lifting or bending over
*Frequent or hard coughing
*Hard sneezing
*Pregnancy and delivery
*Violent vomiting
*Straining with constipation
*Obesity (extra weight pushes down on the abdomen increasing the pressure)
*Use of the sitting position for defecation
*Heredity
*Smoking
*Drug use, such as cocaine.[citation needed]
*Stress
*Diaphragm weakness

Diagnosis:
The diagnosis of a hiatus hernia is typically made through an upper GI series, endoscopy or High resolution manometry.

Treatment:
In most cases, sufferers experience no discomfort and no treatment is required. However, when the hiatal hernia is large, or is of the paraesophageal type, it is likely to cause esophageal stricture and discomfort. Symptomatic patients should elevate the head of their beds and avoid lying down directly after meals until treatment is rendered. If the condition has been brought on by stress, stress reduction techniques may be prescribed, or if overweight, weight loss may be indicated. Medications that reduce the lower esophageal sphincter (or LES) pressure should be avoided. Antisecretory drugs like proton pump inhibitors and H2 receptor blockers can be used to reduce acid secretion.

Where hernia symptoms are severe and chronic acid reflux is involved, surgery is sometimes recommended, as chronic reflux can severely injure the esophagus and even lead to esophageal cancer.

The surgical procedure used is called Nissen fundoplication. In fundoplication, the gastric fundus (upper part) of the stomach is wrapped, or plicated, around the inferior part of the esophagus, preventing herniation of the stomach through the hiatus in the diaphragm and the reflux of gastric acid. The procedure is now commonly performed laparoscopically. With proper patient selection, laparoscopic fundoplication has low complication rates and a quick recovery.

Complications include gas bloat syndrome, dysphagia (trouble swallowing), dumping syndrome, excessive scarring, and rarely, achalasia. The procedure sometimes fails over time, requiring a second surgery to make repairs.

Lifestyle & Home Remedy:
Lifestyle changes may help control the signs and symptoms of acid reflux caused by a hiatal hernia. Consider trying to:

*Eat several smaller meals throughout the day rather than a few large meals.
*Avoid foods that trigger heartburn, such as chocolate, onions, spicy foods, citrus fruits and tomato-based foods.
*Avoid alcohol.
*Limit the amount of fatty foods you eat.
*Sit up after you eat, rather than taking a nap or lying down.
*Eat at least three hours before bedtime.
*Lose weight if you’re overweight or obese.
*Stop smoking.
*Elevate the head of your bed 6 inches (about 15 centimeters).
*Work to reduce the stress in your daily life.

Alternative Medication:
Some alternative medicine practitioners claim to have discovered a way to cure a hiatal hernia by pushing the stomach back to its normal position below the diaphragm. Practitioners may use their hands to apply pressure to the abdomen and manipulate the stomach.

There’s no evidence that such manipulation works to cure hiatal hernia. No clinical trials of the technique have been conducted.

But Practicing Regular Yoga Exercise & meditation has definitely got some better effect.

Prognosis:
A hiatus hernia  normally  does not cause any symptoms. The condition promotes reflux of gastric contents (via its direct and indirect actions on the anti-reflux mechanism) and thus is associated with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). In this way a hiatus hernia is associated with all the potential consequences of GERD – heartburn, esophagitis, Barrett’s esophagus, esophageal cancer and dental erosion. However the risk attributable to the hiatus hernia is difficult to quantify, and at most is low.

Besides discomfort from GERD and dysphagia, hiatal hernias can have severe consequences if not treated. While sliding hernias are primarily associated with gastroesophageal acid reflux, rolling hernias can strangulate a portion of the stomach above the diaphragm. This strangulation can result in esophageal or GI tract obstruction and the tissue can even become ischemic and necrose.

Another severe complication, although very rare, is a large herniation that can restrict the inflation of a lung, causing pain and breathing problems.

Most cases are asymptomatic.

Prevention:
Controlling risk factors such as obesity may help prevent hiatal hernia.

Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.This is purely for educational purpose.

Resources:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hiatus_hernia
http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/001137.htm
http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/hiatal-hernia/DS00099

http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/presentations/100028_1.htm

http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/imagepages/17070.htm

Enhanced by Zemanta
Categories
Ailmemts & Remedies

Hernia

[amazon_link asins=’B00MU5E234,B00025GXRM,1937600041,B01LBP4RQ0,B00TZUJOLM,B005VVWZA6,B00TYPBJHA,B00FHV29MO,B00DNNJPXY’ template=’ProductCarousel’ store=’finmeacur-20′ marketplace=’US’ link_id=’6058e3d5-66c8-11e7-9e62-4724644a12a3′]

A hernia is a protrusion of a tissue, structure, or part of an organ through the muscular tissue or the membrane by which it is normally contained. The hernia has 3 parts: the orifice through which it herniates, the hernial sac, and its contents.

A hernia may be likened to a failure in the sidewall of a pneumatic tire. The tire’s inner tube behaves like the organ and the side wall like the body cavity wall providing the restraint. A weakness in the sidewall allows a bulge to develop, which can become a split, allowing the inner tube to protrude, and leading to the eventual failure of the tire.

click to see the pictures

Pathophysiology:
By far most hernias develop in the abdomen, when a weakness in the abdominal wall evolves into a localized hole, or “defect”, through which adipose tissue, or abdominal organs covered with peritoneum, may protrude. Another common hernia involves the intervertebral disc, and causes back pain or sciatica.

Hernias may present either with pain at the site, a visible or palpable lump, or in some cases by more vague symptoms resulting from pressure on an organ which has become “stuck” in the hernia, sometimes leading to organ dysfunction. Fatty tissue usually enters a hernia first, but it may be followed by or accompanied by an organ.

Most of the time, hernias develop when pressure in the compartment of the residing organ is increased, and the boundary is weak or weakened.

Weakening of containing membranes or muscles is usually congenital (which explains part of the tendency of hernias to run in families), and increases with age (for example, degeneration of the annulus fibrosus of the intervertebral disc), but it may be on the basis of other illnesses, such as Ehlers-Danlos syndrome or Marfan syndrome, stretching of muscles during pregnancy, losing weight in obese people, etc., or because of scars from previous surgery.
Many conditions chronically increase intra-abdominal pressure, (pregnancy, ascites, COPD, dyschezia, benign prostatic hypertrophy) and hence abdominal hernias are very frequent. Increased intracranial pressure can cause parts of the brain to herniate through narrowed portions of the cranial cavity or through the foramen magnum. Increased pressure on the intervertebral discs, as produced by heavy lifting or lifting with improper technique, increases the risk of herniation.

Epidemiology: Between 1995 and 2005, 16,742 Americans died from hernias.

List of symptoms of Hernia: The list of symptoms mentioned in various sources for Hernia includes: Protruding bulge, Pain, Discomfort, Weakness

Symptoms of a strangulated hernia: Severe pain, Fever, Vomiting, Gangrene

Characteristics

Hernias can be classified according to their anatomical location:

Examples include:

*abdominal hernias

*diaphragmatic hernias and hiatus hernias (for example, paraesophageal hernia of the stomach)

*pelvic hernias, for example, obturator hernia

*hernias of the nucleus pulposus of the intervertebral discs

*intracranial hernias

Each of the above hernias may be characterised by several aspects:

*congenital or acquired: congenital hernias occur prenatally or in the first year(s) of life, and are caused by a congenital defect, whereas acquired hernias develop later on in life. However, this may be on the basis of a locus minoris resistentiae (Lat. place of least resistance) that is congenital, but only becomes symptomatic later on in life, when degeneration and increased stress (for example, increased abdominal pressure from coughing in COPD) provoke the hernia.

*complete or incomplete: for example, the stomach may partially herniate into the chest, or completely.

*internal or external: external ones herniate to the outside world, whereas internal hernias protrude from their normal compartment to another (for example, mesenteric hernias).

*intraparietal hernia: hernia that does not reach all the way to the subcutis, but only to the musculoaponeurotic layer. An example is a Spigelian hernia. Intraparietal hernias may produces less obvious bulging, and may be less easily detected on clinical examination.

*bilateral: in this case, simultaneous repair may be considered, sometimes even with a giant prosthetic reinforcement.

*reducible or irreducible (also known as incarcerated): the hernial contents can or cannot be returned to their normal site with simple manipulation

If irreducible, hernias can develop several complications (hence, they can be complicated or uncomplicated):

*strangulation: pressure on the hernial contents may compromise blood supply (especially veins, with their low pressure, are sensitive, and venous congestion often results) and cause ischemia, and later necrosisand gangrene, which may become fatal.

*obstruction: for example, when a part of the bowel herniates, bowel contents can no longer pass the obstruction. This results in cramps, and later on vomiting, ileus, absence of flatus and absence of defecation. These signs mandate urgent surgery.

*another complication arises when the herniated organ itself, or surrounding organs start dysfunctioning (for example, sliding hernia of the stomach causing heartburn, lumbar disc hernia causing sciatic nerve pain, etc.)

Causes:
Usually, there is no obvious cause of a hernia, although they are sometimes associated with heavy lifting.

Hernias can be seen in infants and children. This can happen when the lining around the abdominal organs does not close properly before birth. About 5 out of 100 children have inguinal hernias (more boys than girls). Some may not have symptoms until adulthood.

If you have any of the following, you are more likely to develop a hernia:

*Family history of hernias

*Cystic fibrosis

*Undescended testicles

*Extra weight

*Chronic cough

*Chronic constipation, straining to have bowel movements

*Enlarged prostate, straining to urinate

Exams and Tests :

A doctor can confirm the presence of a hernia during a physical exam. The mass may increase in size when coughing, bending, lifting, or straining. The hernia (bulge) may not be obvious in infants and children, except when the child is crying or coughing.

Treatment

It is generally advisable to repair hernias in a timely fashion, in order to prevent complications such as organ dysfunction,gangrene, and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome . Most abdominal hernias can be surgically repaired, and recovery rarely requires long-term changes in lifestyle. Uncomplicated hernias are principally repaired by pushing back, or “reducing”, the herniated tissue, and then mending the weakness in muscle tissue (an operation called herniorrhaphy). If complications have occurred, the surgeon will check the viability of the herniated organ, and resect it if necessary. Modern muscle reinforcement techniques involve synthetic materials (a mesh prosthesis) that avoid over-stretching of already weakened tissue (as in older, but still useful methods). The mesh is placed over the defect, and sometimes staples are used to keep the mesh in place. Increasingly, some repairs are performed through laparoscopes.

Many patients are managed through surgical daycare centers, and are able to return to work within a week or two, while heavy activities are prohibited for a longer period. Surgical complications have been estimated to be up to 10%, but most of them can be easily addressed. They include surgical site infections, nerve and blood vessel injuries, injury to nearby organs, and hernia recurrence.

Generally, the use of external devices to maintain reduction of the hernia without repairing the underlying defect (such as hernia trusses, trunks, belts, etc.), is not advised. Exceptions are uncomplicatedincisional hernias that arise shortly after the operation (should only be operated after a few months), or inoperable patients.

It is essential that the hernia not be further irritated by carrying out strenuous labour.

Prevention:

*Use proper lifting techniques.

*Lose weight if you are overweight.

*Relieve or avoid constipation by eating plenty of fiber, drinking lots of fluid, going to the bathroom as soon as you have the urge, and exercising regularly.

Types:

There are several types of hernias, based on where it occurs:

*Inguinal hernia — appears as a bulge in the groin or scrotum. This type is common in men than women.

*Fermoral hernia appears as a bulge in the upper thigh. This type is more common in women than in men.

*Incisional hernia — can occur through a scar if you had abdominal surgery.

*Umbical hernia- a bulge around the belly button. Happens if the muscle around the navel doesn’t close completely.

A sportman’s hernia is a syndrome characterized by chronic groin pain in athletes and a dilated superficial ring of the inguinal canal, although a true hernia is not present.

Inguinal hernia:
Diagram of an indirect, scrotal inguinal hernia ( median view from the left).By far the most common hernias (up to 75% of all abdominal hernias) are the so-called inguinal hernias. For a thorough understanding of inguinal hernias, much insight is needed in the anatomy of the inguinal canal. Inguinal hernias are further divided into the more common indirect inguinal hernia (2/3, depicted here), in which the inguinal canal is entered via a congenital weakness at its entrance (the internal inguinal ring), and the direct inguinal hernia type (1/3), where the hernia contents push through a weak spot in the back wall of the inguinal canal. Inguinal hernias are more common in men than women while femoral hernias are more common in women.

Femoral hernia:
Femoral hernias occur just below the inguinal ligament, when abdominal contents pass into the weak area at the posterior wall of the femoral canal. They can be hard to distinguish from the inguinal type (especially when ascending cephalad): however, they generally appear more rounded, and, in contrast to inguinal hernias, there is a strong female preponderance in femoral hernias. The incidence of strangulation in femoral hernias is high. Repair techniques are similar for femoral and inguinal hernia.

Umbilical hernia:
Umbilical hernias are especially common in infants of African descent, and occur more in boys. They involve protrusion of intraabdominal contents through a weakness at the site of passage of the umbilical cord through the abdominal wall. These hernias often resolve spontaneously. Umbilical hernias in adults are largely acquired, and are more frequent in obese or pregnant women. Abnormal decussation of fibers at the linea alba may contribute.

Incisional hernia:
An incisional hernia occurs when the defect is the result of an incompletely healed surgical wound. When these occur in median laparotomy incisions in the linea alba, they are termed ventral hernias. These can be the most frustrating and difficult to treat, as the repair utilizes already attenuated tissue.

Diaphragmatic hernia:
Diagram of a hiatus hernia (coronal section, viewed from the front).Higher in the abdomen, an (internal) “diaphragmatic hernia” results when part of the stomach or intestine protrudes into the chest cavity through a defect in the diaphragm.

 

A hiatus hernia is a particular variant of this type, in which the normal passageway through which the esophagus meets the stomach (esophageal hiatus) serves as a functional “defect”, allowing part of the stomach to (periodically) “herniate” into the chest. Hiatus hernias may be either “sliding,” in which the gastroesophageal junction itself slides through the defect into the chest, or non-sliding (also known as para-esophageal), in which case the junction remains fixed while another portion of the stomach moves up through the defect. Non-sliding or para-esophageal hernias can be dangerous as they may allow the stomach to rotate and obstruct. Repair is usually advised.

 

Frontal chest X-ray showing a hernia of Morgagni.A congenital diaphragmatic hernia is a distinct problem, occurring in up to 1 in 2000 births, and requiring pediatric surgery. Intestinal organs may herniate through several parts of the diaphragm, posterolateral (in Bochdalek’s triangle, resulting in Bochdalek’s hernia), or anteromedial-retrosternal (in the cleft of Larrey/Morgagni’s foramen, resulting in Morgagni-Larrey hernia, or Morgagni’s hernia).

Other types of hernia:
Since many organs or parts of organs can herniate through many orifices, it is very difficult to give an exhaustive list of hernias, with all synonyms and eponyms. The above article deals mostly with “visceral hernias”, where the herniating tissue arises within the abdominal cavity. Other hernia types and unusual types of visceral hernias are listed below, in alphabetical order:

Brain hernia: herniation of part of the brain because of excessive intracranial pressure. This may be a life-threatening condition, especially if the brain stem (responsible for some important vital signs) is involved.
Cooper’s hernia: A femoral hernia with two sacs, the first being in the femoral canal, and the second passing through a defect in the superficial fascia and appearing immediately beneath the skin.

epigastric hernia:
hernia through the linea alba above the umbilicus.
Littre’s hernia: hernia involving a Meckel’s diverticulum. It is named after French anatomist Alexis Littre (1658-1726).
lumbar hernia: hernia in the lumbar region (not to be confused with a lumbar disc hernia), contains following entities:
Petit’s hernia – hernia through Petit’s triangle (inferior lumbar triangle). It is named after French surgeon Jean Louis Petit (1674-1750).
Grynfeltt’s hernia – hernia through Grynfeltt-Lesshaft triangle (superior lumbar triangle). It is named after physician Joseph Grynfeltt (1840-1913).
obturator hernia: hernia through obturator canal
pantaloon hernia: a combined direct and indirect hernia, when the hernial sac protrudes on either side of the inferior epigastric vessels
perineal hernia: A perineal hernia protrudes through the muscles and fascia of the perineal floor. It may be primary but usually, is acquired following perineal prostatectomy, abdominoperineal resection of the rectum, or pelvic exenteration.
properitoneal hernia: rare hernia located directly above the peritoneum, for example, when part of an inguinal hernia projects from the deep inguinal ring to the preperitoneal space.
Richter’s hernia: strangulated hernia involving only one sidewall of the bowel, which can result in bowel perforation through ischaemia without causing bowel obstruction or any of its warning signs. It is named after German surgeon August Gottlieb Richter (1742-1812).
sliding hernia: occurs when an organ drags along part of the peritoneum, or, in other words, the organ is part of the hernia sac. The colon and the urinary bladder are often involved. The term also frequently refers to sliding hernias of the stomach.
sciatic hernia: this hernia in the greater sciatic foramen most commonly presents as an uncomfortable mass in the gluteal area. Bowel obstruction may also occur. This type of hernia is only a rare cause of sciatic neuralgia.
Spigelian hernia, also known as spontaneous lateral ventral hernia
Velpeau hernia: a hernia in the groin in front of the femoral blood vessels
spinal disc herniation, or “herniated nucleus pulposus”: a condition where the central weak part of the intervertebral disc (nucleus pulposus, which helps absorb shocks to our spine), herniates through the fibrous band (annulus fibrosus) by which it is normally bound. This usually occurs low in the back at the lumbar or lumbo-sacral level and can cause back pain which usually radiates well into the thigh or leg. When the sciatic nerve is involved, the symptom complex is called sciatica. Herniation can occur in the cervical vertebrae too. A nucleoplasty is an operation to repair the herniation.

Complications

Complications may arise post-operation, including rejection of the mesh that is used to repair the hernia. In the event of a mesh rejection, the mesh will very likely need to be removed. Mesh rejection can be detected by obvious, sometimes localised swelling and pain around the mesh area. Continuous discharge from the scar is likely for a while after the mesh has been removed.

An untreated hernia may complicate by:Inflamation,Strangulation,Obstruction,Irreducibilty, Hydrocele of the hernial sac

Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.This is purely for educational purpose.

Resources:
http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000960.htm
http://www.cureresearch.com/h/hernia/symptoms.htm
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hernia

Enhanced by Zemanta
Categories
Featured

Heartburn

[amazon_link asins=’B00BV47KTS,B00I8MI3MO,0976642530,B002TC8CDO,B005LHN60I,B0035JIP64,B0019J6XSY,B001CZ7G1I,0679767959′ template=’ProductCarousel’ store=’finmeacur-20′ marketplace=’US’ link_id=’39c8256f-612d-11e7-a147-15cd2d3f5986′]

In many cases, this digestive problem can be prevented with some simple lifestyle changes. But when heartburn hits — as it does daily for more than 25 million Americans — natural remedies can provide quick relief from the disorder’s fiery sensations.

Symptoms
A burning sensation behind the breastbone lasting from a few minutes to several hours.

When to Call Your Doctor
If you have heartburn twice a week or more.

What It Is
To help digest food, the stomach produces about a quart of hydrochloric acid a day. Usually, the acid isn’t a problem, because the gastrointestinal tract is coated with a protective mucous lining. But when acid moves up the esophagus (the tube running from the throat to the stomach), look out. Lacking a protective coating, the delicate tissue of the esophagus is vulnerable to the acid’s corrosive action, which produces a burning sensation doctors label gastroesophageal reflux — and the rest of us call heartburn.

What Causes It
Stomach acid generally stays where it belongs, thanks to the lower esophageal sphincter (LES). This muscle relaxes only to admit food into the stomach and then shuts tightly. But sometimes the LES doesn’t close properly, allowing the stomach’s contents to wash up into the esophagus.

How Supplements Can Help

All the suggested supplements are effective for relieving heartburn — the first four immediately, the last three within a month or so. Try each methodically to see which one or combination works best for you. All can be used in addition to prescription or over-the counter heartburn drugs.

What Else You Can Do
Eat smaller, more frequent meals to minimize stomach acid production.

Supplement Recommendations

Calcium Carbonate
Licorice (DGL)
Aloe Vera Juice
Gamma-oryzanol
Choline
Pantothenic Acid
Thiamin

Calcium Carbonate
Dosage: 250-500 mg 3 times a day.
Comments: Chewable tablets provide the quickest relief.

Licorice (DGL)
Dosage: 2 deglycyrrhizinated licorice (DGL) wafers (380 mg).
Comments: Take 3 or 4 times a day between meals as needed

Aloe Vera Juice
Dosage: 1/2 cup juice 3 times a day between meals.
Comments: Contains 98% aloe vera and no aloin or aloe-emodin.

Gamma-oryzanol
Dosage: 150 mg 3 times a day on an empty stomach.
Comments: Also know as rice bran oil.

Choline

Dosage: 500 mg 3 times a day.
Comments: For chronic heartburn, use in combination with pantothenic acid and thiamin for 1 month to see if symptoms abate.

Pantothenic Acid

Dosage: 1,000 mg twice a day.
Comments: For chronic heartburn, use in combination with choline and thiamin for 1 month to see if symptoms abate.

Thiamin
Dosage: 500 mg a day, taken first thing in the morning.
Comments: Also called vitamin B1. For chronic heartburn, combine with pantothenic acid and choline for 1 month.

Click for home remedy  of Heartburn Relief

Source:Your Guide to Vitamins, Minerals, and Herbs (Reader’s Digest)

Reblog this post [with Zemanta]