Tag Archives: Himachal Pradesh

Chenepodium album (Bengali Bethua sak)

Botanical Name: Chenepodium album
Family: Chenopodiaceae
Genus: Chenopodium
Species: C. album
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Caryophyllales

Common Names: white goosefoot,Pigweed,

In Marathi it is called Bathua or Bathuwa.It is called Pappukura in Telugu, Paruppukkirai in Tamil, Kaduoma in Kannada, Vastuccira in Malayalam, and Chakvit in Konkani.

In English texts it may be called by its Hindi name bathua or bathuwa.

In Bengal it is called Bethua sak

Habitat:Chenepodium album is native in eastern Asia are included under C. album, but often differ from European specimens. It is widely introduced elsewhere, e.g. Africa, Australasia, North America, and Oceania, and now occurs almost everywhere in soils rich in nitrogen, especially on wasteland

Description:
Chenopodium album is a fast-growing weedy annual plant.It tends to grow upright at first, reaching heights of 10–150 cm (rarely to 3 m), but typically becomes recumbent after flowering (due to the weight of the foliage and seeds) unless supported by other plants. The leaves are alternate and can be varied in appearance. The first leaves, near the base of the plant, are toothed and roughly diamond-shaped, 3–7 cm long and 3–6 cm broad. The leaves on the upper part of the flowering stems are entire and lanceolate-rhomboid, 1–5 cm long and 0.4–2 cm broad; they are waxy-coated, unwettable and mealy in appearance, with a whitish coat on the underside. The small flowers are radially symmetrical and grow in small cymes on a dense branched inflorescence 10–40 cm long….CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES

Edible Uses:
The leaves and young shoots may be eaten as a leaf vegetable, either steamed in its entirety, or cooked like spinach, but should be eaten in moderation due to high levels of oxalic acid. Each plant produces tens of thousands of black seeds. These are high in protein, vitamin A, calcium, phosphorus, and potassium. Quinoa, a closely related species, is grown specifically for its seeds. The Zuni people cook the young plants’ greens.

Archaeologists analysing carbonized plant remains found in storage pits and ovens at Iron Age, Viking Age, and Roman sites in Europe have found its seeds mixed with conventional grains and even inside the stomachs of Danish bog bodies.

In India, the plant is popularly called bathua and found abundantly in the winter season. The leaves and young shoots of this plant are used in dishes such as soups, curries, and paratha-stuffed breads, especially popular in Punjab. The seeds or grains are used in phambra or laafi, gruel-type dishes in Himachal Pradesh, and in mildly alcoholic fermented beverages such as soora and ghanti.

Medicinal Uses:
Chenopodium is an herb. Oil made from this herb is used as medicine. Authorities disagree on whether chenopodium oil is the oil of fresh, flowering, and fruiting parts of the plant or seed oil.

Despite serious safety concerns, people take chenopodium oil to kill roundworms and hookworms in the intestine.

Chenopodium album is effective for the following :It is Anthelmintic,Antiscorbutic,Blood Purifier, Digestive, Sedative, Antidiarrheal, Aphrodisiac, Carminative, Duretic, Stomachic, Antirheumatic, Appetizer, Cooling, Laxative, and Tonic.

It is used to elminate digestive problems.:

1.For any kind of stomach ache the herb should be kooked and eaten  with the daily meal.

2. For diarrhea: tea can be made from the fresh leaves and drink twice daily.

3.For burns: the leave paste to be applied on the burns.

4.For Joint Pain: Drink daily 2-3 tablespoon of fresh Chenopodium Album leaf juice in empty stomach before breakfast.

Other Uses:
Animal feed: As some of the common names suggest, it is also used as feed (both the leaves and the seeds) for chickens and other poultry.

Known Hazards: Click & see: Evaluation of safety margins of Chenopodium album seed decoction: 14-day subacute toxicity and microbicidal activity studies.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chenopodium_album
http://www.webmd.com/vitamins-supplements/ingredientmono-898-chenopodium%20oil.aspx?activeingredientid=898&activeingredientname=chenopodium%20oil
http://herbpathy.com/Uses-and-Benefits-of-Chenopodium-Album-Cid4505

Cashew Nut

Botanical Name : Anacardium occidentale
Family: Anacardiaceae
Genus: Anacardium
Species: A. occidentale
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Sapindales

Common Names:Cashew Nut , Cajueiro, jambu,Caju  (The name Anacardium actually refers to the shape of the fruit, which looks like an inverted heart (ana means “upwards” and -cardium means “heart”). In the Tupian languages acajú means “nut that produces itself)

Habitat :Anacardium occidentale is   Originally native to Northeastern Brazil, it is now widely grown in tropical climates for its cashew apples and nuts.

Description:
The anacardium occidentale is large and   Spreading evergreen perennial tree , growing to 10-12m (~32 ft) tall, with a short, often irregularly shaped trunk. The leaves are spirally arranged, leathery textured, elliptic to obovate, 4 to 22 cm long and 2 to 15 cm broad, with a smooth margin. The flowers are produced in a panicle or corymb up to 26 cm long, each flower small, pale green at first then turning reddish, with five slender, acute petals 7 to 15 mm long. The largest cashew tree in the world covers an area of about 7,500 square metres (81,000 sq ft)…..> click & see
Click to see the pictures of:

Anacardium occidentale tree

Cashew ready in tree

Young cashew nuts

Anacardium occidentale (Cashew nut)
The fruit of the cashew tree is an accessory fruit (sometimes called a pseudocarp or false fruit). What appears to be the fruit is an oval or pear-shaped structure, a hypocarpium, that develops from the pedicel and the receptacle of the cashew flower.[3] Called the cashew apple, better known in Central America as “marañón”, it ripens into a yellow and/or red structure about 5–11 cm long. It is edible, and has a strong “sweet” smell and a sweet taste. The pulp of the cashew apple is very juicy, but the skin is fragile, making it unsuitable for transport. In Latin America, a fruit drink is made from the cashew apple pulp which has a very refreshing taste and tropical flavor that can be described as having notes of mango, raw green pepper, and just a little hint of grapefruit-like citrus.

The true fruit of the cashew tree is a kidney or boxing-glove shaped drupe that grows at the end of the cashew apple. The drupe develops first on the tree, and then the pedicel expands to become the cashew apple. Within the true fruit is a single seed, the cashew nut.

Cultivation :
Cashew germinates slowly and poorly; several nuts are usually planted to the hole and thinned later. Propagation is generally by seeds, but may be vegetative from grafting, air-layering or inarching. Planting should be done in situ as cashew seedlings do not transplant easily. Recommended spacing is 10 x 10 m, thinned to 20 x 20 m after about 10 years, with maximum planting of 250 trees/ha. Once established, field needs little care. Intercropping may be done the first few years, with cotton, peanut, or yams. Fruits are produced after three years, during which lower branches and suckers are removed. Full production is attained by 10th year and continues to bear until about 30 years old. In dry areas, like Tanzania, flowering occurs in dry season, and fruits mature in 2–3 months. Flowers and fruits in various degrees of development are often present in same panicle.

Harvesting :
From flowering stage to ripe fruit requires about 3 months. Mature fruit falls to the ground where the ‘apple’ dries away. In wet weather, they are gathered each day and dried for 1–3 days. Mechanical means for shelling have been unsuccessful, so hand labor is required. Cashews are usually roasted in the shell (to make it brittle and oil less blistering), cracked, and nuts removed and vacuum packed. In India part of nuts are harvested from wild trees by people who augment their meager income from other crops grown on poor land. Kernels extracted by people skilled in breaking open the shells with wooden hammers without breaking the kernels. Nuts are separated from the fleshy pedicel and receptacle, seed coat removed by hand, and nuts dried. Fresh green nuts from Africa and the islands off southern India are shipped to precessing plants in Western India.

Click & see  :Twin Cashews ready to harvest

Edible Uses:
The cashew nut is a popular snack, and its rich flavor means that it is often eaten roasted, on its own, lightly salted or sugared, or covered in chocolate.
Click & see roasted  cashew as snacks

Cashew nuts, roasted and salted

Cashew sprouts (above) are eaten raw as well as cooked in Kerala
Cashews, unlike other oily tree nuts, contain starch to about 10% of their weight. This makes them more effective than other nuts in thickening water-based dishes such as soups, meat stews, and some Indian milk-based desserts. Many southeast Asia and south Asian cuisines use cashews for this unusual characteristic, rather than other nuts.

The shell of the cashew nut is toxic, which is why the cashew is shelled before it is sold to consumers

Cashew is commonly used in Indian cuisine. The nut is used whole for garnishing sweets or curries, or ground into a paste that forms a base of sauces for curries (e.g., Korma), or some sweets (e.g., Kaju Barfi). It is also used in powdered form in the preparation of several Indian sweets and desserts. In Goan cuisine, both roasted and raw kernels are used whole for making curries and sweets.

The cashew nut can also be harvested in its tender form, when the shell has not hardened and is green in color. The shell is soft and can be cut with a knife and the kernel extracted, but it is still corrosive at this stage, so gloves are required. The kernel can be soaked in turmeric water to get rid of the corrosive material before use. This is mostly found in Kerala cuisine, typically in avial, a dish that contains several vegetables, grated coconut, turmeric and green chilies.

Cashew nuts are also used in Thai and Chinese cuisine, generally in whole form.

In the Philippines, cashew is a known product of Antipolo, and is eaten with suman. Pampanga also has a sweet dessert called turrones de casuy which is cashew marzipan wrapped in white wafer.

In Indonesia, roasted and salted cashew nut is called kacang mete or kacang mede, while the cashew apple is called jambu monyet (literally means monkey rose apple).

In Mozambique, bolo polana is a cake prepared using powdered cashews and mashed potatoes as the main ingredients. This dessert is popular in South Africa too.

South American countries have developed their own specialties. In Brazil, the cashew fruit juice is popular all across the country. In Panama, the cashew fruit is cooked with water and sugar for a prolonged time to make a sweet, brown, paste-like dessert called “dulce de marañón”. Marañón is one of the Spanish names for cashew.

Nutrition:
The fats and oils in cashew nuts are 54% monounsaturated fat (18:1), 18% polyunsaturated fat (18:2), and 16% saturated fat (9% palmitic acid (16:0) and 7% stearic acid (18:0)).

Cashews, as with other tree nuts, are a good source of antioxidants. Alkyl phenols, in particular, are abundant in cashews. Cashews are also a good source of dietary trace minerals copper, iron and zinc.

Constituents:  alpha-linolenic-acid ,anacardic-acid,arginine ,ascorbic-acid, benzaldehyde,beta-carotene ,beta-sitosterol,calcium ,gallic-acid ,palmitic-acid ,oleic-acid ,riboflavin, salicylic-acid ,selenium,tocopherol ,vanadium ,zinc

Chemistry
Per 100 g, the mature seed is reported to contain 542 calories, 7.6 g H2O, 17.4 g protein, 43.4 g fat, 29.2 g total carbohydrate, 1.4 g fiber, 2.4 g ash, 76 mg Ca, 578 mg P, 18.0 mg Fe, 0.65 mg thiamine, 0.25 mg riboflavin, 1.6 mg niacin, and 7 mg ascorbic acid. Per 100 g, the mature seed is reported to contain 561 calories, 5.2 g H2O, 17.2 g protein, 45.7 g fat, 29.3 g total carbohydrate, 1.4 g fiber, 2.6 g ash, 38 mg Ca, 373 mg P, 3.8 mg Fe, 15 mg Na, 464 mg K, 60 mg b-carotene equivalent, 0.43 mg thiamine, 0.25 mg riboflavin, and 1.8 mg niacin. Per 100 g, the mature seed is reported to contain 533 calories, 2.7 g H2O, 15.2 g protein, 37.0 g fat, 42.0 g total carbohydrate, 1.4 g fiber, 3.1 g ash, 24 mg Ca, 580 mg P, 1.8 mg Fe, 0.85 mg thiamine, 0.32 mg riboflavin, and 2.1 mg niacin. The apple contains 87.9% water, 0.2% protein, 0.1% fat, 11.6% carbohydrate, 0.2% ash, 0.01% Ca, 0.01% P, .002% Fe, 0.26% vitamin C, and 0.09% carotene. The testa contains a-catechin, b-sitosterol, and 1-epicatechin; also proanthocyanadine leucocyanadine, and leucopelargodonidine. The dark color of the nut is due to an iron-polyphenol complex. The shell oil contains about 90% anacardic acid (C22H32O3 and 10% cardol (C32H27O4). It yields glycerides, linoleic, palmitic, stearic, and lignoceric acids, and sitosterol. Examining 24 different cashews, Murthy and Yadava (1972) reported that the oil content of the shell ranged from 16.6 to 32.9%, of the kernel from 34.5 to 46.8%. Reducing sugars ranged from 0.9 to 3.2%, non-reducing sugars, 1.3 to 5.8%, total sugars from 2.4 to 8.7%, starch from 4.7 to 11.2%. Gum exudates contain arabinose, galactose, rhamnose, and xylose.

Medicinal Uses:
Properties: * Astringent * Hypoglycemic * Vermifuge
Parts Used: bark, stems, nuts, and resin

The cashew nutshell liquid (CNSL), a byproduct of processing cashew, is mostly composed of anacardic acids (70%), cardol (18%) and cardanol (5%). These acids have been used effectively against tooth abscesses due to their lethality to a wide range of Gram-positive bacteria. Many parts of the plant are used by the Patamona of Guyana medicinally. The bark is scraped and soaked overnight or boiled as an antidiarrheal; it also yields a gum used in varnish. Seeds are ground into powders used for antivenom for snake bites. The nut oil is used topically as an antifungal and for healing cracked heels.

click to see cashew apples
Cashew nuts could possibly hold answers in the search for better ways to treat diabetes and high blood sugar. Animal studies with diabetic rats fed nut milk extract are promising, but more study is needed. 1 Anacardiaceae spp  have long been used in the folk medicine and traditional cuisines of India, South America and the Caribbean. Cajueiro,as the tree is known in Brazil contains naturally occurring analogs of the latest diabetes drugs without their potential for liver damage or weight gain.

The nut is highly nutritious, containing 45% fat and 20% protein.  The leaves are used in Indian and African herbal medicine for toothache and gum problems, and in West Africa for malaria.  The bark is used in Ayurvedic medicine to detoxify snake bite.  The roots are purgative.  The gum is used externally for leprosy, corns, and fungal conditions. The oil between the outer and inner shells of the nut is caustic and causes an inflammatory reaction even in small doses.  The fruit bark juice and the nut oil are both said to be folk remedies for calluses, corns, and warts, cancerous ulcers, and even elephantiasis. Anacardol and anacardic acid have shown some activity against Walker carcinosarcoma 256. Decoction of the astringent bark is given for severe diarrhea and thrush. Old leaves are applied to skin afflictions and burns (tannin applied to burns is liepatocarcinogenic). Oily substance from pericarp is used for cracks on the feet. Cuna Indians used the bark in herb teas for asthma, colds, and congestion. The seed oil is believed to be alexeritic and amebicidal; used to treat gingivitis, malaria, and syphilitic ulcers. Ayurvedic medicine recommends the fruit for anthelmintic, aphrodisiac, ascites, dysentery, fever, inappetence, leucoderma, piles, tumors, and obstinate ulcers. In the Gold Coast, the bark and leaves are used for sore gums and toothache. Juice of the fruit is used for hemoptysis. Sap discutient, fungicidal, repellent. Leaf decoction gargled for sore throat. Cubans use the resin for cold treatments. The plant exhibits hypoglycemic activity. In Malaya, the bark decoction is used for diarrhea. In Indonesia, older leaves are poulticed onto burns and skin diseases. Juice from the apple is used to treat quinsy in Indonesia, dysentery in the Philippines.  In Venezuela, a decoction of the cashew leaf is used to treat diarrhea and is believed to be a treatment for diabetes.  Pulverized cashew tree bark, soaked in water for 24 hours is also reported to be used in Colombia for diabetes.   Peruvians have used a tea of the cashew tree leaf as a treatment for diarrhea, while a tea from the bark has been used as a vaginal douche.  Leaf infusions have been used to treat toothache and sore throat and as a febrifuge.

Other Uses:
Anacardic acid is also used in the chemical industry for the production of cardanol, which is used for resins, coatings, and frictional materials

Alcohol:
In Goa, India, the cashew apple (the accessory fruit) is mashed, the juice is extracted and kept for fermentation for 2–3 days. Fermented juice then undergoes a double distillation process. The resulting beverage is called feni. Fenny/feni is about 40-42% alcohol. The single distilled version is called “Urrac” (the ‘u’ is pronounced ~ ‘oo’) which is about 15% alcohol.

In the southern region of Mtwara, Tanzania, the cashew apple (bibo in Swahili) is dried and saved. Later it is reconstituted with water and fermented, then distilled to make a strong liquor often referred to by the generic name, gongo.

In Mozambique, it is very common among the cashew farmers to make a strong liquor from the cashew apple which is called “agua ardente” (burning water).

According to An Account of the Island of Ceylon written by Robert Percival  an alcohol had been distilled in the early twentieth century from the juice of the fruit, and had been manufactured in the West Indies. Apparently the Dutch considered it superior to brandy as a “liqueur.”

Known Hazatrds:
Although a nut in the culinary sense, in the botanical sense the nut of the cashew is a seed. The seed is surrounded by a double shell containing an allergenic phenolic resin, anacardic acid, a potent skin irritant chemically related to the better-known allergenic oil urushiol which is also a toxin found in the related poison ivy. Properly roasting cashews destroys the toxin, but it must be done outdoors as the smoke (not unlike that from burning poison ivy) contains urushiol droplets which can cause severe, sometimes life-threatening, reactions by irritating the lungs. .

Allergy:
For some people, cashews, like other tree nuts, can lead to complications or allergic reactions. Cashews contain gastric and intestinal soluble oxalates, albeit less than some other tree nuts; people with a tendency to form kidney stone may need moderation and medical guidance.   Allergies to tree nuts such as cashews can be of severe nature to some people. These allergic reactions can be life-threatening or even fatal; prompt medical attention is necessary if tree nut allergy reaction is observed. These allergies are triggered by the proteins found in tree nuts, and cooking often does not remove or change these proteins. Reactions to cashew and other tree nuts can also occur as a consequence of hidden nut ingredients or traces of nuts that may inadvertently be introduced during food processing, handling or manufacturing. Many nations require food label warning if the food may get inadvertent exposure to tree nuts such as cashews.

In some people, cashew nut allergy may be a different form, namely birch pollen allergy. This is usually a minor form. Symptoms are confined largely to the mouth.

An estimated 1.8 million Americans (between 0.4%-0.6% of the population) have an allergy to tree nuts. Young children are most affected; and tree nuts allergies tend to last lifelong. Some regions of the world have higher incidence rates than others

Toxicity
He who cuts the wood or eats cashew nuts or stirs his drink with a cashew swizzle stick is possibly subject to a dermatitis.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cashew
http://www.anniesremedy.com/herb_detail418.php
http://www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/duke_energy/anacardium_occidentale.html

http://www.herbnet.com/Herb%20Uses_C.htm

Enhanced by Zemanta

Bengal hemp

 

Botanical Name : Crotalaria juncea L.

Family: Fabaceae (alt. Leguminosae)
Genus :Crotalaria L. – rattlebox
Subfamily: Faboideae
Tribe: Crotalarieae.
Kingdom :  Plantae – Plants
Subkingdom:   Tracheobionta – Vascular plants
Division :  Magnoliophyta – Flowering plants
Superdivision :   Spermatophyta – Seed plants
Class: Magnoliopsida – Dicotyledons
Subclass: Rosidae
Order :   Fabales
Species:    Crotalaria juncea L. – sunn h


Synonyms
: Crotalaria benghalensis Lam.,Crotalaria fenestrata Sims,Crotalaria ferestrata Sims,Crotalaria porrecta Wall.,Crotalaria sericea Willd.,Crotalaria tenuifolia Roxb.,Crotalaria viminea Wall.


Common Names :-

Cambodia: kâk’tung
China: shu ma, tai yang ma (Taiwan)
English: brown hemp, Indian-hemp, Madras-hemp, sann-hemp, sunn crotalaria, sunn-hemp,Bengal hemp
French: cascavelle, chanvre du Bengale, chanvre indien, crotolaire jonciforme, grand sonnette, grand tcha-tcha (Creole), sonnette, tcha-tcha (Creole)
German: bengalischer hanf, bombay hanf, sanhanf
India: saab, san, sunn, sannai, sanpat, sonai, tag, vakku, janumu, ghore sun, shon, shonpat
Indonesia: orok-orok lembut
Kenya: mito
Laos: th´üang, thwax chu
Nepal: san
Philippines:
putok-putukan, karay-kagay
Portuguese: cânhamo-da-Índia, crotalaria
Russia: krotalyariya sitnikovaya
Spanish: cáñamo san
Sri Lanka: hana
Tamil: sanal, sannappu
Thailand: po-thuang
Vietnamese:
cây mu?ng
Taiwan : Tai yang ma

Habitat :Exact native range obscure, although considered native to:
South Asia: Bangladesh; Bhutan; India (Andhra Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Delhi, Goa, Gujarat, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Orissa, Pondicherry, Punjab, Rajasthan, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Tripura, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal, Yanan.)

Cultivated throughout the dry and wet tropics particularly in India, Bangladesh, and Brazil; also to a lesser extent in the subtropics and even cool temperate steppe.

Description:
Erect, herbaceous, laxly branched annual shrub, (1 -) 2 – 3 (- 4) m tall, with a deep strong tap root, and well-developed lateral roots bearing numerous multi-branched and lobed nodules, up to 2.5 cm in length.  Stem cylindrical, ribbed, pubescent to about 2 cm diameter, branching from about 60 cm, minimised with dense plantings.  Leaves simple, sparsely appressed-pubescent above, more densely so below, stipules acicular, 2 – 3 mm long, caducous; petiole about 5 mm long with pulvinus, blades bright green in colour, linear elliptic to oblong, entire, acute, sometimes sub-obtuse, 4 – 12 (- 15) cm long, 0.5 – 3 cm broad; spirally arranged on the stem.  Inflorescence a lax indeterminate, terminal raceme (10 -) 15 – 25 (- 30 cm) long comprising 10 – 20 flowers, with very small linear bracts.  Pedicels 3 – 5 mm long; corolla bright or deep yellow; standard erect, sub-orbicular to short oblong, 2 – 2.5 cm diameter, sometimes streaked reddish or purple on dorsal surface; wings slightly shorter than keel; keel abruptly curved, the beak narrow and twisted at apex, c. 10 mm long; stamens 10, almost free to base (5 with short filaments and long narrow anthers, and 5 with long filaments and small rounded anthers); calyx 5-lobed, sepals pointed, tomentose, 11 – 20 mm long, 3 lower sepals united at base separating in fruit.  Pods tomentose, inflated, cylindrical, 2.5 – 4 (- 6) cm long, 1 -2 cm diameter, grooved along the upper surface, with a short pointed beak, light brown when ripe, 6 – 12-seeded.  Seed heart-shaped, with narrow end strongly incurved, flattened, (3 -) 4 – 6 mm long, greyish olive, dark grey, dark brown to black, loosened in the pod at maturity; 17,000 to 35,000 per kg (depending on production conditions and genotype).

CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES
Cultivation:
Grows on most well-drained soils.  For fibre, it is best on fairly light textured soil (sandy loam or loam) of at least moderate fertility, but for other purposes, it will also grow well on clay soils and tolerates low fertility, providing soils are well-drained.

Plants remain succulent for 6 to 8 weeks after sowing, at which time flowering begins and stems begin to lignify.  When grown for forage, C. juncea can be harvested 4 times, starting 6 – 8 weeks after sowing, and then every 4 weeks.  This is also the best time to incorporate it as a green manure.  More mature plants are set back by harvesting and may die or take some time for even partial recovery.


Constituents :
Leaves contain an abundance of mucilage, a little solid fat and a resin soluble in ether.

Properties
*Leaves are considered refrigerant, demulcent, emetic, purgative, emmenagogue and abortive.
*Root is astringent.
*Seeds are corrective of blood.

Medicinal Uses:
Folkloric
*Infusion of bitter leaves are used externally and internally for gastric and bilious fevers accompanied by skin diseases like impetigo and psoriasis. Also used as emmenagogue.
*Root is used for colic and as astringent in epistaxis.
*Seeds used to purify the blood.
*Powdered seeds, mixed with oil, used to make the hair grow.

Studies
• Anti-Inflammatory / Anti-Ulcerogenic: Study showed CJ extract significantly inhibited adjuvant induced arthritis in rats. It also possessed anti-ulcerogenic property which may be due to an appetite suppresant effect.
• Toxicological Studies on Seeds: Study showed the administration of a dose of 200 mg/kg of extracts of seeds on liver, kidney, spleen and adrenals of adult rats caused significant alterations. Organ net weight decreased, histology showed disintegration necrosis and degeneration in the liver, renal tubular cell degeneration and exfoliation, zona glomerulosa hypertrophy in the adrenals, and splenic increase in megakaryotic cells and lymphocytes.
• Antispermatogenic / Hormonal Effects: Study evaluated the antifertility activity of various extracts of Crotalaria juncea seeds in male mice. Results showed decrease in testis and accessory organ weights, with spermatogonia, spermatocytes, spermatids and sperm counts were reduced. The ethanol extract showed the most potent antispermatogenic activity. Study concludes that various extracts arrest spermatogenesis and are likely to have antiandrogenic activity.

Other Uses:
While finding some application as a forage, it is primarily grown for production of bast fibres used in the manufacture of twine and cord, high quality paper and pulp; also used as a green manure or cover crop and as a break crop to reduce weed and nematode populations.

Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider

Resources:
http://www.tropicalforages.info/key/Forages/Media/Html/Crotalaria_juncea.htm
http://www.stuartxchange.com/BengalHemp.html

Chaerophyllum villosum

Botanical Name : Chaerophyllum villosum
Family  : Umbelliferae/Apiaceae
Subfamily: Apioideae
Genus    : Chaerophyllum
Order: Apiales
Tribus: Scandiceae
Species: Chaerophyllum villosum
Common name:Mithi patis, Hairy Chervil , Hindi: Khelti , Nepali:  Chyaum


Habitat  :
E. Asia – Himalayas from India to Bhutan, Nepal and China.   Moist shady places at elevations of 2100 – 3500 metres in Nepal. Forests, road sides or open grassy places at elevations of 2100 – 2800 metres in southwestern China.

This species is globally distributed in Afghanistan, Pakistan, India, Nepal and Bhutan between an altitude range of 2100-3600 m. Within India, it has been recorded in Jammu & Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh (Lahaul – Spiti Frequent on moist slopes. Jispa), Uttar Pradesh, Sikkim and in Arunachal Pradesh and Meghalaya between an altitude range of 1200-1800 m.


Description :

Hairy Chervil is a perennial herb up to 60 cm tall, velvety.
Roots are elongated, fusiform. Lower stem is densely hairy, hairs white, deflexed. Leaves are 2-3-pinnate, velvety; pinnae finely divided; leaf sheaths of the upper leaves inflated. Involucral bracts are absent. White or pale pink flowers are borne in umbels. Rays are 6-10, smooth to velvety. Involucel of 5-6 linear to lanceolate bractlets; margins white, ciliate or entire. Fruit is cylindrical, 6-9 mm long, narrowed at the tip – 2-6 fruits are borne in an umbellet.

click to see.

It is hardy to zone 0. It is in flower from July to August, and the seeds ripen from July to August. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs)
The plant prefers light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils. The plant prefers acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It requires moist soil.

Cultivation:
We have very little information on this species and do not know if it will be hardy in Britain, though judging by its native range it could succeed outdoors in many parts of this country. One report says this is an annual plant. The following notes are based on the general needs of the genus. An easily grown plant, it succeeds in almost any soil, though it prefers a moist soil.

Propagation
:
Seed – these notes are based on C. bulbosum, they might not apply to this species. Best sown in the autumn in situ. The seed has a very short viability or, according to another report, the seed becomes dormant if allowed to dry out and will not germinate for a year. If stored for a spring sowing it should be kept in damp sand in a cold but frost-free place and then sown in situ in March. Another alternative is to sow the seed in the autumn in a seed tray in a cold frame and then to sow the seed, soil and all, in early April in situ.

Edible Uses
Edible Parts: Leaves.  Tender young leaves and shoots – cooked.

Medicinal Uses
Not known

Resources:
http://server9.web-mania.com/users/pfafardea/database/plants.php?Chaerophyllum+villosum
http://species.wikimedia.org/wiki/Chaerophyllum_villosum
http://www.flowersofindia.net/catalog/slides/Hairy%20Chervil.html
http://vaniindia.org.whbus12.onlyfordemo.com/herbal/plantdir.asp

Enhanced by Zemanta

Atees

 

Botanical Name : Aconitum heterophylum
Family: Ranunculaceae
Subfamily: Ranunculoideae
Tribes: Aconiteae
Genus: Aconitum
Species: Aconitum heterophyllum

Common Name: Atees
Other Names: Indian Atees, Atis, Ativisha, Ataicha, Atavasa, Ateicha, Athivisha, Atirasa, Ativadayam, Ativasu, Bhangura,  Pankura, Sitashringi, Upavishaaka, Vajji-turki; Vaj-turki, visha.

Part-Used : Tuberous root

Habitat:This herb is found in hills of India , Himachal Pradesh, Uttaranchal, Jammu & Kashmir , Sikkim and Arunachal Pradesh. It is usually found on humus-rich soils in the alpine and subalpine zones, and in forests, 2300 – 2900 metres.

Description :
Perennial, aesthetic herb containing tuberous roots and standing 1-3 ft tall. Roots biennial, paired, tuberous, daughter tuber cylindrical to cylindrical, oblong or conic, long, thick, bearing few root fibres which are friable, bark very thin. Stem erect, simple or branched, high, glabrous below internodes short. Leaves are mainly heteromorphous, glabrous, Inflorescence a slender raceme, leafy panicle or in alpine specimens reduced to a few flowers, crispo-pubescent. Sepals blue or violet, Nectaries, glabrous. Seeds obpyramidal, long blackish brown.

CLICK & SEE

It is hardy to zone (UK) 6. It is in flower from Aug to September, and the seeds ripen from Sep to October. and are pollinated by Bees.

Cultivation: Sandy loam and acidic soil is best for seed germination, survival, better growth and yield. In general, cultivation up to 2200 m, elevation having sandy textured soil with rich organic matter is recommended for cultivation.
Propagation :  Seeds

Chemical Constituents : Diterpene Alkaloid- Heteraticine.
* atisine – an intensely bitter alkaloid that is also non-toxic
*aconitinic acid
* tannic acid
* pectous substance
* starch
* fat
*a mixture of oleic, palmitic, stearic glycerides
* vegetable mucilage
*sugar
*ash (2%)

Active Compounds:
Atisine – an intensely bitter alkaloid that is also non-toxic aconitinic acid, tannic acid, pectous substance, starch, fat, a mixture of oleic, palmitic, stearic glycerides, vegetable mucilage, sugar, ash (2%)

Medicinal Properties & Uses:
The roots are acrid, bitter, thermogenic, expectorant, stomachic, digestive, antiperiodic and tonic. they are useful in dysentry, diarrhoea, stomach disorders fever, malarial fever, vomiting, helminthiasis, haemorrhoids, haemorrhages, internal inflammatory conditions and genaral debility. They are highly recommended for diseases in children. It reduces arrhythmia and hypertension.

They are highly recommended for diseases in children. It reduces arrhythmia and hypertension.

This is useful for a cute inflammations, chronic fevers, convalescing after fever, cough, debility, diarrhea, dysentery, edema, Hemorrhoids, indigestion, liver disorders, vomiting.

It is used in India in the treatment of dyspepsia, diarrhea and coughs. It is also used in Tibetan medicine, where it is said to have a bitter taste and a cooling potency. It is used to treat poisoning from scorpion or snake bites, the fevers of contagious diseases and inflammation of the intestines.  The dried tuberous roots are used for hemorrhoids, vomiting, edema, liver disorders, Kapha and Pitta diseases; convalescing after fever, debility, diarrhea, dysentery, acute inflammations, cough, indigestion, chronic fevers. Even though Aconitum heterophyllum belongs to the aconitum family, it is non-toxic if used properly. In Ayurvedic medicine it is used for children experiencing fever and diarrhea. It does slow the heart rate.  It is also used to treat headaches caused from eating excessive amounts of greasy foods, thirst associated with fever, yellowish sclera, nausea, vomiting, throat pain, and lung and eye inflammation. This herb is also used for treating digestive disorders such as anorexia, piles, and worms. It is said to help revitalize sexual desire and reduce obesity. Mitigates breast milk in lactating mothers.    The recommended doses of Aconitum heterophyllum depend on the condition that is being treated. Different formulations of Aconitum heterophyllum can be toxic, therefore, strict supervision by a qualified herbalist or physician is advised before using this herb. Do not use old herbs as they lose their potency. Historically before using the root it would be purified by being kept in cow’s urine for one night and then dried in sunlight and ground into powder.

Click to see to learn more :

Known Hazards  : The whole plant is highly toxic – simple skin contact has caused numbness in some people.    One report says that this plant does not contain the toxic alkaloid aconitine, and so is not poisonous. It does, however, still contain an intensely bitter alkaloid.

Disclaimer:The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://www.herbsncures.com/atees.html
http://apmab.ap.nic.in/products.php?&start=0#
http://www.impgc.com/plantinfo_A.php?id=171&bc=Raw%20Herbs%20»%20Others
http://www.motherherbs.com/aconitum-heterophyllum.html

http://www.herbnet.com/Herb%20Uses_IJK.htm

Enhanced by Zemanta