Categories
Ailmemts & Remedies

Syphillis

Other names:
Other names that people use for syphilis include:
*Pox
*Bad blood
*The great imitator
*Siff.

Description:
Syphilis is a sexually transmitted infective diseas caused by the spirochete bacterium Treponema pallidum subspecies pallidum. The primary route of transmission is through sexual contact; it may also be transmitted from mother to fetus during pregnancy or at birth, resulting in congenital syphilis. Other human diseases caused by related Treponema pallidum include yaws (subspecies pertenue), pinta (subspecies carateum), and bejel (subspecies endemicum)……....click & see the pictures

Symptoms:
The signs and symptoms of syphilis vary depending in which of the four stages :primary, secondary, latent, and tertiary.

Primary stage of Syphilis:
The primary stage of syphilis typically begins with a sore (called a “chancre”) on the skin that’s initially exposed to the infection — usually the genitals, rectum or mouth. The sore has been described as feeling like a button: firm, round, usually measuring half an inch across, and not tender to the touch. Swelling of the lymph nodes in the groin may occur, but the nodes are not usually tender.

Infected individuals do not usually feel ill in the primary stage of syphilis, and the chancre heals spontaneously after 4 to 6 weeks. This is a problem because the syphilis has not gone away: syphilis continues to spread throughout the body.

Secondary stage of syphilis:
From the primary stage, the disease moves into the secondary stage of syphilis. Secondary syphilis can often occur several weeks after the chancre heals, once the bacteria have spread through the body. An individual may feel sick; common symptoms include headache, achiness, loss of appetite and maybe rash.

The rash in secondary syphilis is usually reddish-brown in color, not itchy and widespread. But the appearance of the rash’s individual lesions can vary dramatically: they may be flat or raised, they may or may not be scaly, and pustules may or may not be present. It’s partially due to the variability of this rash that led to syphilis being called “the great imitator,” because it can resemble many other conditions. The rash can last for a few weeks or months.

Other symptoms of secondary syphilis include sores in the mouth, nose, throat, and on the genitals or folds of the skin. Lymph node swelling is common, and patchy hair loss can occur. All signs and symptoms of the second stage of syphilis will disappear without treatment in 3 weeks to 9 months, but the infection will still be present in the body.

Latent stage of Syphilis:
The latent stage of syphilis, which occurs after the symptoms of secondary syphilis have disappeared, can last from a few years to up to 50 years! There are no symptoms in this stage, and after about two years, an infected man may cease to be contagious. However, a man in the latent stage of syphilis is still infected, and the disease can be diagnosed by a blood test. During the latent stage, a pregnant woman can transmit syphilis to her fetus.

Tertiary stage of Syphillis:
The final stage of syphilis, which occurs in about one third of those who are not treated, is known as the tertiary stage. Many organs may be affected. Common symptoms include fever; painful, non-healing skin ulcers; bone pain; liver disease; and anemia. Tertiary syphilis can also affect the nervous system (resulting in the loss of mental functioning) and the aorta (resulting in heart disease)…….click & see : http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/7/73/Tertiary_syphilis_head.JPG

Congenita syphilis:
Congenital syphilis is that which is transmitted during pregnancy or during birth. Two-thirds of syphilitic infants are born without symptoms. Common symptoms that develop over the first couple years of life include: hepatosplenomegaly (70%), rash (70%), fever (40%), neurosyphilis (20%), and pneumonitis (20%). If untreated, late congenital syphilis may occur in 40%, including: saddle nose deformation, Higoumenakis sign, saber shin, or Clutton’s joints among others.

Causes:
The cause of syphilis is a bacterium called Treponema pallidum. The most common route of transmission is through contact with an infected person’s sore during sexual activity. The bacteria enter your body through minor cuts or abrasions in your skin or mucous membranes. Syphilis is contagious during its primary and secondary stages, and sometimes in the early latent period.

Syphilis is transmitted primarily by sexual contact or during pregnancy from a mother to her fetus; the spirochaete is able to pass through intact mucous membranes or compromised skin. It is thus transmissible by kissing near a lesion, as well as oral, vaginal, and anal sex. Approximately 30 to 60% of those exposed to primary or secondary syphilis will get the disease. Its infectivity is exemplified by the fact that an individual inoculated with only 57 organisms has a 50% chance of being infected. Most (60%) of new cases in the United States occur in men who have sex with men. It can be transmitted via blood products. However, it is tested for in many countries and thus the risk is low. The risk of transmission from sharing needles appears limited. Syphilis cannot be contracted through toilet seats, daily activities, hot tubs, or sharing eating utensils or clothing.Once cured, syphilis doesn’t recur. However, you can become reinfected if you have contact with someone’s syphilis sore.

Risk Factors:
One may face an increased risk of acquiring syphilis if he or she:

*Engage in unprotected sex
*Have sex with multiple partners
*Are a man who has sex with men
*Are infected with HIV, the virus that causes AIDS

Complications:
Without treatment, syphilis can lead to damage throughout your body. Syphilis also increases the risk of HIV infection and, for women, can cause problems during pregnancy. Treatment can help prevent future damage but can’t repair or reverse damage that’s already occurred.

Small bumps or tumors:
Called gummas, these bumps can develop on your skin, bones, liver or any other organ in the late stage of syphilis. Gummas usually disappear after treatment with antibiotics.

Neurological problems:
Syphilis can cause a number of problems with your nervous system, including:

*Stroke
*Meningitis
*Deafness
*Visual problems
*Dementia
*Cardiovascular problems

These may include bulging (aneurysm) and inflammation of the aorta —  body’s major artery — and of other blood vessels. Syphilis may also damage heart valves.

HIV infection:
Adults with sexually transmitted syphilis or other genital ulcers have an estimated two- to fivefold increased risk of contracting HIV. A syphilis sore can bleed easily, providing an easy way for HIV to enter your bloodstream during sexual activity.

Pregnancy and childbirth complications:
Pregnent woman  may pass syphilis to her unborn baby. Congenital syphilis greatly increases the risk of miscarriage, stillbirth or her newborn’s death within a few days after birth.

Diagnosis:
Syphilis can be diagnosed by testing samples of:

*Blood. Blood tests can confirm the presence of antibodies that the body produces to fight infection. The antibodies to the bacteria that cause syphilis remain in your body for years, so the test can be used to determine a current or past infection.

*Fluid from sores. Your doctor may scrape a small sample of cells from a sore to be analyzed by microscope in a lab. This test can be done only during primary or secondary syphilis, when sores are present. The scraping can reveal the presence of bacteria that cause syphilis.

*Cerebral spinal fluid. If it’s suspected that you have nervous system complications of syphilis, your doctor may also suggest collecting a sample of cerebrospinal fluid through a procedure called a lumbar puncture (spinal tap).

Treatment:
Early infections:
The first-choice treatment for uncomplicated syphilis remains a single dose of intramuscular benzathine penicillin G or a single dose of oral azithromycin. Doxycycline and tetracycline are alternative choices; however, due to the risk of birth defects these are not recommended for pregnant women. Antibiotic resistance has developed to a number of agents, including macrolides, clindamycin, and rifampin. Ceftriaxone, a third-generation cephalosporin antibiotic, may be as effective as penicillin-based treatment.
Late infections

For neurosyphilis, due to the poor penetration of penicillin G into the central nervous system, those affected are recommended to be given large doses of intravenous penicillin for a minimum of 10 days. If a person is allergic, ceftriaxone may be used or penicillin desensitization attempted. Other late presentations may be treated with once-weekly intramuscular penicillin G for three weeks. If allergic, as in the case of early disease, doxycycline or tetracycline may be used, albeit for a longer duration. Treatment at this stage limits further progression, but has only slight effect on damage which has already occurred.

Jarisch-Herxheimer reaction:
One of the potential side effects of treatment is the Jarisch-Herxheimer reaction. It frequently starts within one hour and lasts for 24 hours, with symptoms of fever, muscles pains, headache, and tachycardia. It is caused by cytokines released by the immune system in response to lipoproteins released from rupturing syphilis bacteria

Prevention:
As of 2010, there is no vaccine effective for prevention.Abstinence from intimate physical contact with an infected person is effective at reducing the transmission of syphilis, as is the proper use of a latex condom. Condom use, however, does not completely eliminate the risk. Thus, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends a long-term, mutually monogamous relationship with an uninfected partner and the avoidance of substances such as alcohol and other drugs that increase risky sexual behavior.

Congenital syphilis in the newborn can be prevented by screening mothers during early pregnancy and treating those who are infected. The United States Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) strongly recommends universal screening of all pregnant women,[18] while the World Health Organization recommends all women be tested at their first antenatal visit and again in the third trimester. If they are positive, they recommend their partners also be treated. Congenital syphilis is, however, still common in the developing world, as many women do not receive antenatal care at all, and the antenatal care others do receive does not include screening, and it still occasionally occurs in the developed world, as those most likely to acquire syphilis (through drug use, etc.) are least likely to receive care during pregnancy. A number of measures to increase access to testing appear effective at reducing rates of congenital syphilis in low- to middle-income countries.

Syphilis is a notifiable disease in many countries, including Canada the European Union, and the United States. This means health care providers are required to notify public health authorities, which will then ideally provide partner notification to the person’s partners. Physicians may also encourage patients to send their partners to seek care. The CDC recommends sexually active men who have sex with men are tested at least yearly.

Research:
There is no vaccine available for people; however, a vaccine has been developed that is effective in an animal model and research is ongoing.

Click & see:—>
Ayurvedic treatment ofSyphillis….(1).…..(2)..(3)

Homeopathic treatment of Syphillis:....(1)….(2)....(3)

Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.This is purely for educational purpose.

Resources:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Syphilis
http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/syphilis/basics/causes/con-20021862
http://menshealth.about.com/od/sexualdiseasesstds/a/syphilis_signs.htm
http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/syphilis/basics/tests-diagnosis/con-20021862

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Categories
Health Problems & Solutions

Some Health Quaries & Answers

 

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————————————-–click & see

A: The manufacturers of Today claim 89 to 91 per cent efficiency, if used correctly. It is a spermicide — that is, it kills any sperm that comes into contact with it. It has to be inserted prior to intercourse and left inside for a minimum of six hours. Independent consumer surveys have placed the efficiency at around 65 per cent. The effectiveness increases to 99 per cent if used with condoms.

Invasive thymoma
——————————-
Q: I had a cough. When a chest X-ray was taken, I was found to have “invasive thymoma”. What is that?

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A: The thymus is a gland situated in front of the chest. It usually involutes and disappears after puberty. However, it can persist and grow, forming a “thymoma”. This can present at any age but is commoner after the age of 50. It causes no symptoms in a third of the people (as in your case) and is picked up only during a routine X-ray. As it is situated close to the heart, lungs and large blood vessels in the chest, it can penetrate and invade these structures forming an “invasive thymoma”.Treatment involves surgery radiation and chemotherapy. Take your doctor’s advice and go to a tertiary care hospital that specialises in cancer treatment.

Gay matter
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Q: My cousin is a homosexual. Is there any medication that can be given to him?

click & see

A: The reason for sexual orientation is still tentative and not proven. It is probably the result of a combination of genetic, hormonal and environmental factors. There have been some articles recently in biology journals speculating that sexual orientation depends on whether the person has a preponderance of male or female receptor pheromones. This is genetic. Sexual orientation is established in early childhood. This gives credence to the genetic theory. There is no scientific evidence that abnormal parenting, sexual abuse or other adverse life event influences sexual orientation. Being “gay” is not due to a chemical imbalance in the brain. There is no medication to change it.

Always tearful…click & see
——————–
Q: My mother has tears rolling out of her left eye all the time. Please help.

[amazon_link asins=’B00KU613W8,B072N2PVVW,B073ZLSXKH,B00QPWTX14,B06X9NBXVZ,B07332MZ3V,B0177P1CNE,B016QKZ9L2,B002WE4DZ0′ template=’ProductCarousel’ store=’finmeacur-20′ marketplace=’US’ link_id=’2bdd7fff-7015-11e7-9a7f-3d63b5d4ea8c’]Q: My wife has heard about “Today”. It seems an ideal contraceptive since you only have to insert it before intercourse. How effective is it?

A: There is a small opening in the lower eye lid near the bridge of the nose which leads into the lachrymal (tear) duct and also opens into the nose. The opening near the eye lid seems to have become blocked . This is commoner in women after menopause and can occur for a variety of reasons. An ophthalmologist can determine if it is due to an infection or if debris has blocked it. Medical treatment for the infection involves massage, drops and ointments. If these do not work, surgery may be required.

Lump near genitalia
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Q: I have a lump on the right side of my penis. It hurts when I stand up but I cannot feel it when I lie down….click & see

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A: It sounds like you have inguinal hernia. Since it disappears when you lie down, it means the hernia is still reducible and has not become obstructed. You need to see a surgeon to have it corrected. It is not a tumour or cancer.

Source: The Telegraph (Kolkata, India)

 
Categories
Ailmemts & Remedies

Blister

Definition:
Blister is a collection of fluid underneath the top layer of skin (epidermis). One that is more than 5 mm in diameter with thin walls and is full of watery fluid is called a bulla or a bleb. There are many causes of blisters including burns, vesicant agents, friction forces, and diseases of the skin.A blister or bulla is a defense mechanism of the human body. When the outer (epidermis) layer of the skin separates from the fibre layer (dermis), a pool of lymph and other bodily fluids collect between these layers while the skin re-grows from underneath.

click to see…..>...(01).....(1).………(2).……..(3)..……...(4).……..(5)…….,..(6).

There are a number of types of blisters, including:

*Blood blister — a blister full of blood due to a pinch, bruise or repeated friction.It is associated with sub-dermal bleeding it will partially fill with blood, forming a blood blister.

*Water blister – a blister with clear watery contents that is not purulent (does not contain pus) and is not sanguineous (does not contain blood).

*Fever blister
a blister in the mouth or around it that causes pain, burning, or itching before bursting and crusting over. It is due to the herpes simplex virus which is latent (dormant in the body) and can be reawakened (reactivated) by such factors as stress, sunburn, or fever. Hence, it called a fever blister or a cold sore.

click to see

A fever blister located on the lips, mouth, and face is usually caused by the highly contagious herpes simplex type 1 virus. Only a small percentage are caused by herpes simplex type 2 (the type usually associated with genital lesions). While there is no cure, there are medications that will relieve the pain and itch and speed the healing of the blister.

The word “blister” entered English in the 14th century. It came from the Middle Dutch “bluyster”, blister and was a modification of the Old French “blostre” which meant a leprous nodule — a rise in the skin due to leprosy.

Burn Blister-

If you burn yourself, the first thing to do is determine how severe the burn is. If you experience blistering when you have been burned, which usually occurs several minutes after the burn has occurred, you have most likely suffered a second-degree burn, which is considered to be a minor burn. You can treat a minor burn at home, but see a doctor if you have trouble breathing or see black or white charring on your body due to the burn.
How to tacle Burn Blister:

1.Cool the burn blisters. The burn can be cooled by running cool water over the afflicted area for approximately five minutes. Continue running water over the burn until the pain decreases.

2.Place a cold compress on the burn blisters. If you are still experiencing pain from the burn, or cool water is not readily available, place a paper towel over your burn and put a cold compress on top. Do not treat the burn directly with ice, as it can further damage the very sensitive burned skin.
3.Wrap the afflicted area in a sterile gauze bandage. The bandage will keep the burn from getting infected and keep dirt out of the area. Gently wrap the sterile gauze around the area and hold in place with medical tape.

4.Take ibuprofen. Most likely, you will still feel some pain and pressure from the burn blisters, so take ibuprofen as directed until the pain subsides.

5.See a doctor. If you are still suffering from pain due to your second-degree burns after two weeks, see a doctor for additional treatment, including prescription salves and creams to soothe the burn.

Causes:
Blisters can be caused by chemical or physical injury. An example of chemical injury would be an allergic reaction. Physical injury can be caused by heat, frostbite, or friction.

Blisters typically develop when there is friction and irritation to the surface layer of the skin that cause it to separate from the second layer. Fluid fills in the space between these two layers. Blisters most often appear on the soles of the feet and palms of the hands. The hands and feet often rub against shoes, socks, or sports and music equipment and create friction under moist, warm conditions perfect for blisters.

Blisters are also linked to various STDs, especially if it occurs around the oral organs and genitals.

Certain autoimmune diseases feature extensive blistering as one of their symptoms. These include pemphigus and pemphigoid. Blistering also occurs as part of foodborne illness with Vibrio vulnificus (seafood).

The class of chemical weapons known as vesicants acts by causing blisters (often within the respiratory tract). Mustard gas and lewisite are examples of such agents.

Treatment:
Unless infection occurs, blisters usually heal quickly without much additional treatment. If a blister is punctured, it forms an open wound, which should be disinfected and bandaged. Loose bandaging should be used since a bandage that is too tight can result in rupture or rubbing against the blister, causing discomfort. If the blister is broken, the excess skin should not be removed (unless it is dirty or torn). Removing the excess skin often makes the wound heal any infection quickly – if immediately disinfected. Signs of infection include pus draining from the blister, very red or warm skin around the blister, and red streaks leading away from the blister.

Blister Care:

you get a blister, the goal is to keep the blister from getting bigger and avoiding infection. (Signs of infection include pus draining from the blister, very red or warm skin around the blister, and red streaks leading away from the blister). Small unbroken blisters that don’t cause discomfort can be left alone to heal, because the best protection against infection is a blister’s own skin. Large, painful blisters can be drained but don’t remove the top layer of skin. First clean the blister with rubbing alcohol or antibiotic soap and water. Then sterilize a needle over a flame until the tip glows red; allow it to cool, and the puncture a small hole at the edge of the blister. Drain the fluid by applying gentle pressure. Put a bit of antibiotic ointment on the blister and cover with a bandage.

Blisters should be handled in the following way to get the quick healing:

Step 1:
Clean the skin around the blister.

Step 2:

Place a doughnut-shaped piece of moleskin over the blister. This will keep pressure off it.

Step 3:
Try to avoid popping the blister unless it’s in an especially awkward place, such as the bottom of your foot. The blister provides a sterile environment for the skin underneath. Breaking it makes the area more susceptible to infection.

Step 4:
If you need to pop the blister, use sterile implements, puncture it in a few places at its base and drain the fluid.

Step 5:
If you need to puncture it or if it breaks on its own, clean the area with soap and water or Betadine.

Step 6:
Avoid peeling any skin off the blister; this can lead to an infection and delay healing.

Step 7:
Cover the exposed blister with a thin layer of antibiotic ointment and dry sterile gauze.

Step 8:
Change the gauze regularly and watch for signs of infection, such as pus or redness.

Tips :
*Small unbroken blisters that do not cause discomfort can be left alone to heal, because the best protection against infection is a blister’s own skin.

*Aloe vera can be effective on many skin conditions, especially burns. Try rubbing pure aloe vera gel on the blister to see if it helps.

*If the infection from a blister doesn’t clear up quickly, your doctor may want to prescribe antibiotics.

*Band-Aid Blister bandages with Compeed can be found in the foot care section, not the bandage section, of the drug store.

*Your walking shoes should be a size to a size and a half larger than your dress shoes.

*BodyGlide, Runners Lube and similar products can be found in running shoe and gear stores.

..Click to see How to Care for a Blister

Prevention:
To prevent blisters, the goal is to minimize friction. Appropriate footwear, and socks will help reduce blisters.
Minimizing friction is the primary method of preventing blisters. Appropriate footwear, socks, and gloves for work involving frequent hand use will help reduce blisters.

Ensuring that shoes are the right size and shape, and that socks are made from a synthetic blend is an effective way of reducing the occurrence of blisters. Other effective ways to reduce blisters is to apply petroleum jelly or talcum powder before exercising to reduce friction.

Lubricant :
Before walking, use a lubricant on all areas that generally blister. Some people use petroleum jelly or bag balm or talcum. For long walks, using large amounts of petroleum jelly reapplied every 10 miles solved my own blister problems. SportSlick, BodyGlide, runners’ lube or other anti-chafing lubricants can also work to prevent foot blisters when applied before the walk. One walker recommended that every night for a month before a big walking event massage both feet with pure lanolin (wool fat). It’s better than Vaseline as it doesn’t create heat when friction occurs. It’s also a good barrier for water in case in rains.
Socks
Experiment with socks, try different brands. Be sure to launder the socks at least once before wearing them to wash out the sizing. Podiatrists recommend not using cotton socks as they retain moisture, which then softens the skin, weakening it and making it easier to tear and form blisters. Instead, CoolMax fabric wicks away the moisture so it is not on the skin to weaken it. Look for socks with modern synthetic fabrics formulated for walking and running. Many recommend two layers of socks – a thin inner pair of wicking fabric such as polypropylene or CoolMax, and a padded outer pair. Tube socks should be avoided since they do not fit well over the heel and ankle. Change socks during the walk, especially if they get sweaty. Some marathoners also change shoes during the event.

Compeed | Band-Aid Blister Block | Dr. Scholls Cushlin Blister Pads :
These products have a sterile gel pack that pads and protects, available at drug stores and outdoor stores. You can use Compeed to prevent blisters and to protect the skin if you get a blister. Band-Aid now has Blister Block cushions that have Compeed, and Dr. Scholls has Cushlin blister pads. These are self-adhesive and stick mightily to the skin – and can stay there for days if needed. They come in two sizes – small cushions for toes, and regular cushions for the heels and balls of the feet. These pads act as an extra layer of skin. I applied these pads to my heels when wearing a new pair of boots on a 10K hike, and over blisters that had already formed on my big toe. The result was no new blisters, and my existing blisters were protected with no discomfort throughout the walk. It is best to use these to prevent blister formation on areas you know are prone to blister, but they can also be walk-savers to apply as soon as blisters develop. Shopping hint – don’t look for these in the bandage aisle, but in the footcare section.

Moleskin or sports tape:
Best used AFTER you have the blister or to catch a blister that is forming despite the other methods. Stop as soon as you feel a hot spot and put on the moleskin or sports tape. Some walkers wrap each toe and then also wrap the most blister-prone toes with lambswool.

Shoe fit :
Your walking shoes should not be too snug, a tight shoe will contribute to blisters. But they also have to fit well or a too-loose fit can also contribute to blister formation. To choose shoes of the right size, go shoe shopping right after a long walk when your feet are swollen to their largest. When standing in the new shoe, there should be 1/2 inch from the big toe to the end of the toe box and you should be able to wiggle all of your toes comfortably. Then test drive your shoes in the store, going at your fastest pace (don’t worry about looking silly, your comfort depends on this!) Your shoes should not slip when you walk in them.
Toughen your skin :
Apply tincture of benzoin to sensitive areas (check with your local pharmacy) or simply soak your feet in strongly brewed tea (tannic acid).

Prevention Tips:
*Buy shoes with adequate room in the toe box and good fit in the heel.

*Wear wicking socks of CoolMax or polypropylene.

*Coat areas of foot prone to blister with a blister/chafing prevention agent such as BodyGlide, Runners Lube, petroleum jelly.

*For areas already raw or very prone to blister, cover with a bandage containing Compeed or with moleskin.

*Stop whenever you feel a hot spot developing and cover the area with moleskin, sport tape, or a Compeed Band-Aid.

*Change out of wet socks and into dry when possible.
Click To see:->20 Hints to Stop the Hurt from Blister and 19 Home Remedies for Blisters

Home Remedies for Blisters..…….(1)……(2)…...(3)

Resources:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blister
http://www.medterms.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=9540
http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/002089.htm
http://www.ehow.com/video_3365_care-blister.html
http://walking.about.com/library/howto/htblisterprevent.htm

http://www.ehow.com/how_5101547_treat-burn-blisters.html

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