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Cedron

Botanical Name : Simaba Cedron
Family: Simaroubaceae
Genus:     Simaba
Species: S. cedron
Kingdom: Plantae
Order:     Sapindales

Syn. : Aruba cedron Kuntze

Common Names:Cedron

Habitat :Cedron is native to  Columbia and Central America.

Description:
Cedron is a  small tree, a native of New Grenada, remarkable for the properties of its seed. It has large pinnated leaves with over twenty narrow elliptical leaflets and large panicles of flowers, 3 to 4 feet long; the fruit is about the size of a swan’s egg, and contains only one fruit, four of the cells being barren. The Cedron of commerce is not unlike a large blanched almond – it is often yellowish, hard and compact, but can be easily cut, it is intensely bitter, not unlike quassia in taste and has no odour. The Cedron of commerce is obtained from the seed. Cedron has always been used in Central America as a remedy for snake-bite, and first came into notice in Britain in 1699.

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Medicinal Uses:
Part Used:  Seeds

Chemical constituents: A crystalline substance called Cedrin was separated by Lowry, but this has been disputed.

It has been found of considerable value in New Grenada as a febrifuge in intermittent fever, and is also recommended as an antiperiodic. There is almost a superstitious belief in its efficacy in eradicating poison, and the natives always carry some of the seeds on their person. For snake-bites, a small quantity is scraped off, mixed with water and applied to the wound, and then about 2 grains are put into brandy or into water and taken internally. Every part of the plant, including the seed, is intensely bitter.

Other Uses:
The powdered bark is used to kill vermin (parasitic worms or insects: example :his clothes are infested with vermin)

Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider

Resources:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Simaba_cedron
http://www.botanical.com/botanical/mgmh/c/cedron42.html

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Coriander

Botanical Name : Coriandrum sativum
Family: Apiaceae
Genus: Coriandrum
Species: C. sativum
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Apiales

Common Names:cilantro, Chinese parsley or dhania, coriander greens, coriander herb

Habitat :Cilantro is native to regions spanning from southern Europe and North Africa to southwestern Asia

Description:Coriander is an annual herb . It is a soft, hairless plant growing to 50 cm (20 in) tall. The leaves are variable in shape, broadly lobed at the base of the plant, and slender and feathery higher on the flowering stems. The flowers are borne in small umbels, white or very pale pink, asymmetrical, with the petals pointing away from the centre of the umbel longer (5–6 mm) than those pointing towards it (only 1–3 mm long). The fruit is a globular, dry schizocarp 3–5 mm (0.12–0.20 in) in diameter.

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First attestick to see ed in English late 14th century, the word coriander derives from the Old French coriandre, which comes from Latin coriandrum, in turn from Greek  (koriannon). The earliest attested form of the word is the Mycenaean Greek ko-ri-ja-da-na  (written in Linear B syllabic script, reconstructed as koriadnon), similar to the name of Minos’s daughter Ariadne, which later evolved to koriannon or koriandron.

Cilantro is the Spanish word for coriander, also deriving from coriandrum. It is the common term in North America for coriander leaves, due to their extensive use in Mexican cuisine.

Edible Uses:
All parts of the plant are edible, but the fresh leaves and the dried seeds are the parts most traditionally used in cooking. Coriander is common in South Asian, Southeast Asian, Middle Eastern, Central Asian, Mediterranean, Indian, Tex-Mex, Latin American, Portuguese, Chinese, African, and Scandinavian cuisine.

The leaves are variously referred to as coriander leaves, fresh coriander, Chinese parsley, or cilantro (particularly in North America).

It should not be confused with culantro (Eryngium foetidum L.) which is a close relative to coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) but has a distinctly different appearance, a much more potent volatile leaf oi  and a stronger smell.

Leaves:
The leaves have a different taste from the seeds, with citrus overtones. However, many people experience an unpleasant “soapy” taste or a rank smell and avoid the leaves.[8][9] The flavours have also been compared to those of the stink bug, and similar chemical groups are involved (aldehydes). There appears to be a genetic component to the detection of “soapy” versus “herby” tastes.

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The fresh leaves are an ingredient in many South Asian foods (such as chutneys and salads), in Chinese dishes, in Mexican cooking, particularly in salsa and guacamole and as a garnish, and in salads in Russia and other CIS countries. Chopped coriander leaves are a garnish on Indian dishes such as dal. As heat diminishes their flavour, coriander leaves are often used raw or added to the dish immediately before serving. In Indian and Central Asian recipes, coriander leaves are used in large amounts and cooked until the flavour diminishes. The leaves spoil quickly when removed from the plant, and lose their aroma when dried

Fruits:
The dry fruits are known as coriander or coriandi seeds. In India they are called dhania. The word “coriander” in food preparation may refer solely to these seeds (as a spice), rather than to the plant. The seeds have a lemony citrus flavour when crushed, due to terpenes linalool and pinene. It is described as warm, nutty, spicy, and orange-flavoured.
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The variety C. s. vulgare has a fruit diameter of 3–5 mm (0.12–0.20 in), while var. microcarpum fruits have a diameter of 1.5–3 mm (0.059–0.12 in). Large-fruited types are grown mainly by tropical and subtropical countries, e.g. Morocco, India and Australia, and contain a low volatile oil content (0.1-0.4%). They are used extensively for grinding and blending purposes in the spice trade. Types with smaller fruit are produced in temperate regions and usually have a volatile oil content of around 0.4-1.8%, so are highly valued as a raw material for the preparation of essential oil.

It is commonly found both as whole dried seeds and in ground form. Seeds can be roasted or heated on a dry pan briefly before grinding to enhance and alter the aroma. Ground coriander seed loses flavour quickly in storage and is best ground fresh.

Coriander seed is a spice in garam masala and Indian curries, which often employ the ground fruits in generous amounts together with cumin. It acts as a thickener. Roasted coriander seeds, called dhana dal, are eaten as a snack. It is the main ingredient of the two south Indian dishes: sambhar and rasam. Coriander seeds are boiled with water and drunk as indigenous medicine for colds.

Outside of Asia, coriander seed is used for pickling vegetables, and making sausages in Germany and South Africa (see boerewors). In Russia and Central Europe, coriander seed is an occasional ingredient in rye bread as an alternative to caraway. Coriander seeds are used in European cuisine today, though they were more important in former centuries.[citation needed] The Zuni people have adapted it into their cuisine, mixing the powdered seeds ground with chile and using it a condiment with meat, and eating leaves as a salad.

Coriander seeds are used in brewing certain styles of beer, particularly some Belgian wheat beers.   The coriander seeds are used with orange peel to add a citrus character.

Roots: click to see
Coriander roots have a deeper, more intense flavour than the leaves. They are used in a variety of Asian cuisines. They are commonly used in Thai dishes, including soups and curry pastes.

Medicinal Uses:
* Digestion
Properties: * Anti-inflammatory * Depurative * Digestive * Emmenagogue * Febrifuge
Parts Used: seeds, essential oil
Constituents:  anethole, camphor, linalool, pinene, quercetin, rutin

Cilantro (leaves)and Coriander (seeds) and are names for different parts of the same plant, Coriandrum sativum, a naturally healing food in both forms. Cilantro is an excellent culinary herb that adds flavor to foods and improvse digestion. There are both scientific studies, and anecdotal evidence to support cilantro’s reputation as a powerful depurative.. The herb may also have a protective effect when cooked and eaten with fish and other foods that may be contaminated with heavy metals.

Coriander, like many spices, contains antioxidants, which can delay or prevent the spoilage of food seasoned with this spice. A study found both the leaves and seed to contain antioxidants, but the leaves were found to have a stronger effect.
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Chemicals derived from coriander leaves were found to have antibacterial activity against Salmonella choleraesuis, and this activity was found to be caused in part by these chemicals acting as nonionic surfactants.

Coriander has been used as a folk medicine for the relief of anxiety and insomnia in Iran.  Coriander seeds are used in traditional Indian medicine as a diuretic by boiling equal amounts of coriander seeds and cumin seeds, then cooling and consuming the resulting liquid. In holistic and traditional medicine, it is used as a carminative and as a digestive aid.

Coriander has been documented as a traditional treatment for type 2 diabetes. A study on mice found coriander extract had both insulin-releasing and insulin-like activity.

Coriander seeds were found in a study on rats to have a significant hypolipidaemic effect, resulting in lowering of levels of total cholesterol and triglycerides, and increasing levels of high-density lipoprotein. This effect appeared to be caused by increasing synthesis of bile by the liver and increasing the breakdown of cholesterol into other compounds.

Coriander leaf was found to prevent deposition of lead in mice, due to a presumptive chelation of lead by substances in the plant.

The essential oil produced from Coriandrum sativum has been shown to exhibit antimicrobial effects.

Known Hazards: Coriander can produce an allergic reaction in some people.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider

 

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Resources:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coriander
http://www.anniesremedy.com/herb_detail18.php

Menyanthes trifoliata

Botanical Name :Menyanthes trifoliata
Family: Menyanthaceae
Genus: Menyanthes
Species: M. trifoliata
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Asterales

Common Names:Bogbean , Buckbean, March Clover

Habitat : Menyanthes trifoliata occurs in fens and bogs in Asia, Europe, and North America. In eastern North America, it is considered to be a diagnostic fen species.

Description:
Menyanthes trifoliata is a herbaceous perennial  plant.It grows to a height of 0.75 to 1 feet and  spread 1 to 2 feet. It blooms  during May to June. Menyanthes trifoliata has a horizontal rhizome with alternate, trifoliate leaves. The inflorescence is an erect raceme of white flowers
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It is a winter hardy plant  to USDA Zones 3-10. In water gardens, grow in containers submerged in shallow water (to 3” over the rhizome) in full sun to part shade. Best in acidic, peaty soils. Also may be grown in the shallow margins of a pond, either in containers or planted in the mud near the water’s edge. Rhizomes may spread to and root in the muddy banks of a water garden or pond, thus making this an excellent transitional foliage plant.

Constituents:  volatile oil, bitter principle, a glucoside called menyanthin.

Medicinal Uses:
Properties: * Antirheumatic * Bitter * Diuretic * Febrifuge * Nervine * Tonic
Parts Used: whole herb

Bogbean is a most useful herb for the treatment of rheumatism, osteo-arthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. It has a stimulating effect upon the walls of the colon which will act as an aperient, but it should not be used to help rheumatism where there is any colitis or diarrhea. It has a marked stimulating action on the digestive juices and on bile-flow and so will aid in debilitated states that are due to sluggish digestion, indigestion and problems of the liver and gall-bladder.  Bogbean is a strongly bitter herb that encourages the appetite and stimulates digestive secretions.  It is commonly taken to improve an underactive or weak digestion, particularly if there is abdominal discomfort.  Used for anorexia.  This herb is tonic, cathartic, deobstruent and febrifuge. Other uses are for muscular weakness in myalgic encephalomyelitis and chronic infections with debility and exhaustion. May be combined with black cohosh and celery seed to relieve joint and muscular pain.  An extract is made from the leaves, which possesses strong tonic properties, and which renders great service in rheumatism, scurvy, and skin diseases. An infusion of 1 oz. of the dried leaves to 1 pint of boiling water is taken in wineglassful doses, frequently repeated. It has also been recommended as an external application for dissolving glandular swellings. Finely powdered Bogbean leaves have been employed as a remedy for ague, being said to effect a cure when other means fail. In large doses, the powder is also purgative. It is used also as an herb tobacco.  Buckbean tea, taken alone or mixed with wormwood, centaury or sage, is said to cure dyspepsia and a torpid liver.

Bogbean is one of the medicinal plants that containing iridoids, plant chemicals that play a central role in herbalism as they are often the basis of what is known as the bitter principle. These bitter tonics, such as bogbean stimulate digestive secretions, including bile.It is a medicine fore  * Lupus

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider

Resources:
http://www.missouribotanicalgarden.org/gardens-gardening/your-garden/plant-finder/plant-details/kc/a642/menyanthes-trifoliata.aspx
http://www.anniesremedy.com/herb_detail180.php
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Menyanthes

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Cymbalaria muralis

Botanical Name : Cymbalaria muralis
Family: Scrophulariaceae
Genus: Cymbalaria
Species: C. muralis
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Lamiales

SynonymsLinaria cymbalaria.

Common Name :Ivy-leaved toadflax or Kenilworth Ivy

Habitat :Cymbalaria muralis is native to Mediterranean Europe and widely naturalised elsewhere.

Description:
Cymbalaria muralis is a PERENNIAL plant. It is hardy to zone 3 and is not frost tender. It spreads quickly, growing up to 5 cm (2.0 in) tall—it commonly grows in rock and wall crevices, and along footpaths. The leaves are evergreen, rounded to heart-shaped, 2.5 to 5 cm (0.98 to 2.0 in) long and wide, three-seven lobed, alternating on thin stems. The flowers are very small, similar in shape to snapdragon flowers.It is in flower from May to September, and the seeds ripen from Jul to October. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Bees, self.The plant is self-fertile.
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This plant has an unusual method of propagation. The flower stalk is initially positively phototropic and moves towards the light—after fertilization it becomes negatively phototropic and moves away from the light. This results in seed being pushed into dark crevices of rock walls, where it is more likely to germinate and where it prefers to grow.

Cultivation :
Prefers a moderately good soil and some shade. Plants usually self-sow freely[188] and can be invasive, especially when grown on old walls[200]. They succeed both on dry-stone walls and on old mortared walls.

Propagation:
Seed – surface sow March to June in a cold frame and do not exclude light. The seed usually germinates in 2 – 4 weeks at 18°c[164]. When they are large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and plant them out into their permanent positions in the summer. Division in late spring. Very easy, larger clumps can be replanted direct into their permanent positions, though it is best to pot up smaller clumps and grow them on in a cold frame until they are rooting well. Plant them out in the spring.

Edible Uses :
Leaves  are  raw. The leaves have been used in salads, being acrid and pungent like cress. We find them rather bitter and not very pleasant, though they are available all year round and so might be useful in the winter.

Medicinal Uses:
Antiscorbutic;  Vulnerary.
The herb is antiscorbutic and vulnerary. It is used externally as a poultice on fresh wounds to stop the bleeding. There are reports that it has been used with success in India for the treatment of diabetes.

Other Uses : A clear yellow dye is obtained from the flowers, though it is not very permanent.

Known Hazards :  The plant might be slightly toxic

Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cymbalaria_muralis
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Cymbalaria+muralis
http://www.herbnet.com/Herb%20Uses_IJK.htm

Huckleberry

Botanical Name : Gaylussacia baccata
Family: Ericaceae
Genus: Gaylussacia
Species: G. baccata
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Ericales

Synonyms:
Gaylussacia baccata (Wangenh.) K. Koch
DEBA7 Decachaena baccata (Wangenh.) Small

Common Name:Huckleberry

Habitat :Gaylussacia baccata is  found throughout a wide area of northeastern North America

Description:
Black huckleberry is a low-growing, freely branched, deciduous shrub. It is rigid and erect, generally growing to 3 feet (1 m) tall. Shrubs are often found in clumps due to dense clonal spread . Site conditions can affect the growth form. Black huckleberry shrubs grown in the shade are typically taller and more open, while those in open conditions are often shorter and more compact.

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New branches are minutely hairy, and older wood often has peeling bark . Leaves are simple, alternate, and measure 0.9 to 2.2 inches (2-5.5 cm) long by 0.4 to 1 inch (1-2.5 cm) wide. The firm, shiny, hairless leaves have resinous dots .

Flowers are small, cylindrical to bell shaped, and arranged in one-sided racemes . Black huckleberry produces berry like drupe fruits that are generally 0.25 inch (0.63 cm) in diameter. Ten seeds approximately 2 mm long are produced per drupe . In a review, an average of 22,100 clean seeds weighed an ounce and 780 weighed a gram . One hundred “plump” seeds collected from Maryland weighed 136 mg .

Belowground description: Black huckleberry is shallowly rooted below slender scaly rhizomes. It lacks a taproot.  In the New Jersey pine barrens, complete underground structures of 5 black huckleberry shrubs were exposed by careful hand digging. The researcher found that rhizomes were predominantly in the A0 and A1 soil horizons. In soils without these layers, rhizomes are normally concentrated in the top 2 to 3 inches (5-8 cm) of mineral soil. Long rhizomes, while typically confined to the upper soil horizons, may reach as deep as 8 inches (20 cm). Black huckleberry roots and rhizomes often reach the water table in lowland areas but rarely reach the water table in upland sites. Rhizome diameters were generally 0.25 to 0.75 inch (0.6-2 cm) but on occasion were as large as 2 inches (5 cm). Short roots were present along all rhizomes. Longer roots, sometimes as long as 2 feet (0.6 m), arose at rhizome forks or stem bases

Medicinal Uses:
An infusion of the leaves, or the bark, has been used in the treatment of dysentery. An infusion of the leaves has been used in the treatment of Bright’s disease.

Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/shrub/gaybac/all.html
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gaylussacia_baccata
http://www.herbnet.com/Herb%20Uses_FGH.htm
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=GABA

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