Tag Archives: Hong Kong

Cephalotaxus fortunei

Botanical Name: Cephalotaxus fortunei
Family: Cephalotaxaceae
Genus: Cephalotaxus
Species: C. fortunei
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Pinophyta
Class: Pinopsida
Order: Pinales

Synonyms: C. filiformis. C. mascula. C. pendula.

Common Names: Chinese plum-yew, Simply plum yew, Chinese cowtail pine or in Chinese as san jian shan

Habitat:Cephalotaxus fortunei is native to northern Burma and China, but is sometimes grown in western gardens where it has been in cultivation since 1848 . It grows on woodlands, especially in limestone regions. Mixed, coniferous, and broad-leaved forests, thickets and roadsides at elevations of 200 – 3700 metres.

Description:
Cephalotaxus fortunei is a shrub or small tree growing to as high as 20 m with a diameter at breast height of about 20 cm. They are usually multi-stemmed with an open and loosely rounded crown. In cultivation they tend to grow on a single stem that is often leaning and bare towards the bottom, but with dense foliage on the upper half. They have reddish brown bark that appears purplish in places with rough square scales and long shreds peeling off. The new shoots remain green for three years after emerging and are ribbed. The branches are slightly pendulous, while the branchlets are obovate, obtriangular or almost rectangular in outline, measuring from 4 to 21 cm long by 3 to 20 cm wide.

LICK & SEE THE PICTURES

It is in leaf 12-Jan It is in flower from Apr to May, and the seeds ripen from Oct to November. The flowers are dioecious (individual flowers are either male or female, but only one sex is to be found on any one plant so both male and female plants must be grown if seed is required) and are pollinated by Wind.The plant is not self-fertile.

Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It can grow in full shade (deep woodland) semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers moist soil
Cultivation:
Prefers a moist well-drained sandy soil but succeeds in most soils though it dislikes dry gravelly or chalky soils. Prefers a position in semi-shade but tolerates full shade and it also succeeds but does not usually thrive in full sun. It grows very well in the mild wet coastal region of W. Scotland where it succeeds even in full sun. Requires a humid sheltered site, strongly disliking very exposed positions. Although the dormant plant is very cold-hardy, the young growth in spring, even on mature plants, is frost-tender and so it is best to grow the plants in a position sheltered from the early morning sun. The Chinese plum yew is a very slow growing shrub or small tree that has excellent potential as a nut crop in Britain. It usually fruits regularly and well in most parts of the country and does well in Cornwall. Trees growing in the shade of other conifers fruit regularly and heavily at Kew Botanical gardens and, unlike most nut trees there, the seeds do not get eaten by the squirrels. Although we have seen no records of edibility for the seed of this species, the closely related C. harringtonia does have edible seed. There are some named forms selected for their ornamental value. ‘Grandis’ is a long leafed female form. ‘Longifolia’ is male but otherwise similar to ‘Grandis’. ‘Prostrata’ (syn ‘Prostrate Spreader’) is a procumbent ground-covering plant that arose as cuttings from a side-shoot of a normal plant, a plant of this cultivar was seen with a very heavy crop of immature fruit in mid September 1994 at Hillier Arboretum. Plants are dioecious, but female plants sometimes produce fruits and infertile seeds in the absence of any male plants. However, at least one male plant for every five females should be grown if you are growing the plants for fruit and seed. Plants have also been known to change sex. Male cones are produced in the axils of the previous year’s leaves, whilst female cones are borne at the base of branchlets.

Propagation:
Seed – best sown as soon as it is ripe in a cold frame, it should then germinate in the following spring. A hard seedcoat can delay germination, especially in if the seed is not sown as soon as it is ripe. Stored seed should be cold-stratified and sown in a cold frame in the spring. Germination can take 18 months or more. Prick out the seedlings as soon as they are large enough to handle and grow them on for at least their first winter under cover. Plant out in late spring after the last expected frosts. Greenwood cuttings of terminal shoots, August/September in a humid cold frame. Difficult
Edible Uses:
Fruit. Fairly large, it is about 30mm x 15mm. We have no further details, though it is closely related to C. harringtonia, the fruit of which is edible raw if fully ripe. The fruit does not always ripen in Britain, before full ripeness it has a disgusting resinous flavour that coats the mouth and refuses to go away for hours. It is quite possible that the seed of this species is also edible.
Medicinal Uses:
Cancer.

Substances from the plant have shown anticancer activity.

Other Uses:
Hedge; Hedge.

Some forms of this species are procumbent in habit and can be used as ground cover in shady places. Very tolerant of pruning, this plant makes a very good hedge in shady positions

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cephalotaxus_fortunei
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Cephalotaxus+fortunei

Advertisements

Alpinia officinarum

Botanical Name :Alpinia officinarum
Family:Zingiberaceae
Genus:    Alpinia
Species:A. officinarum
Kingdom:Plantae
Order: Zingiberales

Synonyms: Galanga. China Root. India Root. East India Catarrh Root. Lesser Galangal. Rhizoma Galangae. Gargaut. Colic Root. Kaempferia Galanga.

Common Name : lesser galangal

Habitat:Alpinia officinarum is native to  China (Hainan Island), Java.It grows mainly on the southeastern coast, and it grows in Hainan, Japan, and Thailand. It is also cultivated in India. Hong Kong is the commercial center for the sale and distribution of the lesser galangal.

Description:
Alpinia officinarum is a herbaceous plant can grow up to ten feet in height, though three to five feet is more common. The leaves are lanceolate (long and thin), and the flowers are white with streaks of red, growing from a spike at the top. The plant’s rhizomes, the part known as galangal, are thin and tough, and they are the principal reason the plant is cultivated. They have orange flesh with a brown coating, and have an aromatic odor and a pungent flavor. These are smaller than greater galangal.

CLICK TO SEE THE PICTURES

This plant is a plant of the ginger family, cultivated in Southeast Asia. It originated in China, where its name ultimately derives. It can grow several feet high, with long leaves and reddish-white flowers. The rhizomes, known as galangal, are valued for their spicy flavor and aromatic scent. These are used throughout Asia in curries and perfumes, and were previously used widely in Europe. They are also used as an herbal remedy.

Lesser galangal is often misled the name for Kaempferia galanga that is used in Indonesia, Malaysia and other Southeast Asian countries.

Constituents: The root contains a volatile oil, resin, galangol, kaempferid, galangin and alpinin, starch, etc. The active principles are the volatile oil and acrid resin. Galangin is dioxyflavanol, and has been obtained synthetically. Alcohol freely extracts all the properties, and for the fluid extract there should be no admixture of water or glycerin.

Active Compound:-
Beta-sitoterol, 1,7-diphenyl-5-ol-3-heptone, 1-phenyl-7-(3′-methoxyl-4′-hydroxyl) phenyl-5-ol-3-heptone, glandin, kaempferol-4′-methylether and 3,4-dihydroxylbenzoic acid

Medicinal Uses:

Part Used: Dried rhizome.

The galangal rhizomes were widely used in ancient and medieval Europe, where they were reputed to smell of roses and taste of spice. Its use in Europe has dramatically declined, however, and is now mainly used in Eastern Europe. It is used in Russia for flavoring vinegar and the liqueur Nastoika. It is still used as a spice and medicine in Lithuania and Estonia.

In Asia the rhizomes are ground to powder for use in curries, drinks, and jellies. In India an extract is used in perfumes, and Tatars prepare a tea with it.

Alpinia officinarum contains high concentrations of the flavonol galangin, which has been shown to slow the increase and growth of breast tumor cells. Historically, the rhizomes were reputed to have stimulant and digestive effects.

Herbal medicine – Medicinal properties digestive tonic stimulant carminative antiemetic antifungal Medicinal parts Rhizome Has medicinal uses yes Do not self-administer no Do no use if pregnant no Legally restricted no Toxicity precautions Medicinal notes Alpiniaofficinarum has herbal applications as a digestive tonic, as a stimulant, as a carminative and as an antiemetic. See the medicinal properties section for even more traditional herbal uses. Only the rhizome is used in herbal preparations.

Traditional uses – Parts used Traditional uses Contemporary uses Fragrance ginger-like roots used for liqueur Fragrance parts Roots Fragrance intensity Mild Fragrance category Spicy Dye parts Dye color.

Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://www.botanical.com/botanical/mgmh/g/galang01.html
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alpinia_officinarum

http://cancerplantsdatabase.com/a-alpiniaofficinarum.php

Enhanced by Zemanta

Cajeput.(Melaleuca leucadendron)

Botanical Name : :Melaleuca leucadendron
Family: Myrtaceae
Genus: Melaleuca
Species: M. leucadendra
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Myrtales

Synonyms:  Cajeput. White Tea Tree. Swamp Tea Tree. White Wood.

Common Names :Cajeput Tree, is derived from the Malay word kayu putih (old Indonesian spelling: kaju putih) – meaning “white wood”.

Habitat: Cajuput is native to East Indies, Tropical Australia. Imported from Macassar, Batavia, Singapore, Queensland and N.S. Wales. It is  widely distributed in northern parts of Australia (Western Australia, the Northern Territory and Queensland) and is found even further north in the Solomon Islands and on New Guinea in Papua New Guinea and Western New Guinea. It has also been used as a street tree in Hong Kong.

Description:
The tree has a long flexible trunk with irregular ascending branches, covered with a pale thick, lamellated bark it is soft and spongy and from time to time throws off its outer layer in flakes; leaves entire, linear, lanceolate, ash colour, alternate on short foot-stalks; flowers sessile, white, on a long spike.
The foliage of Cajeput is of a brighter green and has a slightly weeping habit.
Click to see the pictures…>….(01)……..(02)……....(1)...(2).…..…(3)..……(4)….....

The leaves have a very aromatic odour and the oil is distilled from the fresh leaves and twigs, and is volatile and stimulating with an aroma like camphor, rosemary, or cardamom seeds; taste bitter, aromatic and camphoraceous. Traces of copper have been found in it, hence the greenish tint; it should be stored in dark or amber-coloured bottles in a cool place. Cajuput oil is obtained from Melaleuca leucadendron, Roxburgh, and the minor Smith, but several other species of Melaleuca leucadendron are utilized such as M. hypericifolia, M. veridifolia, M. lalifolia, and others. The Australian species M. Decussata and M. Erucifolia are also used. The oil is fluid, clear, inflammable, burns without residue, highly volatile. The trace of copper found may be due to the vessels in which the oil is prepared, but it is doubtless sometimes added in commerce to produce the normal green tinge when other species have been used which do not impart it naturally.

Constituents:  The principal constituent of oil is cineol, which should average 45 to 55 per cent. Solid terpineol is also present and several aldehydes such as valeric, butyric and benzoic.

Medicinal Action and Uses:
Antispasmodic, diaphoretic, stimulant, antiseptic, anthelmintic.

Highly stimulant, producing a sensation of warmth when taken internally, increasing the fullness and rapidity of the pulse and sometimes producing profuse perspiration. Used as a stimulating expectorant in chronic laryngitis and bronchitis, as an antiseptic in cystisis and as an anthelmintic for round worms, also used in chronic rheumatism. Applied externally, it is stimulant and mildly counter-irritant and is usually applied diluted with 2 parts of olive oil or turpentine ointment. Used externally for psoriasis and other skin affections.

Traditional Uses:
* In Chronic respiratory and catarrhal infection
* In sinusitis, bronchitis
* In Genitial herpes,cervical dysplasia
* In viral hepatitis, bilary lithiases
* In Psoriasis, boils, fungal dermatitis
* In varicose veins,hemorrhoids, enteritis

Other Uses:
Cajeput is cultivated as an ornamental tree for parks and gardens. It is also used as a screen or windbreak. It tolerates dry conditions.

Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider

Resources:
http://www.botanical.com/botanical/mgmh/c/cajupt04.html
http://www.globinmed.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=82445:melaleuca-leucadendron&catid=827:m
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Melaleuca_leucadendra

Atractylodes lancea

Botanical Name : Atractylodes lancea
Family: Asteraceae
Subfamily: Carduoideae
Tribe: Cynareae
Subtribe: Carlininae
Genus: Atractylodes
Especie: A. lancea
División: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Subclass: Asteridae
Order: Asterales

Synonyms:
*Atractylis lancea – Thunb.
*Atractylis ovata – Thunb.
*Atractylodes chinensis – (DC.)Koidz.
*Atractylodes ovata – (Thunb.)DC.
 
Common Name : Cang Zhu

Habitat ;Atractylis ovata is native to  E. Asia – Central China.  It grows in grassland, forests, thickets and rock crevices at elevations of 700 – 2500 metres.

Description:
Atractylis ovata is a herbeculus perennial plant growing to 1m.
It is in flower from July to October, and the seeds ripen from August to October. The flowers are dioecious (individual flowers are either male or female, but only one sex is to be found on any one plant so both male and female plants must be grown if seed is required)

click to see the pictures..>……(01)…...(1)……..(2).……..(3)..

English: Atractylodes lancea ???: ??????

English: Atractylodes lancea (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

The plant prefers light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and requires well-drained soil. The plant prefers acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It requires moist soil.

Cultivation:
This species is closely related to A. japonica. It is being investigated in China for the viability of growing it as a commercial crop. The following notes are based on the general needs of the genus. Succeeds in any well-drained soil in sun or partial shade. This species is dioecious. Both male and female plants need to be grown if seed is required.

Propagation:
Seed – sow spring in a cold frame and only just cover the seed. Prick out the seedlings when they are large enough to handle and plant them out into their permanent positions in the following spring or early summer.

Edible Uses:
Edible Parts: Root.

Root – raw or cooked. Exceedingly rich in vitamin A, it also contains 1.5% essential oils.

Medicinal Uses:
Antiemetic; Appetizer; Digestive; Diuretic; Expectorant; Stomachic; Tonic.

This plant is widely used in traditional Chinese medicine. The root is a bitter-sweet tonic herb that acts mainly upon the digestive system. The root is the active part. It is often used in conjunction with other herbs such as Codonopsis tangshen and Glycyrrhiza uralensis. It is used in the treatment of digestive disorders, rheumatoid arthritis and night blindness. The Chinese herb cangzhu dominates two formulas widely prescribed in China for male infertility. One, called hochu-ekki-to, contains 4 grams each of cangzhu, ginseng; 3 grams of Japanese angelica; 2 grams each of bupleurum root, jujube fruit, citrus unshiu peel (a Japanese citrus fruit); 1.5 grams of Chinese black cohosh; and 0.5 gram of ginger, licorice. Lowers blood pressure in hypertensive patients. Inhibits cyclo-oxygenase and 5-lipoxygenase, the enzymes that manufacture inflammatory prostaglandins and leukotrienes, respectively.

The root is antibacterial, antiemetic, appetizer, digestive, diuretic, hypoglycaemic, sedative, stomachic and tonic. It is often used in conjunction with other herbs such as Codonopsis tangshen and Glycyrrhiza uralensis. It is used in the treatment of poor appetite, digestive disorders such as dyspepsia, abdominal distension and chronic diarrhoea, rheumatoid arthritis, oedema, spontaneous sweating and night blindness. The roots are harvested in the autumn and baked for use in tonics.

The roots are used to treat indigestion, skin problems, diarrhea, fever, stomach disorders, and night blindness

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider

Resources:
http://digedibles.com/database/plants.php?Atractylodes+lancea
http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atractylodes_lancea
http://www.herbnet.com/Herb%20Uses_OPQ.htm

Enhanced by Zemanta

Cynanchum glaucescens

Botanical Name :Cynanchum glaucescens
Family: Asclepiadaceae

Common Name ;

Habitat : Cynanchum glaucescens is native to  E. Asia – China. It grows in  Mountains, riversides; 100-800. Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Sichuan, Zhejiang

Description:
Cynanchum glaucescens is a perennial Climber growing to 0.6m.
It is hardy to zone 0. It is in flower from June to October, and the seeds ripen from July to October. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs)
YOU MAY CLICK TO SEE THE PICTURES

The Herbs is rhizomatous, roots fibrous, fascicled at nodes. Stems erect, to 60 cm, pubescent along 2 lines. Leaves opposite, subsessile; leaf blade glabrous, elliptic, oblong-lanceolate, or oblong, 1-7 cm × 7-12 mm, base cuneate or rounded, apex rounded to ± acute; lateral veins 3-5 pairs, obscure. Inflorescences umbel-like, sometimes with 2 cymules separated by a short rachis, shorter than leaves, glabrous or puberulent. Sepals oblong-lanceolate, ca. 2.3 × 1 mm, glabrous, basal glands 5. Corolla yellow, rotate, ca. 8 mm in diam.; lobes ovate-oblong, ca. 3.5 × 2.3 mm, obtuse. Corona shallowly cupular, 5-lobed; lobes ovate, fleshy, incurved, slightly shorter than anthers and adnate to them. Pollinia ovoid. Stigma head convex. Follicles fusiform, 4.5-6 cm × 6-10 mm. Seeds oblong, ca. 5 mm; coma ca. 2 cm. Fl. May-Nov, fr. Jul-Dec.
The plant prefers light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils. The plant prefers acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It requires moist soil.

Cultivation:
We have very little information on this species and do not know if it will be hardy in Britain, though judging by its native range it could succeed outdoors in many parts of this country. It probably does not have any special cultivation requirements and will probably succeed in most soils in a sunny position.

Propagation:
Seed – sow spring in the greenhouse. When they are large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on in the greenhouse for at least their first winter. Plant them out into their permanent positions in late spring or early summer, after the last expected frosts. Division in spring.

Medicinal Uses:

Antitussive; Expectorant.

The fragrant root is used in Chinese medicine.  The roots and stems are used to treat coughs, pneumonia, uneasy breathing, and lung diseases.  They are also used in the treatment of asthma with profuse sputum, coughs etc.

The dried root and stem are antitussive and expectorant. They are used in the treatment of asthma with profuse sputum, coughs etc.

Known Hazards:There are some reports of toxins in this genus

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider

Resources:
http://digedibles.com/database/plants.php?Cynanchum+glaucescens
http://www.herbnet.com/Herb%20Uses_C.htm
http://www.showyourplant.com/Cynanchum_glaucescens/

http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=2&taxon_id=200018553

Enhanced by Zemanta