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Herbs & Plants

Anemone chinensis

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Botanical Name : Anemone chinensis
Family: Ranunculaceae
Genus: Anemone
Species: A. chinensis
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Ranunculales

Common Name : Bai Tou Weng, , Pulsatilla chinensis

Habitat : Anemone chinensis is native to E. Asia – N. China to E. Siberia. It grows in dry grassy places and rocky hillsides. Forest margins and slopes at elevations of 200 – 3200 metres in China.
Description:
Pulsatilla chinensis is a perennial plant, growing to 0.3 m (1ft). It is in flower from Mar to May, and the seeds ripen from Jun to July. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Insects.
CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES..

Cultivation:
Requires a well-drained humus-rich gritty soil and a sunny position. Tolerates alkaline soils. Plants are hardy to about . They are said to be difficult to grow in Britain, requiring a dry winter and spring followed by a warm humid summer. Large plants have a deep woody rootstock and transplant badly. A greedy plant, inhibiting the growth of nearby plants, especially legumes.

Propagation:
Seed – best sown as soon as it is ripe in early summer in a cold frame. The seed usually germinates in about 2 – 3 weeks. Sow stored seed in late winter in a cold frame. Germination takes about 1 – 6 months at 15°c. When they are large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on in the greenhouse for at least their first winter. Plant them out into their permanent positions in the spring. Root cuttings, 4cm long taken in early winter, potted up in a mixture of peat and sand. They can also be taken in July/August, planted vertically in pots in a greenhouse or frame.
Chemical composition: The whole herb contain protoanemonin; Root contain triterpene saponins. Contain anemonin, saponin about 9%. In addition, contain Anemonin, is a kind of strong heart poison, but remove root whole herb have strong heart effect, its strong heart composition have Okinalin, C32 H64 O2, Okinalein, C4 H6 O2. Congener Pulsatilla cernua root contain Stigma- sterol, C29 H46 O and B-Sitosterol, and contain Hederagenin, Oleanolic acid and minute quantity of Acetyloleanolic acid. And from the
Ulsatilla nigricans root separate a kind of glycoside, named Pulsatoside A, its aglucone is Hederagenin, its sugar is arabinose, galactose, glucose and rhamnose. Root contain: Okinalin.
Medicinal Uses:
In Traditional Chinese Medicine, pulsatilla is used as an anti-inflammatory and is considered specific for amoebic and bacterial dysentery with bloody stool, abdominal pain and tenesmus and is often used with phellodendron bark, coptis rhizome and ash bark, known as Pulsatilla Decoction (Baitouweng Tang). It is most commonly taken as a decoction to counter infection within the gastrointestinal tract. The root is also used to treat malarial fever. In addition, this herb can be used with flavescent sophora to prepare a lotion for the treatment of trichomoniasis vaginalis. The root contains the lactone protoanemonin which has an irritant and antibacterial action. Protoanemonin is destroyed when the root is dried. The fresh herb is a cardiac and nervous sedative, producing a hypnotic state with a diminution of the senses followed by a paralyzing action. A constituent similar to digitalis can be extracted from the whole herb with the roots removed. This is cardiotonic.
Bai Tou Weng is thought to clear toxicity and to lower fever. It is most commonly taken as a decoction to counter infection within the gastro-intestinal tract. The root is anodyne, anti-inflammatory, antispasmodic, astringent and sedative. The root is an effective cure for bacterial and amoebic dysentery. It is also used in the treatment of malaria, nose bleeds and haemorrhoids and is used externally to treat Trichomonas vaginitis. The root is harvested in the autumn or before the plant comes into flower in the spring, it can be dried for later use. The root contains the lactone protoanemonin which has an irritant and antibacterial action. Protoanemonin is destroyed when the root is dried. The fresh herb is a cardiac and nervous sedative, producing a hypnotic state with a diminution of the senses followed by a paralysing action. A constituent similar to digitalis can be extracted from the whole herb with the roots removed. This is cardiotonic

Known Hazards : Although no mention has been seen for this species, at least one member of the genus is slightly toxic, the toxins being dissipated by heat or by drying the plant

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://en .wikipedia.org/wiki/Pulsatilla_chinensis
http://www.herbnet.com/Herb%20Uses_AB.h
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Pulsatilla+chinensis
http://iyouth-collagen.en.made-in-china.com/product/SByxYPZbrnWK/China-100-Natural-Chinese-Pulsatilla-Root-Extract-Anemone-Root-Extract-Anticancer-Cancer-Drugs-Kill-Cancer-Cells.html

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Ailmemts & Remedies

Gastroparesis

Definition:
Gastroparesis (gastro-, “stomach” + -paresis, “partial paralysis”), also called delayed gastric emptying, is a medical condition consisting of a paresis (partial paralysis) of the stomach, resulting in food remaining in the stomach for an abnormally long time. Normally, the stomach contracts to move food down into the small intestine for additional digestion. The vagus nerve controls these contractions. Gastroparesis may occur when the vagus nerve is damaged and the muscles of the stomach and intestines do not properly function. Food then moves slowly or stops moving through the digestive tract….CLICK & SEE

YOU MAY CLICK & SEEOur Digestive System and How It Works 
Symptoms:
The most common symptoms of gastroparesis are the following:
*Chronic nausea (93%)
*Vomiting (especially of undigested food) (68-84%)
*Abdominal pain (46-90%)
*A feeling of fullness after eating just a few bites (60-86%)

Other symptoms include the following:
*Palpitations
*Heartburn
*Abdominal bloating
*Erratic blood glucose levels
*Lack of appetite
*Gastroesophageal reflux
*Spasms of the stomach wall
*Weight loss and malnutrition

Morning nausea may also indicate gastroparesis. Vomiting may not occur in all cases, as sufferers may adjust their diets to include only small amounts of food.

Symptoms may be aggravated by eating greasy or rich foods, large quantities of foods with fiber—such as raw fruits and vegetables—or drinking beverages high in fat or carbonation. Symptoms may be mild or severe, and they can occur frequently in some people and less often in others. The symptoms of gastroparesis may also vary in intensity over time in the same individual. Sometimes gastroparesis is difficult to diagnose because people experience a range of symptoms similar to those of other diseases.

Causes:
Transient gastroparesis may arise in acute illness of any kind, as a consequence of certain cancer treatments or other drugs which affect digestive action, or due to abnormal eating patterns.

It is frequently caused by autonomic neuropathy. This may occur in people with type 1 or type 2 diabetes. In fact, diabetes mellitus has been named as the most common cause of gastroparesis, as high levels of blood glucose may affect chemical changes in the nerves.The vagus nerve becomes damaged by years of high blood glucose or insufficient transport of glucose into cells resulting in gastroparesis. Other possible causes include anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa, which may also damage the vagus nerve. Gastroparesis has also been associated with connective tissue diseases such as scleroderma and Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, and neurological conditions such as Parkinson’s disease. It may also occur as part of a mitochondrial disease.

Chronic gastroparesis can be caused by other types of damage to the vagus nerve, such as abdominal surgery.  Heavy cigarette smoking is also a plausible cause since smoking causes damage to the stomach lining.

Idiopathic gastroparesis (gastroparesis with no known cause) accounts for a third of all chronic cases; it is thought that many of these cases are due to an autoimmune response triggered by an acute viral infection. “Stomach flu”, mononucleosis, and other ailments have been anecdotally linked to the onset of the condition, but no systematic study has proven a link.

Gastroparesis sufferers are disproportionately female. One possible explanation for this finding is that women have an inherently slower stomach emptying time than men.A hormonal link has been suggested, as gastroparesis symptoms tend to worsen the week before menstruation when progesterone levels are highest. Neither theory has been proven definitively.

Gastroparesis can also be connected to hypochlorhydria and be caused by chloride, sodium and/or zinc deficiency, as these minerals are needed for the stomach to produce adequate levels of gastric acid (HCL) in order to properly empty itself of a meal.

Other identifiable causes of gastroparesis include intestinal surgery and nervous system diseases such as Parkinson’s disease or multiple sclerosis. For reasons that are not very clear, gastroparesis is more commonly found in women than in men.

Complications:
The complications of gastroparesis can include

*severe dehydration due to persistent vomiting

*gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), which is GER that occurs more than twice a week for a few weeks; GERD can lead to esophagitis— irritation of the esophagus

*bezoars, which can cause nausea, vomiting, obstruction, or interfere with absorption of some medications in pill form

*difficulty managing blood glucose levels in people with diabetes

*malnutrition due to poor absorption of nutrients or a low calorie intake

*decreased quality of life, including work absences due to severe symptoms

Diagnosis:
Gastroparesis is diagnosed through a physical exam, medical history, blood tests, tests to rule out blockage or structural problems in the GI tract, and gastric emptying tests. Tests may also identify a nutritional disorder or underlying disease. To rule out any blockage or other structural problems, the doctor may perform one or more of the following tests:

*Upper gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy. This procedure involves using an endoscope—a small, flexible tube with a light—to see the upper GI tract, which includes the esophagus, stomach, and duodenum—the first part of the small intestine. The test is performed at a hospital or outpatient center by a gastroenterologist—a doctor who specializes in digestive diseases. The endoscope is carefully fed down the esophagus and into the stomach and duodenum. A small camera mounted on the endoscope transmits a video image to a monitor, allowing close examination of the intestinal lining. A person may receive a liquid anesthetic that is gargled or sprayed on the back of the throat. An intravenous (IV) needle is placed in a vein in the arm if general anesthesia is given. The test may show blockage or large bezoars—solid collections of food, mucus, vegetable fiber, hair, or other material that cannot be digested in the stomach—that are sometimes softened, dissolved, or broken up during an upper GI endoscopy.

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Ailmemts & Remedies

Ulcerative colitis

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Herbs & Plants

Polygonum aviculare

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Botanical Name :Polygonum aviculare
Family: Polygonaceae
Genus: Polygonum
Species: P. aviculare
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Caryophyllales

Synonyms :  P. heterophyllum. P. littorale.

Common Name:Birdweed, Pigweed and Lowgrass,Prostrate Knotweed

Habitat :Polygonum aviculare  is native to   throughout Europe, including Britain, to Temperate Asia. It grows in the waste places, roadsides, railway embankments and the coast. A common garden weed.

Description:
A Polygonum aviculare annual with small, elliptic leaves that is primarily found in compacted areas of turfgrass such as pathways or sports fields.

click to see the pictures…>…....(01)…..(1).…....(2)...…..(3)……...(4).….

Seedlings: Cotyledons are narrow, linear in outline, often resembling and being mistaken for a grass.  The stem below the cotyledons (hypocotyl) is often reddish in color.

Roots: A taproot.

Leaves: Arranged alternately along the stem, lanceolate in outline, approximately 1/2 to 1 1/4 inches long and 1 to 8 mm wide.  Leaves have short petioles and a distinctive thin membranous sheath (ocrea) that encircles the stem at the leaf base.

Fruit: A dark red to brown achene.

Stems: Branching, growing prostrate along the ground, ranging from 4 to 24 inches in length.  Stems are swollen at the nodes with a thin membranous sheath (ocrea) encircling the stem at each leaf base.

Flowers: Occur in the area between the stems and leaves (leaf axils).  From 1 to 5 flowers occur in clusters and are very small and inconspicuous, white to pinkish-white in color.
Edible Uses: Young leaves and plants are eaten raw or cooked. Used as a potherb, they are very rich in zinc. A nutritional analysis is available. Seeds are also eaten raw or cooked. Rather small and fiddly to utilize, they can be used in all the ways that buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) is used, either whole or dried and ground into a powder for use in pancakes, biscuits and piñole. The leaves are a tea substitute.

Cultivation:
Succeeds in an ordinary garden soil but prefers a moisture retentive not too fertile soil in sun or part shade. Repays generous treatment, in good soils the plant will cover an area up to a metre in diameter. Prefers an acid soil. Dislikes shade. Knotweed is a common and invasive weed of cultivated ground. It is an important food plant for the caterpillars of many species of butterflies[. It also produces an abundance of seeds and these are a favourite food for many species of birds. Plants seem to be immune to the predations of rabbits. The flowers have little or no scent or honey and are rarely visited by pollinating insects. Self-fertilization is the usual method of reproduction, though cross-fertilization by insects does sometimes occur. The plant also produces cleistogomous flowers – these never open and therefore are always self-fertilized. The plant is very variable and is seen by most botanists as an aggregate species of 4 very variable species, viz. – P. aviculare. L.; P. boreale. (Lange.)Small.; P. rurivacum. Jord. ex Box.; and P. arenastrum. Box.

Propagation :
Seed – sow spring in a cold frame. Germination is usually free and easy. When they are large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and plant them out in the summer if they have reached sufficient size. If not, overwinter them in a cold frame and plant them out the following spring after the last expected frosts. Division in spring or autumn. Very easy, larger divisions can be planted out direct into their permanent positions. We have found that it is better to pot up the smaller divisions and grow them on in light shade in a cold frame until they are well established before planting them out in late spring or early summer.

Chemical Composition:
Figures in grams (g) or miligrams (mg) per 100g of food.
Leaves (Fresh weight)

*0 Calories per 100g
*Water : 81.6%
*Protein: 1.9g; Fat: 0.3g; Carbohydrate: 10.2g; Fibre: 3.5g; Ash: 3.5g;
*Minerals – Calcium: 0mg; Phosphorus: 0mg; Iron: 0mg; Magnesium: 0mg; *Sodium: 0mg; Potassium: 0mg; Zinc: 0mg;

*Vitamins – A: 0mg; Thiamine (B1): 0mg; Riboflavin (B2): 0mg;

*Niacin: 0mg; B6: 0mg; C: 0mg;

Medicinal Uses:
The plant is an astringent, coagulant, diuretic and expectorant.

It has been used in the treatment of chronic urinary tract infections.  It is claimed to be useful in the prevention of the formation of renal calculi.  It stops bleeding and alleviates colics and catarrhs (usually combined with silverweed and ribwort plantain).  It is an ingredient in many herbal teas.  It operates in the basal metabolism as an adjuvant in diabetic, expectorant and antidiarrheic preparations.  It is used to treat bronchitis with bleeding.  It is used for pulmonary complaints since its silicic acid content helps strengthen connective tissue within the lungs.  It is also used in combination with other herbs to treat rheumatic conditions, gout, and skin disease.  It is regarded as a “blood purifying’ remedy.  Knotgrass has also been used to treat inflammations of the mucous membranes of the intestinal tract and has been useful in cases of flatulence and biliary insufficiency.  Externally it has been used to treat sore throats and vaginal inflammation.  Dosage is a decoction of the root from 10-20g to 2 glasses of water, half a glass 3 times a day.  Can be used for douches, compresses, rinses.  Alcoholic extracts prevent the crystallization of mineral substances in the urine and are antiphlogistic, bacteriostatic and diuretic.  Research is being done on the efficacy of the plant in reducing the fragility of blood capillaries, especially in the alimentary canal.

In the Chinese tradition, knotgrass is given for intestinal worms, to treat diarrhea and dysentery, and as a diuretic, particularly in cases of painful urination.  Chinese research indicates that the plant is a useful medicine for bacillary dysentery.

 Other Uses  :……Dye…….Yields a blue dye that is not much inferior to indigo. The part used is not specified, but it is likely to be the leaves. Yellow and green dyes are obtained from the whole plant. The roots contain tannins, but the quantity was not given.

Known Hazards: Although no specific mention has been made for this species, there have been reports that some members of this genus can cause photosensitivity in susceptible people. Many species also contain oxalic acid (the distinctive lemony flavour of sorrel) – whilst not toxic this substance can bind up other minerals making them unavailable to the body and leading to mineral deficiency. Having said that, a number of common foods such as sorrel and rhubarb contain oxalic acid and the leaves of most members of this genus are nutritious and beneficial to eat in moderate quantities. Cooking the leaves will reduce their content of oxalic acid. People with a tendency to rheumatism, arthritis, gout, kidney stones or hyperacidity should take especial caution if including this plant in their diet since it can aggravate their condition.

Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Polygonum_aviculare
http://www.ppws.vt.edu/scott/weed_id/polav.htm
http://www.herbnet.com/Herb%20Uses_IJK.htm

http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Polygonum+aviculare

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Herbs & Plants

Bailahuen

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Botanical Name :Haplopappus baylahuen
Family :  Asteraceae
Subfamily: Asteroideae
Tribe : Tribe :  Astereae Astereae
Gender :  Haplopappus
Cass. 1828
Species :  H.  baylahuen
Kingdom :  Plantae
Subkingdom:  Tracheobionta
Division :  Magnoliophyta
Class :  Magnoliopsida
Subclass: Asteridae
Order :  Asterales
Common Name :Bailahuen

Habitat :It is an herb that occurs in the mountainous areas from I to the Fourth Region of Chile .

Description:Belongs to the same group as Solidago and is closely related to Grindelia.Plant type: Shrub
Flower: Yellow, 14 petals and more, also includes asteraceae  Height: 40 cm.

Click to see the pictures.

Click to see the picture

Medicinal Uses:
Since ancient times has been used medicinally mainly to relieve stomach problems, but they have also discovered other properties for this, as for example that may help improve cold, flu, pneumonia, other property is that it helps digestion of fats and proteins, is used as an aphrodisiac and antiseptic, it also has an effect antiflatulent and purifying properties, this not only used but also the leaves and stems of the flowers.

The medicinal properties lie principally in its resin and volatile oil, the resin acting chiefly on the bowels and urinary passages, and the volatile oil on the lungs. It does not cause disorder to the stomach and bowels, it is a valuable remedy in dysentery, chronic diarrhea specially of tuberculous nature and in chronic cystitis. Internally is it used as a tea for loss of appetite and non-ulcer dyspepsia with fullness, flatulence, change of bowel habits, etc. associated with minor disorders of the hepatobiliary tract (chronic cholecycstitis, nonobstructive gallstones, chronic hepatitis and for inflammations of the upper respiratory tract.  Also as a diaphoretic hot tea for the common cold and to enhance the effects in problems of the genitourinary tract, the fluid intake should be more than 2 liters per day. Externally it is used as a wet compress or poultice for minor skin inflammations and wounds.

Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://www.herbnet.com/Herb%20Uses_AB.htm
http://www.chileflora.com/Florachilena/FloraEnglish/HighResPages/EH1937.htm
http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haplopappus_baylahuen

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