Categories
Herbs & Plants

Peppermint ( Mentha piperita )

[amazon_link asins=’B01JRD7Y9U,B00OEIBJRW,B00UQZXAVK,B00NAKWOWO,B00QVNKSA2,B00JV5VBCQ’ template=’ProductCarousel’ store=’finmeacur-20′ marketplace=’US’ link_id=’fd388224-ffd3-11e6-87ff-25e14168bbf2′]

Botanical Name : Mentha piperita
Family:
Lamiaceae
Genus:
Mentha
Kingdom:
Plantae
Order:
Lamiales

Synonym: Brandy Mint.

Common Names :Peppermint

Habitat:Mentha piperita is found throughout Europe, in moist situations, along stream banks and in waste lands, and is not unfrequent In damp places in England, but is not a common native plant, and probably is often an escape from cultivation. In America it is probably even more common as an escape than Spearmint, having long been known and grown in gardens.

Description:
Mentha piperita is a herbaceous rhizomatous perennial plant growing to 30–90 cm (12–35 in) tall, with smooth stems, square in cross section. The rhizomes are wide-spreading, fleshy, and bare fibrous roots. The leaves are from 4–9 cm (1.6–3.5 in) long and 1.5–4 cm (0.59–1.57 in) broad, dark green with reddish veins, and with an acute apex and coarsely toothed margins. The leaves and stems are usually slightly fuzzy. The flowers are purple, 6–8 mm (0.24–0.31 in) long, with a four-lobed corolla about 5 mm (0.20 in) diameter; they are produced in whorls (verticillasters) around the stem, forming thick, blunt spikes. Flowering is from mid to late summer. The chromosome number is variable, with 2n counts of 66, 72, 84, and 120 recorded. Peppermint is a fast growing plant once it sprouts, it spreads very quickly.
CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES

Cultivation:
Peppermint generally grows best in moist, shaded locations, and expands by underground stolons. Young shoots are taken from old stocks and dibbled into the ground about 1.5 feet apart. They grow quickly and cover the ground with runners if it is permanently moist. For the home gardener, it is often grown in containers to restrict rapid spreading. It grows best with a good supply of water, without being water-logged, and planted in areas with part-sun to shade.

The leaves and flowering tops are used; they are collected as soon as the flowers begin to open and can be dried. The wild form of the plant is less suitable for this purpose, with cultivated plants having been selected for more and better oil content. They may be allowed to lie and wilt a little before distillation, or they may be taken directly to the still.

Medicinal Uses:

Part Used: Herb.

Chemical constituents: Peppermint has a high menthol content. The oil also contains menthone and menthyl esters, particularly menthyl acetate. Dried peppermint typically has 0.3-0.4% of volatile oil containing menthol (7-48%), menthone (20-46%), menthyl acetate (3-10%), menthofuran (1-17%) and 1,8-cineol (3-6%). Peppermint oil also contains small amounts of many additional compounds including limonene, pulegone, caryophyllene and pinene.

Peppermint has a long tradition of medicinal use, with archaeological evidence placing its use at least as far back as ten thousand years ago.

Peppermint is commonly used to soothe or treat symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, indigestion, irritable bowel, and bloating.

One animal study has suggested that Peppermint may have radioprotective effects in patients undergoing cancer treatment.

The aroma of peppermint has been found to enhance memory and alertness, although other research contests this. Peppermint is used in aromatherapy.

Peppermint oil:
Peppermint oil has a high concentration of natural pesticides, mainly pulegone (Found mainly in Mentha arvensis var. piperascens Cornmint, Field Mint, Japanese Mint and to a lesser extent-6,530 ppm in Mentha x piperita subsp. nothosubsp. piperita) and menthone.

The chemical composition of the essential oil from peppermint (Mentha x piperita L.) was analyzed by GC/FID and GC-MS. The main constituents were menthol (40.7%) and menthone (23.4%). Further components were (+/-)-menthyl acetate, 1,8-cineole, limonene, beta-pinene and beta-caryophyllene.
Italian investigators reported that 75% of the patients in their study who took peppermint oil capsules for four weeks had a major reduction in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) symptoms, compared with just 38% of those who took a placebo. A second study in 2010, conducted in Iran, found similar results. 2011 research showed that peppermint acts through a specific anti-pain channel called TRPM8 to reduce pain sensing fibres.[citation needed] The authors feel that this study provides information that is potentially the first step in determining a new type of mainstream clinical treatment for Irritable Bowel Syndrome.

According to the German Commission E monographs, peppermint oil (as well as peppermint leaf) has been used internally as an antispasmodic (upper gastrointestinal tract and bile ducts) and to treat irritable bowel syndrome, catarrh of the respiratory tract, and inflammation of the oral mucosa. Externally, peppermint oil has been used for myalgia and neuralgia. According to the German Commission E, peppermint oil may also act as a carminative, cholagogue, antibacterial, and secretolytic, and it has a cooling action.

Enteric-coated peppermint oil capsules (Colpermin) been used as an orally administered antispasmodic premedication in colonoscopy. The capsules were found beneficial in reducing total procedure time, reducing colonic spasm, increasing endoscopist satisfaction and decreasing pain in patients during colonoscopy.

Similarly, some poorly designed earlier trials found that peppermint oil has the ability to reduce colicky abdominal pain due to IBS with an NNT (number needed to treat) around 3.1, but the oil is an irritant to the stomach in the quantity required and therefore needs wrapping for delayed release in the intestine. This could also be achieved by using the whole herb or leaves rather than the volatile components alone.

Due to the menthol constituent, topical use of peppermint oil around the facial or chest areas of infants and young children, especially around the nose, can induce apnea, laryngeal and bronchial spasm, acute respiratory distress with cyanosis, or respiratory arrest. It is also used in construction and plumbing to test for the tightness of pipes and disclose leaks by its odor.

Peppermint oil may cause or worsen heartburn.

Other Uses:
It is the oldest and most popular flavour of mint-flavoured confectionery and is often used in tea and for flavouring ice cream, confectionery, chewing gum, and toothpaste. Peppermint can also be found in some shampoos, soaps and skin care products.

Menthol activates cold-sensitive TRPM8 receptors in the skin and mucosal tissues, and is the primary source of the cooling sensation that follows the topical application of peppermint oil.

Peppermint flowers are large nectar producers and honey bees as well as other nectar harvesting organisms forage them heavily. A mild, pleasant varietal honey can be produced if there is a sufficient area of plants.
Known Hazards:  The toxicity studies of the plant have received controversial results. Some authors reported that the plant may induce hepatic diseases (liver disease), while others found that it protects against liver damage that is caused by heavy metals. In addition to that, the toxicities of the plant seem to vary from one cultivar to another and are dose dependent. This is probably attributed from the content level of pulegone.

With the limitation that the concentration of pulegone should not exceed 1%, it has been concluded that Mentha Piperita (Peppermint) Oil, Mentha Piperita (Peppermint) Extract, Mentha Piperita (Peppermint) Leaves, Mentha Piperita (Peppermint) Water are safe as used in cosmetic formulations.

Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peppermint
http://www.botanical.com/botanical/mgmh/m/mints-39.html#pep

 

Categories
Ailmemts & Remedies

Abdominal Bloating

[amazon_link asins=’B01N9O0RGT,B00HSC5IR8,B01MZIPMYE,B0007IQMVG,B01L9NGL04,B00R42HKGO,B01HCK1QRQ,B01011YQBQ,B01IHWRS3O’ template=’ProductCarousel’ store=’finmeacur-20′ marketplace=’US’ link_id=’4c87be5a-74d5-11e7-8d0a-8bc5482cc27a’]

Abdominal bloating is a condition in which the abdomen feels full and tight. It is usually caused by gas in the bowel.

It is any abnormal general swelling, or increase in diameter of the abdominal area. As a symptom, the patient feels a full and tight abdomen, which may cause abdominal pain sometimes accompanied by borborygmus. Bloating may have several causes, the most common being accumulation of liquids and intestinal gas. Ascites is the proper medical term for abdominal bloating caused by excessive accumulation of liquid inside the cavity.

CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES

Common causes for abdominal bloating are:

1.Overeating (gastric distension)
2.Lactose intolerance, fructose intolerance and other food intolerances
3.Food allergy
4.Aerophagia (air swallowing, a nervous habit)
5.Irritable bowel syndrome
6.Partial bowel obstruction
7.Gastric dumping syndrome or rapid gastric emptying
8.Gas-producing foods
9.Constipation
10.Visceral fat
11.Splenic-flexure syndrome
12.Menstruation, dysmenorrhea and premenstrual stress syndrome
13.Polycystic ovary syndrome and ovarian cysts
14.Alvarez’ syndrome, hysterical or neurotic abdominal bloating without excess of gas in the digestive tract .
15.Massive infestation with intestinal parasites, such as worms (e.g, Ascaris lumbricoides)
16Diverticulosis
17.Small bowel bacterial overgrowth
18.Immunodeficiency, such as AIDS

Important but uncommon causes of abdominal bloating include large intra-abdominal tumors, such as those arising from ovarian, liver, uterus and stomach cancer; and megacolon, an abnormal dilation of the colon, due to some diseases, such as Chagas disease, a parasitic infection. Gaseous bloating may be a consequence of cardiopulmonary resuscitation procedures, due to the artificial mouth-to-mouth insufflation of air. In some animals, like cats, dogs and cattle, gastric dilatation-volvulus, or bloat also occurs when gas is trapped inside the stomach and a gastric torsion or volvulus prevents it from escaping.

Bloating from irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is of unknown origin but often results from an insult to the gut, and as such can overlap with infective diarrhea, celiac, and inflammatory bowel diseases. IBS is a brain-gut dysfunction that causes visceral hypersensitivity and results in bloating in association with recurrent diarrhea (or constipation) and abdominal pain. While there is no direct treatment for the underlying pathology of IBS, the symptom of bloating can be well managed through dietary changes that prevent the over-reaction of the gastrocolic reflex. Having soluble fiber foods and supplements, substituting dairy with soy or rice products, being careful with fresh fruits and vegetables that are high in insoluble fiber, and eating regular small amounts can all help to lessen the symptoms of IBS (Van Vorous 2000). Foods and beverages to be avoided or minimized include red meat, oily, fatty and fried products, dairy (even when there is no lactose intolerance), solid chocolate, coffee (regular and decaffeinated), alcohol, carbonated beverages, especially those also containing sorbitol, and artificial sweeteners (Van Vorous 2000).

Postmortem bloating occurs in cadavers, due to the formation of gases by bacterial action and putrefaction of the internal tissues of the abdomen and the inside of the intestines.

Symptoms:
The most common symptoms are abdominal pain and cramps, fullness, bloating, and diarrhea. The diarrhea can be watery or bloody. Other symptoms may include:

Anemia (low levels of red blood cells)
Weight loss
Fatty, floating stool

Treatment:
The goal is to treat the cause of the intestinal bacterial overgrowth. For certain conditions, antibiotics, anti-motility drugs, or hormones may be considered.

Treatment also involves getting enough fluids and nutrition.

If the person is already dehydrated, he or she may need intravenous (IV) fluids in a hospital. And, if already malnourished, total parenteral nutrition (TPN) may be necessary. TPN is nutrition (food) given through a vein.

Ayurvedic Treatment of Abdominal Bloating……………(A)…………...(B).……..(C)..…..(D)

Homeopathic Treatment of Abdominal Bloating……….(A)……………(B)

Click to read Can Chiropractic Help Relieve PMS?

Yoga Exercise under the guidance of an expert gives very good result in Abdominal Bloating and in most cases it cures permanently.

Complications :
Severe cases lead to malnutrition. Other possible complications include:

Dehydration
Toxic megacolon
Liver disease
Osteoporosis

Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies

Resources:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bloating
http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003123.htm

Enhanced by Zemanta