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News on Health & Science

‘Super Antibody’ Fights Off Flu

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The first antibody which can fight all types of the influenza A virus has been discovered, researchers claim.

Experiments on flu-infected mice, published in Science Express, showed the antibody could be used as an “emergency treatment“.

It is hoped the development will lead to a “universal vaccine” – currently a new jab has to be made for each winter as viruses change.

Virologists described the finding as a “good step forward”.

Many research groups around the world are trying to develop a universal vaccine. They need to attack something common to all influenza which does not change or mutate.

It is verymuch suggested that  some people who had swine flu may develop ‘super immunity’ to other infections.

You may click to see the detail

 

Source : BBC News,July 29,2011

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Ailmemts & Remedies

Dehydration

Definition:
Water makes up around 75 per cent of the human body. It’s important for digestion, joint function, healthy skin and removal of waste products.
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Dehydration occurs when more fluid is lost from the body than is taken in. This causes an imbalance in important minerals, such as sodium and potassium, which are required for muscle and nerve function.

If there is a one per cent or greater loss in body weight because of fluid loss, dehydration occurs. This may be mild, moderate or severe, depending on the amount lost.

Infants and children are more susceptible to dehydration than adults because of their smaller body weights and higher turnover of water and electrolytes. The elderly and those with illnesses are also at higher risk.

Dehydration is classified as mild, moderate, or severe based on how much of the body’s fluid is lost or not replenished. When severe, dehydration is a life-threatening emergency.

Who are at Risk?
Anyone’s at risk of dehydration, but some people are more at risk than others.

•Babies and young children have relatively low body weights, making them more vulnerable to the effects of fluid loss.
•Older adults tend to eat less and may forget to eat and drink during the day. With increasing age, the body’s ability to conserve water decreases and a person’s sense of thirst becomes less acute. Illness and disability are also more common, which may make it harder to eat and drink enough.
•People with long-term medical conditions, such as kidney disease and alcoholism, are more at risk of dehydration.
•Short-term, acute health problems, such as viral infections, can result in dehydration because fever and increased sweating mean more fluid is lost from the body. Such illnesses may also make you feel less inclined to eat and drink.
•People living or working in hot climates or those who take part in sports or other strenuous physical activities are at greater risk of dehydration.

Symptoms:
The body’s initial responses to dehydration are thirst to increase water intake along with decreased urine output to try to conserve water. The urine will become concentrated and more yellow in color.

As the level of water loss increases, more symptoms can become apparent. The following are further signs and symptoms of dehydration:

•dry mouth,
•the eyes stop making tears,
•sweating may stop,
•muscle cramps,
•nausea and vomiting,
•heart palpitations, and
•lightheadedness (especially when standing).

The body tries to maintain cardiac output (the amount of blood that is pumped by the heart to the body); and if the amount of fluid in the intravascular space is decreased, the body tries to compensate for this decrease by increasing the heart rate and making blood vessels constrict to try to maintain blood pressure and blood flow to the vital organs of the body. This coping mechanism begins to fail as the level of dehydration increases.

With severe dehydration, confusion and weakness will occur as the brain and other body organs receive less blood. Finally, coma and organ failure, and death eventually will occur if the dehydration remains untreated.

Causes:
Around two-thirds of the water we need comes from drinks. Up to one-third comes from food (tomatoes, cucumber, fish and poultry are good sources). Some is also provided as a result of chemical reactions within the body.
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The average adult loses around 2.5 litres of water every day through the normal processes of breathing, sweating and waste removal. If we lose more fluid than usual this tips the balance towards dehydration.

Your body may lose too much fluids from:
•Vomiting or diarrhea
•Excessive urine output, such as with uncontrolled diabetes or diuretic use
•Excessive sweating (for example, from exercise)
•Fever

You might not drink enough fluids because of:
•Nausea
•Loss of appetite due to illness
•Sore throat or mouth sores

Dehydration in sick children is often a combination of both — refusing to eat or drink anything while also losing fluid from vomiting, diarrhea, or fever.

Lifestyle factors such as drinking too much alcohol, exercise, being in a hot environment or being too busy to drink liquid can also lead to dehydration.

Diagnosis:
Dehydration is often a clinical diagnosis. Aside from diagnosing the reason for dehydration, the health care practitioner’s examination of the patient will assess the level of dehydration. Initial evaluations may include:

•Mental status tests to evaluate whether the patient is awake, alert, and oriented. Infants and children may appear listless and have whiny cries and decreased muscle tone.

•Vital signs may include postural readings (blood pressure and pulse rate are taken lying down and standing). With dehydration, the pulse rate may increase and the blood pressure may drop because the intravascular space is depleted of fluid. People taking beta blocker medications for high blood pressure, heart disease, or other indications, occasionally lose the ability to increase their heart rate as a compensation mechanism since these medications block the adrenaline receptors in the body.

•Temperature may be measured to assess fever.

•Skin may be checked to see if sweat is present and to assess the degree of elasticity (turgor). As dehydration progresses, the skin loses its water content and becomes less elastic.

•Infants may have additional evaluations performed, including checking for a soft spot on the skull (sunken fontanelle), assessing the suck mechanism, muscle tone, or loss of sweat in the armpits and groin. All are signs of potential significant dehydration.

•Pediatric patients are often weighed during routine child visits, thus a body weight measurement may be helpful in assessing how much water has been lost with the acute illness.

Laboratory testing:-
The purpose of blood tests is to assess potential electrolyte abnormalities (especially sodium levels) associated with the dehydration. Tests may or may not be done on the patient depending upon the underlying cause of dehydration, the severity of illness, and the health care practitioner’s assessment of their needs.

Urinalysis may be done to determine urine concentration – the more concentrated the urine, the more dehydrated the patient.

Treatment:-
As is often the case in medicine, prevention is the important first step in the treatment of dehydration. (Please see the home treatment and prevention sections.)

Fluid replacement is the treatment for dehydration. This may be attempted by replacing fluid by mouth, but if this fails, intravenous fluid (IV) may be required. Should oral rehydration be attempted, frequent small amounts of clear fluids should be used.

Clear fluids include:
•water,
•clear broths,
•popsicles,
•Jell-O, and
•other replacement fluids that may contain electrolytes (Pedialyte, Gatorade, Powerade, etc.)
Decisions about the use of intravenous fluids depend upon the health care practitioner’s assessment of the extent of dehydration and the ability for the patient to recover from the underlying cause.

The success of the rehydration therapy can be monitored by urine output. When the body is dry, the kidneys try to hold on to as much fluid as possible, urine output is decreased, and the urine itself is concentrated. As treatment occurs, the kidneys sense the increased amount of fluid, and urine output increases.

Medications may be used to treat underlying illnesses and to control fever, vomiting, or diarrhea.

Home Treatment:
Dehydration occurs over time. If it can be recognized in its earliest stages, and if its cause can be addressed, home treatment may be beneficial and adequate.

Steps a person can take at home to prevent severe dehydration include:

•Individuals with vomiting and diarrhea can try to alter their diet and use medications to control symptoms to minimize water loss. Clear fluids often recommended as the diet of choice for the first 24 hours, with gradual progression to a BRAT diet (bananas, rice, apples, toast) and then adding more foods as tolerated.
•Loperamide (Imodium) may be considered to control diarrhea.
•Acetaminophen or ibuprofen may be used to control fever.
•Fluid replacements may be attempted by small, frequent amounts of clear fluids (see clear fluids information in previous section). The amount of fluid required to maintain hydration depends upon the individual’s weight. The average adult needs between 2 and 3 liters of fluid per day.
If the person becomes confused or lethargic; if there is persistent, uncontrolled fever, vomiting, or diarrhea; or if there are any other specific concerns, then medical care should be accessed.

Prevention:-
•Environment: Dehydration due to the weather is a preventable condition. If possible, activities should not be scheduled in the heat of the day. If they are, adequate fluids should be available, and cooler, shaded areas should be used if possible. Of course, people should be monitored to make certain they are safe. Those working in hot environments need to take care to rehydrate often.
•Exercise: People exercising in a hot environment need to drink adequate amounts of water.
•Age: The young and elderly are most at risk. During heat waves, attempts should be made to check on the elderly in their homes. During the Chicago heat wave of 1995, more than 600 people died in their homes from heat exposure.
•Heat related conditions: Know the signs and symptoms of heat cramps, heat rash, heat exhaustion, and heat stroke. Preventing dehydration is one step to avoid these conditions.

Carefully monitor someone who is ill, especially an infant, child, or older adult. If you believe that dehydration is developing, consult a doctor before the person becomes moderately or severely dehydrated. Begin fluid replacement as soon as vomiting and diarrhea start — DO NOT wait for signs of dehydration.

Always encourage the person to drink during an illness, and remember that a person’s fluid needs are greater when that person has fever, vomiting, or diarrhea. The easiest signs to monitor are urine output (there should be frequent wet diapers or trips to the bathroom), saliva in the mouth, and tears when crying.

Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.This is purely for educational purpose.

Resources:
http://www.bbc.co.uk/health/physical_health/conditions/dehydration1.shtml
http://www.medicinenet.com/dehydration/page4.htm
http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000982.htm

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Reasons Why you Should not Let you child get Flu Vaccine

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This year it is more important that you protect your children and loved ones from the flu vaccines than influenza itself. This article on Lew Rockwell discusses how:

1.The swine flu is simply another flu. It is not unusually deadly.

2.This is the first time both seasonal and pandemic flu vaccines will be administered. Both seasonal flu and swine flu vaccines will require two inoculations. This is because single inoculations have failed to produce sufficient antibodies. This is an admission that prior flu vaccines were virtually useless. Can you trust them this time?

3.Adjuvants are added to vaccines to boost production of antibodies but may trigger autoimmune reactions. Some adjuvants are mercury (thimerosal), aluminum and squalene. Why would you sign a consent form for your children to be injected with mercury, which is even more brain-toxic than lead?

4.This is the first year mock vaccines have been used to gain FDA approval. The vaccines that have been tested are not the same vaccines your children will be given.

5.Over-vaccination is a common practice now in America. American children are subjected to 29 vaccines by the age of two. Meanwhile, veterinarians have backed off of repeat vaccination in dogs because of observed side effects.

6.Modern medicine has no explanation for autism, despite its continued rise in prevalence. Yet autism is not reported among Amish children who go unvaccinated.

7.Researchers are warning that over-use of the flu vaccine and anti-flu drugs like Tamiflu and Relenza can apply genetic pressure on flu viruses and then they are more likely to mutate into a more deadly strain.

8.Most seasonal influenza A (H1N1) virus strains tested from the United States and other countries are now resistant to Tamiflu (oseltamivir). Tamiflu has become a nearly worthless drug against seasonal flu.

9.Public health officials are irresponsible in their omission of any ways to strengthen immunity against the flu. No options outside of problematic vaccines and anti-flu drugs are offered, despite the fact there is strong evidence that vitamins C and D activate the immune system and the trace mineral selenium prevents the worst form of the disease.
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For even more reasons, please review the full article on LewRockwell.com.

Resources:
http://www.lewrockwell.com/sardi/sardi119.html
Living Wisdom E-Newsletter, September 2009
New York Times September 18, 2009

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Health Alert

Beat The Bugs

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Swine flu cases may have been steadily decreasing over the summer – but experts are expecting a surge in new cases in the next few months.
……..CLICK & SEE
The main reason is that cooler weather means more of us group together indoors and so are more likely to pass on viruses to one another.

Once released into the air via coughs and sneezes, some viruses can live for several hours on surfaces such as tables, doorknobs and desks, which is why keeping hands clean is so important.

Antibacterial washes and wipes will kill some viruses and are great for protecting surfaces against potential sources of tummy bugs.

According to Professor Wendy Barclay, chair of Influenza Virology at Imperial College London, there are some basic steps people can take to protect themselves from swine flu and other seasonal flu, coughs and colds.

Top tips for preventing swine flu:-
*KEEP YOUR HANDS CLEAN: Wash them thoroughly and frequently – especially before eating or preparing food – and rinse under clean running water to remove any infected mucous.

*DRY YOUR HANDS AFTER WASHING: Wet hands are more likely to pick up and spread germs.

*KEEP HANDS AWAY FROM THE FACE: If someone sneezes and then opens a door, the next person to touch the handle will come into direct contact with the virus. So, do not touch your eyes, nose or mouth until you’ve washed your hands.

*SNEEZE INTO A TISSUE- THEN BIN IT: Cover your mouth and nose when you sneeze and then dispose of the tissue carefully. Don’t leave it hanging around or re-use it several times.

AVOID OVER-USE OF HAND GELS: Don’t rush out and buy dozens of hand gels to use on the move. They’re useful in situations where there are no washrooms. But if you have access to soap and water at the end of a journey, use that as it is just as effective.

KEEP SURFACES CLEAN: Proprietary sprays are fine, but a mild solution of washing-up liquid and water works equally well.
OPEN A WINDOW: Humidifiers and air purifiers may be effective, but they are still not fully tested against the swine flu virus. One of the most efficient ways to clear the air and dilute the virus is simply to open a window.
LOOK AFTER YOURSELF: The body’s own immune system offers the best protection from illness. Eating a good and varied diet, drinking plenty of water and taking regular exercise are the best ways to stay healthy and avoid getting the disease in the first place. Plus, if you or your family do succumb to swine flu, being in good health will help everyone to shrug it off quickly and without complications.

GADGET UPDATE
Your keyboard harbours more germs than some loos. Cyber Clean can get rid of the dirt and kills up to 80% of germs. Press the gooey substance into the keyboard and remove to lift off grime. £7.95, www.boysstuff. co.uk

Source: mail Online 20th. Sept. 2009

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News on Health & Science

Revolutionary Skin Patch

Revolutionary skin patch may spell end of fear and pain caused by common injections.

microneedle patch.

Medication through skin with minimum discomfort

.microneedle patch-1

It is the perfect invention for those with a fear of needles.

A patch that takes the pain out of injections has been developed by scientists.

The stamp-sized patch is studded with dozens of tiny needles, each a fraction of a millimetre long  –  the equivalent of the width of a few strands of hair.

Coated with medicine, it reaches far enough through the skin to deliver the drug but not deep enough to hit the nerves that cause pain.

Researchers say the patch could be especially useful for sufferers of age-related macular degeneration, the most common cause of blindness in the elderly.

Although new drugs can improve symptoms, they must be injected directly into the eye each month  –  something that would be relatively simple by using one of the patches.

Dr Mark Prausnitz, of the Georgia Institute of Technology in Atlanta in the U.S., said: ‘It’s our goal to get rid of the need for hypodermic needles and replace them with a patch that can be applied by a patient.
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The ‘microneedle’ patch that could make traditional jabs redundant
‘If you can move to something that’s as easy to apply as a plaster, you’ve opened the door for people to self-administer their medicine.’

The first tests on people could be carried out next year, the American Chemical Society‘s annual conference heard.
Dr Prausnitz added: ‘Although it would probably first be used in a clinical setting, our vision is to have a self-administered flu vaccine patch. So instead of making an appointment with your doctor to get your flu shot, you can stop by the pharmacy or even get a patch in the mail and self-apply.
‘We think that could very much increase the vaccine coverage since it would be easier for people to be vaccinated.’
The researchers administered flu vaccines to mice using conventional injections and microneedle patches.

They found that both produced the same number of immune system antibodies. But other measures of immune response showed a better reaction with the patches.

Source: Mail Online.Aug. 21.2009

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