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Exercise

Bend and Stretch those Hamstrings

Use a chair as a helpful tool in stretching the backs of your upper thighs, or hamstrings. The elevation of the chair allows you to maintain a straight back so you can focus the stretch in the legs.

click & see

Stand in front of a sturdy chair with toes facing forward. Shift your weight to your left leg and place your right foot on the seat of the chair, keeping your right knee straight and your toes facing up toward the ceiling. Maintain a straight back as you bend forward at the hips, resting your fingertips on the chair seat on each side of your foot. Pause for three to six breaths, feeling the stretch in the back of your right thigh. Repeat on the other side.

As your legs become more flexible, practice a more advanced version of the stretch — placing your right foot on the top of the chair backrest and resting your hands on the top of the chair on each side of the foot. As before, pause for three to six breaths, feeling the stretch in the back of your right thigh. Repeat on the other side.

Source : Los Angeles Times

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Exercise

Roller Enhances a Leg Stretch

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For a more intense stretch in the backs of your thighs and calves, try elevating your foot on a roller. But it’s important to put only your lower ankle and heel on top of the roller; this avoids any pressure on your Achilles tendon.
CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES
STEP-1. Sit upright on the floor with your left leg straight in front of you and your left heel on top of the roller. Bend your right knee and position your right foot against the inside of your left knee (if your left knee tends to hyperextend, place your right foot directly under your left knee for support). Inhale, sit up tall and reach your arms overhead.

STEP-2. On an exhale, maintain a long spine as you tilt forward, hinging at the hips. Keep your left leg straight and rest your fingertips on the roller. Hold this stretch for 10 to 20 seconds while breathing fully. Focus on feeling the stretch in the back of your left thigh and calf. You might feel a stretch in your back and hips too. Switch legs and repeat.

Source: Los Angeles Times

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Ailmemts & Remedies

Sprain & Strain

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Definition:
A sprain (from the French espraindre – to wring) is an injury which occurs to ligaments caused by being stretched beyond their normal capacity and possibly torn. Muscular tears caused in the same manner are referred to as a strain. In cases where either ligament or muscle tissue is torn, immobilization and surgical repair may be necessary.

CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES

Sprain. A sprain is a stretching or tearing of ligaments. Ligaments are tough bands of fibrous tissue that connect one bone to another. Common locations for sprains are your ankles and knees.

Strain. A strain is a stretching or tearing of muscle or tendon. People commonly call strains “pulled” muscles. Hamstring and back injuries are among the most common strains.


Degrees:

Although some signs and symptoms can be used to assess the severity of a sprain, the most definitive method is with the use of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). Sprains are graded in four degrees.

*The first degree is only a minor tear or stretch of a ligament.

*The second degree is a tear of a ligament, which is usually followed by pain or swelling.

*The third degree is a complete rupture.

*The fourth degree is the most severe and actually breaks the ligament, along with some small bones if severe enough, and requires surgery to repair.

Causes:
Sprains and strains occur commonly, and most result in minor injuries.

Sprains. A sprain occurs when you overextend or tear a ligament while severely stressing a joint. Ligaments are tough bands of fibrous tissue that connect one bone to another. They help to stabilize joints, preventing excessive movement. You may sprain your knee or ankle when walking or exercising on an uneven surface. A sprain also may occur when you land awkwardly, either at the end of a jump or while pivoting during an athletic activity.

Strains. A muscle becomes strained or pulled — or may even tear — when it stretches unusually far or abruptly. This type of injury — an acute strain — often occurs when muscles suddenly and powerfully contract. A muscle strain may occur when you slip on ice, run, jump, throw, lift a heavy object or lift in an awkward position. A chronic strain results from prolonged, repetitive movement of a muscle.

Signs & Symptoms:
The typical signs and symptoms associated with a sprain are the cardinal signs of a sprain.

*Inflammation

*Localized pain

*Swelling

*Loss of function

*Loss of normal limb function

*Elasticity of ligament decrease

Joints involved:
Although any joint can experience a sprain, some of the more common include:

*The ankle. It is the most common, and has been said that sprains such as serious ankle sprains are more painful and take longer to heal than actually breaking the bones in that area. See ->sprained ankle for more details.

.

*The knee. Perhaps one of the more talked about sprains is that to the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) of the knee. This is a disabling sprain common to athletes, especially in basketball, football, and judo. See Anterior cruciate ligament injury.

*The fingers.

*The wrist.

*The toes.

Risk factors:
Factors contributing to sprains and strains include:

*Poor conditioning. Lack of conditioning can leave your muscles weak and more likely to sustain injury.

*Poor technique. The way you land from a jump — for example, when skiing or practicing martial arts — may affect your risk of injury to a ligament in your knee called the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). Past research has shown that landing with an inward rotation at the knee (“knock-kneed” position) can predispose you to an ACL sprain.

*Fatigue. Tired muscles are less likely to provide good support for your joints. When you’re tired, you’re also more likely to succumb to forces that could stress a joint or overextend a muscle.

*Improper warm-up. Properly warming up before vigorous physical activity loosens your muscles and increases joint range of motion, making the muscles less tight and less prone to trauma and tears.

Treatment:
The first modality for a sprain can be remembered using the acronym R.I.C.E.

*Rest: The sprain should be rested. No additional force should be applied on site of the sprain. If, for example, the sprain were an ankle sprain, then walking should be kept to a minimum.

*Ice: Ice should be applied immediately to the sprain to minimize swelling and ease pain. It can be applied for 20-30 minutes at a time, 3-4 times a day. Ice can be combined with a wrapping to minimize swelling and provide support.

*Compression: Dressings, bandages, or ace-wraps should be used to immobilize the sprain and provide support.

*Elevation: Keeping the sprained joint elevated above heart level will also help to minimize swelling.

*Ice and compression (cold compression therapy) will not completely stop swelling and pain, but will help to minimize them as the sprain begins to heal itself. Careful management of swelling is critical to the healing process as additional fluid may pool in the sprained area.

Click to see :
->Sprain: First aid

Prevention:
Sprains can best be prevented by proper use of safety equipment (wrist, ankle guards), warm-ups and cool-downs (including stretching), being aware of your surroundings and maintaining strength and flexibility. Physical conditioning is the best way to avoid or lessen the degree of sprains.

Lifestyle and home remedies:
For immediate self-care of a sprain or strain, try the P.R.I.C.E. approach — protection, rest, ice, compression, elevation. In most cases beyond a minor strain or sprain, you’ll want your doctor and physical therapist to help you with this process:

*Protection. Immobilize the area to protect it from further injury. Use an elastic wrap, splint or sling to immobilize the area. If your injury is severe, your doctor or therapist may place a cast or brace around the affected area to protect it and instruct you on how to use a cane or crutches to help you get around, if necessary.

*Rest. Avoid activities that cause pain, swelling or discomfort. But don’t avoid all physical activity. Instead, give yourself relative rest. For example, with an ankle sprain you can usually still exercise other muscles to prevent deconditioning. For example, you could use an exercise bicycle, working both your arms and the uninjured leg while resting the injured ankle on a footrest peg. That way you still exercise three limbs and keep up your cardiovascular conditioning.

*Ice. Even if you’re seeking medical help, ice the area immediately. Use an ice pack or slush bath of ice and water for 15 to 20 minutes each time and repeat every two to three hours while you’re awake for the first few days following the injury. Cold reduces pain, swelling and inflammation in injured muscles, joints and connective tissues. It also may slow bleeding if a tear has occurred. If the area turns white, stop treatment immediately. This could indicate frostbite. If you have vascular disease, diabetes or decreased sensation, talk with your doctor before applying ice.

*Compression. To help stop swelling, compress the area with an elastic bandage until the swelling stops. Don’t wrap it too tightly or you may hinder circulation. Begin wrapping at the end farthest from your heart. Loosen the wrap if the pain increases, the area becomes numb or swelling is occurring below the wrapped area.

*Elevation. To reduce swelling, elevate the injured area above the level of your heart, especially at night. Gravity helps reduce swelling by draining excess fluid.

*Continue with P.R.I.C.E. treatment for as long as it helps you recover. Over-the-counter pain medications such as ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin, others) and acetaminophen (Tylenol, others) also can be helpful. If you want to apply heat to the injured area, wait until most of the swelling has subsided.

After the first two days, gently begin to use the injured area. You should see a gradual, progressive improvement in the joint’s ability to support your weight or your ability to move without pain.

Mild and moderate sprains usually heal in three to six weeks. If pain, swelling or instability persists, see your doctor. A physical therapist can help you to maximize stability and strength of the injured joint or limb.

Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.This is purely for educational purpose

Resources:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sprain
MayoClinic.com

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Ailmemts & Remedies

Bone Fracture

DEFINITION:-
If more pressure is put on a bone than it can stand, it will split or break. A break of any size is called a fracture. If the broken bone punctures the skin, it is called an open fracture (compound fracture)….>…..click & see

A stress fracture .>....(click & see)...is a hairline crack ->. (click & see).….in the bone that develops because of repeated or prolonged forces against the bone.

A bone fracture (sometimes abbreviated FRX or Fx or Fx) is a medical condition in which a bone is cracked or broken. It is a break in the continuity of the bone. While many fractures are the result of high force impact or stress, bone fracture can also occur as a result of certain medical conditions that weaken the bones, such as osteoporosis, certain types of cancer or osteogenesis imperfecta. Although fractures are commonly referred to as bone breaks, the word break is not part of formal orthopaedic terminology.

Fractures, broken bones–you can call it what you wish, it means the same thing–are among the most common orthopedic problems, about 6.8 million come to medical attention each year in the United States. The average citizen in a developed country can expect to sustain two fractures over the course of their lifetime.

Fractures happen because an area of bone is not able to support the energy placed on it (quite obvious, but it becomes more complicated). Therefore, there are two critical factors in determining why a fracture occurs:

*the energy of the event

*the strength of the bone

The energy can being acute, high-energy (e.g. car crash), or chronic, low-energy (e.g. stress fracture). The bone strength can either be normal or decreased (e.g. osteoporosis). A very simple problem, the broken bone, just became a whole lot more complicated!

Different Types of Fractures:-
A doctor may be able to tell whether a bone is broken simply by looking at the injured area. But the doctor will order an X-ray to confirm the fracture and determine what type it is.

Reassure your child that, with a little patience and cooperation, getting an X-ray to look at the broken bone won’t take long. Then, he or she will be well on the way to getting a cool — maybe even colorful — cast that every friend can sign.

For little ones who may be scared about getting an X-ray, it might help to explain the process like this: “X-rays don’t hurt.

……....CLICK & SEE

Doctors use a special machine to take a picture to look at the inside of your body. When the picture comes out, it won’t look like the ones in your photo album, but doctors know how to look at these pictures to see things like broken bones.”However, a fracture through the growing part of a child’s bone (called the growth plate) may not show up on X-ray. If this type of fracture is suspected, the doctor will treat it even if the X-ray doesn’t show a break.

You may click to see the different pictures of broken bones

Children’s bones are more likely to bend than break completely because they’re softer. Fracture types that are more common in kids include:

*buckle or torus fracture: one side of the bone bends, raising a little buckle, without breaking the other side

*greenstick fracture: a partial fracture in which one side of the bone is broken and the other side bends (this fracture resembles what would happen if you tried to break a green stick)

Mature bones are more likely to break completely. A stronger force will also result in a complete fracture of younger bones.

A complete fracture may be a:

*closed fracture: a fracture that doesn’t break the skin

*open (or compound) fracture: a fracture in which the ends of the broken bone break through the skin (these have an increased risk of infection)

*non-displaced fracture: a fracture in which the pieces on either side of the break line up

*displaced fracture: a fracture in which the pieces on either side of the break are out of line (which might require surgery to make sure the bones are properly aligned before casting)

Other common fracture terms include:

*hairline fracture: a thin break in the bone
*single fracture: the bone is broken in one place
*segmental: the bone is broken in two or more places in the same bone
*comminuted fracture: the bone is broken into more than two pieces or crushed

CAUSES:-
The following are common causes of broken bones:

*Fall from a height

*Motor vehicle accidents

*Direct blow

*Child abuse

*Repetitive forces, such as those caused by running, can cause stress fractures of the foot, ankle, tibia, or hip

In children:-
In children, whose bones are still developing, there are risks of either a growth plate injury or a greenstick fracture.

*A greenstick fracture occurs because the bone is not as brittle as it would be in an adult, and thus does not completely fracture, but rather exhibits bowing without complete disruption of the bone’s cortex.

*Growth plate injuries, as in Salter-Harris fractures, require careful treatment and accurate reduction to make sure that the bone continues to grow normally.

*Plastic deformation of the bone, in which the bone permanently bends but does not break, is also possible in children. These injuries may require an osteotomy (bone cut) to realign the bone if it is fixed and cannot be realigned by closed methods.

SYMPTOMS:

*A visibly out-of-place or misshapen limb or joint

*Swelling, bruising, or bleeding

*Intense pain

*Numbness and tingling

*Broken skin with bone protruding

*Limited mobility or inability to move a limb

TREATMENT:-
FIRST AID :

*Check the person’s airway and breathing. If necessary, call 911 and begin rescue breathing, CPR, or bleeding control.Keep the person still and calm.

*Examine the person closely for other injuries.

*In most cases, if medical help responds quickly, allow the medical personnel to take further action.

*If the skin is broken, it should be treated immediately to prevent infection. Don’t breathe on the wound or probe it. If possible, lightly rinse the wound to remove visible dirt or other contamination, but do not vigorously scrub or flush the wound. Cover with sterile dressings.

*If needed, immobilize the broken bone with a splint or sling. Possible splints include a rolled up newspaper or strips of wood. Immobilize the area both above and below the injured bone.

*Apply ice packs to reduce pain and swelling.

*Take steps to prevent shock. Lay the person flat, elevate the feet about 12 inches above the head, and cover the person with a coat or blanket. However, DO NOT move the person if a head, neck, or back injury is suspected.

CHECK BLOOD CIRCULATION:-
Check the person’s blood circulation. Press firmly over the skin beyond the fracture site. (For example, if the fracture is in the leg, press on the foot). It should first blanch white and then “pink up” in about two seconds. Other signs that circulation is inadequate include pale or blue skin, numbness or tingling, and loss of pulse. If circulation is poor and trained personnel are NOT quickly available, try to realign the limb into a normal resting position. This will reduce swelling, pain, and damage to the tissues from lack of blood.

TREAT BLEEDING:-
*Place a dry, clean cloth over the wound to dress it.

*If the bleeding continues, apply direct pressure to the site of bleeding. DO NOT apply a tourniquet to the extremity to stop

the bleeding unless it is life-threatening.

DO NOT:-
*DO NOT move the person unless the broken bone is stable.

*DO NOT move a person with an injured hip, pelvis, or upper leg unless it is absolutely necessary. If you must move the

person, pull the person to safety by his clothes (such as by the shoulders of a shirt, a belt, or pant-legs).

*DO NOT move a person who has a possible spine injury.

*DO NOT attempt to straighten a bone or change its position unless blood circulation appears hampered.

*DO NOT try to reposition a suspected spine injury.

*DO NOT test a bone’s ability to move.

Call immediately for emergency medical assistance if:
Call 911 if:

*There is a suspected broken bone in the head, neck, or back.

*There is a suspected broken bone in the hip, pelvis, or upper leg.

*You cannot completely immobilize the injury at the scene by yourself.

*There is severe bleeding.

*An area below the injured joint is pale, cold, clammy, or blue.

*There is a bone projecting through the skin.

Even though other broken bones may not be medical emergencies, they still deserve medical attention. Call your health care  provider to find out where and when to be seen.

If a young child refuses to put weight on an arm or leg after an accident, won’t move the arm or leg, or you can clearly see a deformity, assume the child has a broken bone and get medical help.

First aid for fractures includes stabilizing the break with a splint in order to prevent movement of the injured part, which could sever blood vessels and cause further tissue damage. Waxed cardboard splints are inexpensive, lightweight, waterproof and strong. Compound fractures are treated as open wounds in addition to fractures.

At the hospital, closed fractures are diagnosed by taking an X-ray photograph of the injury.

Since bone healing is a natural process which will most often occur, fracture treatment aims to ensure the best possible function of the injured part after healing. Bone fractures are typically treated by restoring the fractured pieces of bone to their natural positions (if necessary), and maintaining those positions while the bone heals. To put them back into the natural positions, the doctor often “snaps” the bones back into place. This process is extremely painful without anesthesia, about as painful as breaking the bone itself. To this end, a fractured limb is usually immobilized with a plaster or fiberglass cast which holds the bones in position and immobilizes the joints above and below the fracture. If being treated with surgery, surgical nails, screws, plates and wires are used to hold the fractured bone together more directly. Alternatively, fractured bones may be treated by the Ilizarov method which is a form of external fixator.

Occasionally smaller bones, such as toes, may be treated without the cast, by buddy wrapping them, which serves a similar function to making a cast. By allowing only limited movement, fixation helps preserve anatomical alignment while enabling callus formation, towards the target of achieving union.

Surgical methods of treating fractures have their own risks and benefits, but usually surgery is done only if conservative treatment has failed or is very likely to fail. With some fractures such as hip fractures (usually caused by osteoporosis or Osteogenesis Imperfecta), surgery is offered routinely, because the complications of non-operative treatment include deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism, which are more dangerous than surgery. When a joint surface is damaged by a fracture, surgery is also commonly recommended to make an accurate anatomical reduction and restore the smoothness of the joint. Infection is especially dangerous in bones, due to their limited blood flow. Bone tissue is predominantly extracellular matrix, rather than living cells, and the few blood vessels needed to support this low metabolism are only able to bring a limited number of immune cells to an injury to fight infection. For this reason, open fractures and osteotomies call for very careful antiseptic procedures and prophylactic antibiotics.
Sometimes bones are reinforced with metal, but these fracture implants must be designed and installed with care. Stress shielding occurs when plates or screws carry too large of a portion of the bone’s load, causing atrophy. This problem is reduced, but not eliminated, by the use of low-modulus materials, including titanium and its alloys. The heat generated by the friction of installing hardware can easily accumulate and damage bone tissue, reducing the strength of the connections. If dissimilar metals are installed in contact with one another (i.e., a titanium plate with cobalt-chromium alloy or stainless steel screws), galvanic corrosion will result. The metal ions produced can damage the bone locally and may cause systemic effects as well.

Herbal Treatment For Bone Broken for quicker bone groth & healing:-

By eating garlic buds, frying it in ghee joins the broken bone and releives the fracture pain. Eat Agar Agar – sea weed boiled with water. Eat the powder of Vajiram – Pirandai.

Prevention:
*Wear protective gear while skiing, biking, roller blading, and participating in contact sports. This includes helmets, elbow pads, knee pads, and shin pads.

*Create a safe home for young children. Gate stairways and keep windows closed.

*Teach children how to be safe and look out for themselves.

*Supervise children carefully. There is no substitute for supervision, no matter how safe the environment or situation appears to be.

*Prevent falls by not standing on chairs, counter tops, or other unstable objects. Remove throw rugs and electrical cords from floor surfaces. Use handrails on staircases and non-skid mats in bathtubs. These steps are especially important for the elderly.

Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.This is purely for educational purpose.

Resources:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bone_fracture
http://www.herbalking.in/diseases_b.htm#bonebroken
http://orthopedics.about.com/cs/otherfractures/a/fracture.htm
http://kidshealth.org/parent/general/aches/broken_bones.html

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Categories
Ailmemts & Remedies

Injuries in Toe, Foot, and Ankle

The mucous sheaths of the tendons around the a...
The mucous sheaths of the tendons around the ankle. Lateral aspect. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

At one time or another, everyone has had a minor toe, foot, or ankle injury that caused pain or swelling. Most of the time our body movements do not cause problems, but it’s not surprising that symptoms develop from everyday wear and tear, overuse, or an injury. Toe, foot, or ankle injuries most commonlyoccur during:

You may click to see the picture

*Sports or recreational activities.
*Work-related tasks.
*Work or projects around the home.

In children, most toe, foot, or ankle injuries occur during sports or play or accidental falls. The risk for injury is higher in sports with jumping, such as basketball, or sports with quick direction change, such as soccer or football. Any bone injury near a joint may injure the growth plate (physis) in a child and needs to be evaluated.

Certain athletes, such as dancers, gymnasts, or soccer or basketball players, have an increased risk of toe, foot, or ankle injuries.

Older adults are at higher risk for injuries and fractures because they lose muscle mass and bone strength (osteopenia) as they age. They also have more problems with vision and balance, which increases their risk for accidental injury.

Most minor injuries will heal on their own, and home treatment is usually all that is needed to relieve your symptoms and promote healing.

Sudden (acute) injury

An acute injury may occur from a direct blow, a penetrating injury, a fall, or from twisting, jerking, jamming, or bending a limb abnormally. Your pain may be sudden and severe. Bruising and swelling may develop soon after your injury. Acute injuries include:

*Bruises. After an ankle injury, bruising may extend to your toes from the effects of gravity.

See a illustration of a bruise (contusion)->

*Injuries to ligaments that support your joints. See an illustration of a ligament tear……

*Injuries to tendons, such as ruptured tendons in your heel (Achilles tendon). Young boys between 8 and 14 years old may have a condition known as Sever’s disease, which causes injury to the growing bone where the Achilles tendon is attached. This usually occurs during activity and is relieved with home treatment……

*Injuries to your joints (sprains). If a sprain does not appear to be healing, a condition known as osteochondritis dissecans may be present, causing persistent symptoms. See an illustration of a sprained ankle…….

*Pulled muscles (strains). Muscles of the foot and ankle can be strained and can also rupture.

*Broken bones (fractures), such as a broken toe.

*A bone moving out of place (dislocation).

*A crushing injury, which can lead to compartment syndrome.

Overuse injuries:

Overuse injuries occur when too much stress is placed on your joint or other tissue, often by “overdoing” an activity or repeating the same activity over and over. Overuse injuries include:

*Retrocalcaneal bursitis, which is inflammation of the bursa. This condition causes swelling and tenderness of the heel. Pain usually worsens while wearing shoes and during activity and improves during rest. See an illustration of the back of the heel and ankle.

*Achilles tendinitis or tendinosis (tendinopathy), which is the breakdown of soft tissues in and around the Achilles tendon that connects the calf muscles to the heel bone.

*Stress fracture, which is a hairline crack in a bone. See an illustration of stress fractures of the foot.
Plantar fasciitis, which is an inflammation of the plantar fascia, a broad, flat ligament on the bottom of the foot that extends from the front of the heel to the base of the toes and helps maintain the arch of the foot. See an illustration of the plantar fascia.

*Metatarsalgia, which is pain in the front (ball) of the foot. See an illustration of metatarsalgia.

Treatment:
Treatment for your toe, foot, or ankle injury may include first aid measures (such as the application of a brace, splint, or cast), a special shoe (orthotic device), physical therapy, medicine, and in some cases surgery. Treatment depends on:

*The location, type, and severity of your injury.

*When the injury occurred.

*Your age, your overall health condition, and your activities (such as work, sports, or hobbies)

Review the Emergencies and Check Your Symptoms sections to determine if and when you need to see a doctor.

Click for :->Emergency

>Prevention

>Home Treatment

Sources: MSN Health.

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