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Herbs & Plants

Iris tenax

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Botanical Name :  Iris tenax
Family: Iridaceae
Subfamily: Iridoideae
Tribe:     Irideae
Genus:     Iris
Subgenus: Limniris
Species: I. tenax
Kingdom: Plantae
Order:     Asparagales

Synonym: Iris Minor,  Iris  gormanii.

Common Names : Tough-leaved iris or Oregon iris, Klamath iris

Habitat: Iris tenax is native to southwestern Washington and northwestern Oregon.. It occurs along roadsides and in grasslands and forest openings at low to middle elevations. One subspecies is also known from northern California.

Description:
Iris tenax is a perennial herb growing to 0.3 m (1ft) by 0.6 m (2ft in).
It is not frost tender. It is in flower in May. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Insects.The plant is self-fertile.  Like most irises, it has large and showy flowers. The flowers bloom in mid to late spring and are usually lavender-blue to purple, but blooms in white, yellow, pink, and orchid shades are known to sometimes occur. The leaves are very slender for an iris, seldom over 5 mm broad; the plant is often mistaken for a type of grass when not in bloom. Its rhizomes spread slowly, causing the plant to grow in a tight clump.

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Its species name (tenax) means “tough” or “tenacious” and is in reference to the strong, fibrous leaves of the plant, which were used by indigenous peoples for braiding into snares and other cordage.

Cultivation:
Requires a really well-drained lime-free soil that is dry rather than damp[79, 233]. Succeeds in dry shade according to another report which also says that, once established, it is drought tolerant. Very easy to grow in a lime-free woodland soil. Succeeds in full sun or partial shade. A very ornamental plant. Hybridizes freely, especially with other Pacific Coast Irises. Iris tenax hybridizes with I. bracteata, I. chrysophylla, I. douglasiana, I. hartwegii, I. innominata, I. macrosiphon, I. purdyi, and I. tenuissima. Members of this genus are rarely if ever troubled by browsing deer or rabbits.

Propagation:
Seed – best sown as soon as it is ripe in a cold frame. Stored seed should be sown as early in the year as possible in a cold frame. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle and grow them on in the greenhouse or cold frame for their first year. Plant out into their permanent positions in late spring or early summer. Division, best done in early September after flowering but it can also be done in March. Very easy, larger clumps can be replanted direct into their permanent positions, though it is best to pot up smaller clumps and grow them on in a cold frame until they are rooting well. Plant them out in the spring.

Medicinal Uses:
A tincture of the whole plant, or of the bulbous stems, is given in bilious vomiting, and is recommended for depression.

Other Uses:
The American  Indians use the fibres of this plant for making ropes.

Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://www.botanical.com/botanical/mgmh/i/iriten10.html
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Iris_tenax

.http://www.pfaf.org/User/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Iris+tenax

 

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Herbs & Plants

Irises

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Botanical Name :Iris
Family: Iridaceae
Subfamily: Iridoideae
Tribe: Irideae
Genus: Iris
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Asparagales

Common Name :Flags or junos

Habitat: The plant is a native of Southern Europe, very frequent in Italy, apart from its cultivation there, and is also cultivated in Morocco. In England, this German Flag or Flag Iris is by far the commonest of the family in gardens and justly deserves its popularity, for it will grow and flower well in the most unpromising situations and will bear with apparent equanimity hardships that few other plants would endure without loss of vitality. It is not moisture-loving – ordinary border soil, well cultivated, suits it well and the heavy clay soils are more or less inimical to its growth. If the best results are to be obtained, deep and rich beds should be prepared for these Irises, for they will well repay liberal treatment by the production of larger and more numerous flowers. Although they may be moved at any time of the year, April is the best month. They will not flower the same year, but they will during the summer, if attended to, become sufficiently strong to bloom freely the succeeding year. Winter is the worst time to move them, as in heavy soil, the plants often remain dormant without forming a single root-fibre until the spring. But they are easily increased in spring by dividing the root-stocks and replanting and watering into rich soil.

The German Iris, or Flag Iris of the nurseryman as it now exists, is a compound of many species and more varieties, as hybridization has been extensively carried on for many years.

Description:
Iris is a genus of 260–300 species of flowering plants with showy flowers. They are perennial plants, growing from creeping rhizomes (rhizomatous irises) or, in drier climates, from bulbs (bulbous irises). They have long, erect flowering stems which may be simple or branched, solid or hollow, and flattened or have a circular cross-section. The rhizomatous species usually have 3–10 basal sword-shaped leaves growing in dense clumps. The bulbous species have cylindrical, basal leaves. CLICK & SEE

Flower:-
The inflorescences are fan-shaped and contain one or more symmetrical six-lobed flowers. These grow on a pedicel or lack a footstalk. The three sepals, which are spreading or droop downwards, are referred to as “falls”. They expand from their narrow base, which in some of the rhizomatous irises has a “beard” (a tuft of short upright extensions growing in its midline), into a broader expanded portion (“limb”), often adorned with veining, lines or dots. The three, sometimes reduced, petals stand upright, partly behind the sepal bases. They are called “standards”. Some smaller iris species have all six lobes pointing straight outwards, but generally limb and standards differ markedly in appearance. They are united at their base into a floral tube that lies above the ovary (known as an epigynous or inferior ovary). The styles divide towards the apex into petaloid branches; this is significant in pollination.

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The iris flower is of interest as an example of the relation between flowering plants and pollinating insects. The shape of the flower and the position of the pollen-receiving and stigmatic surfaces on the outer petals form a landing-stage for a flying insect, which in probing for nectar, will first come into contact with the perianth, then with the stigmatic stamens in one whorled surface which is borne on an ovary formed of three carpels. The shelf-like transverse projection on the inner whorled underside of the stamens is beneath the overarching style arm below the stigma, so that the insect comes in contact with its pollen-covered surface only after passing the stigma; in backing out of the flower it will come in contact only with the non-receptive lower face of the stigma. Thus, an insect bearing pollen from one flower will, in entering a second, deposit the pollen on the stigma; in backing out of a flower, the pollen which it bears will not be rubbed off on the stigma of the same flower.

The iris fruit is a capsule which opens up in three parts to reveal the numerous seeds within. In some species, these bear an aril.

Medicinal and  other uses:

Constituents:The chief constituent of Orris root is the oil of Orris 0.1 to 0.2 per cent), a yellowish-white to yellow mass, containing about 85 per cent of odourless myristic acid, which appears to be liberated from a fat present in the rhizome during the process of steam distillation. Oil of Orris is known commercially as Orris Butter.

Other constituents are fat, resin, a large quantity of starch, mucilage, bitter extractive and a glucoside named Iridin, which is not to be confused with the powdered extracti Iridin or Irisin, prepared from the rhizome of the American plant I. versicolor, by precipitating a tincture of the drug with water and mixing the precipitate with an equal weight of powdered liquorice root, or other absorbent powder.

The odorous constituent of oil of Orris is a liquid ketone named Irone, to which the violet-like odour is due (though it is not absolutely identical with oil of Violets obtained from the natural flower), and it is the presence of this principle in the rhizome that has long led to the employment of powdered Orris root in the preparation of Violet powders, which owe very little of their scent to the real Violet perfume. It was first isolated by the eminent chemist Tiemann and formed the basis of his researches on artificial Violet perfume, and in 1893 he succeeded in preparing an allied body, which was termed Ionone and which had an odour even more like that of Violets than had Irone, and is now largely manufactured for the perfumery trade in making toilet waters and handkerchief extracts. The discovery of Ionone, which costs about one-eighth of the natural oil of Violets, has popularized Violet perfume to an enormous extent: most of the cheaper Violet perfumes on the market contain no trace of true Violet, but are made entirely with the artificial Ionone.

Otto of Orris is a golden-yellow oily liquid, which contains the odorous principles of the concrete oil of the rhizome without the solid, fatty inodorous constituents.

The important industry of Orris root still requires the light of scientific research to be thrown upon the life history of the plant to determine the conditions under which the largest percentage of the volatile oil can be developed.

Orris Root is rarely employed in medicine at the present time.

The fresh root possesses diuretic, emetic and cathartic properties. If given in large doses, it will occasion nausea, vomiting, purging and colic.

The drug was formerly employed in the treatment of bronchitis and chronic diarrhoea, and was considered a useful remedy in dropsy. The internal dose is stated to be from 5 to 15 grains.

The starch of the rhizome was formerly reckoned medicinal.

The dried powder is said to act as a good snuff, useful to excite sneezing to relieve cases of congested headache.

Pieces of the dried root are occasionally chewed for the purpose of overcoming a disagreeable breath.

The principal use of the dried root is, however, in perfumery, in sachet powders and to flavour dentifrices, toothpowders and cachous.

Oil of Orris, obtained by distilling powdered Orris root with steam, has an intense and extremely delicate odour of the fresh Violet and commands a high price. It is used commercially in the preparation of the finest scents and is also blended with artificial Violet perfumes, the odour of which it renders more subtle. Orris has the power of strengthening the odour of other fragrant bodies and is used as a fixative in perfumery.

Powdered Orris root is sometimes put into rinsing water in laundries and imparts a refreshing and fragrant scent to the linen.

Orris root, mixed with Anise, was used in England as a perfume for linen as early as 1480, under which date it is mentioned in the Wardrobe accounts of Edward IV.

One of the most interesting of the MS. still-room books of the later seventeenth century is Mary Doggett: Her Book of Receipts, 1682. In it we find ‘A perfume for a sweet bagg,’ as follows:
‘Take half a pound of Cypress Roots, a pound of Orris, 3 quarter of a pound of Calamus, 3 Orange stick with Cloves, 2 ounces of Benjamin, 3 quarters of a pound of Rhodium, a pound of Coriander seed, and an ounce of Storax and 4 pecks of Damask Rose leaves, a peck of dryed sweet Marjerum, a pretty stick of Juniper shaved very thin, some lemon pele dryed and a stick of Brasill; let all these be powdered very grosely for ye first year and immediately put into your baggs; the next year pound and work it and it will be very good again.’

Dr. Rhind (History of the Vegetable Kingdom, 1868) states that Orris gives the peculiar flavour to artificial brandies made in this country, and the root is much used in Russia to flavour a drink made of honey and ginger which is sold in the streets.

The larger and finer roots are often turned into pretty forms to be used for ornamental purposes, rosary beads, etc., and long pieces of Verona Orris are often shaped for infants’ use when teething. The less handsome rhizomes, as well as the chips, are distilled.

Lyte says ‘the Iris is knowen of the clothworkers and drapers, for with these rootes they use to trimme their clothes to make them sweete and pleasant.’ This was probably the ‘swete clothe’ so celebrated in the reign of Elizabeth.

Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://www.botanical.com/botanical/mgmh/i/irises08.html#hab
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Iris_(plant)

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Herbs & Plants

Arisaema triphyllum

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Botanical Name : Arisaema triphyllum
Family: Araceae
Subfamily: Aroideae
Tribe: Arisaemateae
Genus: Arisaema
Species: A. triphyllum
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Alismatales

Common Names: Jack-in-the-Pulpit, Bog onion, Brown dragon, Indian turnip, Wake robin or Wild turnip

Habitat : Arisaema triphyllum is native to eastern North America, occurring in moist woodlands and thickets from Nova Scotia west to Minnesota, and south to southern Florida.

Description:
Arisaema triphyllum is a highly variable species typically growing from 30 to 65 cm in height with three parted leaves and flowers contained in a spadix that is covered by a hood.
The leaves are trifoliate, with groups of three leaves growing together at the top of one long stem produced from a corm; each leaflet is 8-15 cm long and 3-7 cm broad. Plants are sometimes confused with Poison-ivy especially before the flowers appear or non-flowering plants. The inflorescences are shaped irregularly and grow to a length of up to 8 cm long. They are greenish-yellow with purple or brownish stripes. The spathe, known in this plant as “the pulpit” wraps around and covers over and contain a spadix (“Jack”), covered with tiny flowers of both sexes. The flowers are unisexual, in small plants most if not all the flowers are male, as plants age and grow larger the spadix produces more female flowers. This species flowers from April to June. It is pollinated by flies, which it attracts using heat and smell. The fruit are smooth, shiny green, 1 cm wide berries clustered on the thickened spadix. The fruits ripen in late summer and fall, turning a bright red color before the plants go dormant. Each berry produces 1 to 5 seeds typically, the seeds are white to light tan in color, rounded, often with flattened edges and a short sharp point at the top and a rounded bottom surface. If the seeds are freed from the berry they will germinate the next spring, producing a plant with a single rounded leaf. Seedlings need three or more years of growth before they become large enough to flower. In addition the plant is not self pollinating since the male flowers on a specific plant have already matured and died before the female flowers of that same plant are mature. So the female flowers need to be pollinated by the male flowers of a different plant. This inhibits inbreeding and contributes to the health of the species.
CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES

It is hardy to USDA plant hardiness zone 3.

Edible Uses:
If the plant is properly dried or cooked it can be eaten as a root vegetable.

Chemical constituents::
The plant contains calcium oxalate crystals as raphides in all parts, and because of this consumption of the raw plant material results in a powerful burning sensation. It can cause irritation of the mouth and digestive system, and on rare occasions the swelling of the mouth and throat may be severe enough to affect breathing.

Medicinal uses:
A preparation of the root was reported to have been used by Native Americans as a treatment for sore eyes. Preparations were also made to treat rheumatism, bronchitis, and snakebites, as well as to induce sterility.

Warning:
The oxalic acid in jack in the pulpit is poisonous if ingested. Care should also be taken to avoid confusion with poison ivy, which has 3 leaflets somewhat similar in appearance.

Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arisaema_triphyllum
http://www.herbnet.com/Herb%20Uses_IJK.htm

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Iris Pseudacorus

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Botanical Name :  Iris Pseudacorus
Family: Iridaceae
Subfamily: Iridoideae
Tribe: Irideae
Genus: Iris
Subgenus: Limniris
Section: Limniris
Species: I. pseudacorus
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Asparagales

Synonyms: Iris Aquatica. Iris lutia. Yellow Flag. Yellow Iris. Fleur de Luce. Dragon Flower. Myrtle Flower. Fliggers. Flaggon. Segg. Sheggs. Daggers. Jacob’s Sword. Gladyne. Meklin. Levers. Livers. Shalder.

Common Names:Yellow iris , Yellow flag,  Paleyellow iris

Habitat :
Iris psudacoru  is native to  Europe, including Britain, from Norway south and east to N. Africa the Caucasus and W. Asia.   It grows on damp marshy areas, swampy woods and in shallow water or wet ground on the edges of rivers and ditches. Often found in shady places.

Description:
It is a herbaceous perennial plant growing to 1-1.5 m (or a rare 2 m) tall, with erect leaves up to 90 cm long and 3 cm broad. The flowers are bright yellow, 7-10 cm across, with the typical iris form. The fruit is a dry capsule 4-7 cm long, containing numerous pale brown seeds.

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Iris pseudacorus grows best in very wet conditions, and is often common in wetlands, where it tolerates submersion, low pH, and anoxic soils. The plant spreads quickly, by both rhizome and water-dispersed seed. It fills a similar niche to that of Typha and often grows with it, though usually in less deep water. While it is primarily an aquatic plant, the rhizomes can survive prolonged dry conditions. Yellow iris has been used as a form of water treatment since it has the ability to take up heavy metals through its roots.

Large iris stands in western Scotland form a very important feeding and breeding habitat for the endangered Corn Crake.

I. pseudacorus is one of two Iris species native to Britain, the other being Stinking Iris (Iris foetidissima).

Cultivation :
. Prefers a humus rich soil. Succeeds in water up to 15cm deep. Requires a moist soil, especially in early summer. Prefers a position in semi-shade. Plants can be grown in quite coarse grass, which can be cut annually in the autumn. A delicately scented essential oil is obtained from the dried roots. Members of this genus are rarely if ever troubled by browsing deer or rabbits. Some named forms have been selected for their ornamental value. Special Features: Attractive foliage, Not North American native, Invasive, Naturalizing, All or parts of this plant are poisonous, Wetlands plant, Attracts butterflies, Suitable for cut flowers.

Propagation :
Seed – best sown as soon as it is ripe in a cold frame. Stored seed should be sown as early in the year as possible in a cold frame. A period of cold stratification improves germination time and rates. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle and grow them on in the greenhouse or cold frame for their first year. Plant out into their permanent positions in late spring or early summer. Division in March or October. Early autumn is best. Very easy, larger clumps can be replanted direct into their permanent positions, though it is best to pot up smaller clumps and grow them on in a cold frame until they are rooting well. Plant them out in the spring.

Edible Uses: …..Coffee……The seed is said to make an excellent coffee substitute as long as it is well roasted. Caution is advised, it might be poisonous.

Medicinal Action and Uses:
The Yellow Flag rhizome was formerly much employed as a medicine, acting as a very powerful cathartic, but from its extremely acrid nature is now seldom used. An infusion of it has been found to be effective in checking diarrhoea, and it is reputed of value in dysmenorrhoea and leucorrhoea.

It was formerly held in the highest esteem, the juice of the root being considered a cure for obstinate coughs, ‘evil spleens,’ convulsions, dropsies and serpents’ bites, and as Gerard also says, ‘doth mightilie and vehementlie draw forth choler.’ Gerard recommended it as a cosmetic, saying:
‘The root, boiled soft, with a few drops of rosewater upon it, laid plaisterwise upon the face of man or woman, doth in two daies at the most take away the blacknesse and blewnesse of any stroke or bruise,’
though he adds as a warning that if the skin
‘be very tender and delicate, it shall be needful that ye lay a piece of silke, sindall or a piece of fine lawne betweene the plaister and the skinne for otherwise in such tender bodies it often causeth heat and inflammation.’

Yellow flag was once credited with healing properties it did not actually have it was used as a diuretic, purgative and emetic. It has also been recommended for making a cooling astringent lotion for external application, and is reputedly effective when applied to wounds. A tea prepared from the rhizome (underground stem) was once used as a remedy for certain gynecological complaints, but is no longer recommended. A lotion made from the juice of the fresh rhizome is sometimes recommended by herbalists for wounds. Pharmacologists report that there is some evidence that yellow flag shows anti-inflammatory activity. A slice of the root held against an aching tooth is said to bring immediate relief. It was at one time widely used as a powerful cathartic but is seldom used nowadays because of its extremely acrid nature. When dried the root loses its acridity and then only acts as an astringent. A tincture of the rhizome is used in homeopathy.

He recommends:
‘an oil made of the roots and flowers of the Iris, made in the same way as oil of roses and lilies. It is used to rub in the sinews and joints to strengthen them, and is good for cramp.’
Parkinson, of all the varieties, most esteems ‘for his excellent beautie and raretie the great Turkie Flower de luce.’

‘And for a sweet powder to lay among linnen and garments and to make sweet waters to wash hand-gloves or other things to perfume them’ the roots of the sweetsmelling Flag.
The acrid juice snuffed up the nostrils excites violent sneezing, and on the authority of Dr. Thornton, ‘in this way it has cured complaints of the head of long standing in a marvellous way.’ The root powdered was also used as snuff.
The old authorities praised it as a cure for toothache, a slice of the rhizome rubbed against the aching tooth or held in the mouth between the teeth, being supposed to cause the pain to disappear at once.

The root was also an ingredient in an antidote to poison. Withering (Arrangement of Plants) mentions it as having cured swine bitten by a mad dog.

Culpepper (1652) says that the distilled water of the whole herb is a sovereign remedy for weak eyes, either applied on a wet bandage, or dropped into the eye, and that an ointment made of the flowers is very good for ulcers or swellings.

Other Uses: …....Dye; Essential; Ink; Tannin……..A beautiful yellow dye is obtained from the flowers. A good black dye is obtained from the root if it is mixed with iron sulphate. It is brown otherwise. The root is a source of tannin and has been used in making ink. A delicately scented essential oil, obtained from the roots, has been used to adulterate the oil of Acorus calamus

The flowers afford a beautiful yellow dye, and the root, with sulphate of iron, a good black dye.

The acrid properties are entirely dissipated by drying, after which it acts only as an astringent, so powerful from the amount of tannin contained, that it has been used in the place of Galls in the making of ink.

Landscape Uses    :Container, Specimen

Known Hazards:
Iris psudacorus is poisonous. Even when dry it causes gastroenteritis in cattle (Sutherland 1990). This plant is listed as an injurious weed in Nevada. Care should be taken when pulling or digging yellow iris because resinous substances in the leaves and rhizomes can cause skin irritation (Cooper and Johnson 1984). Mechanical removal in sensitive areas, such as shallow stream beds, can be expected to cause extensive disturbance to the substrate and permit the establishment of other unwanted plants. Cutting followed by herbicide (glyphosate) treatment with a dripless wick may be the best method for controlling plants in sensitive sites, such as the Frio River.

Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Iris_pseudacorus
http://nas.er.usgs.gov/taxgroup/plants/docs/ir_pseud.html
http://botanical.com/botanical/mgmh/i/iripse09.html
http://nas.er.usgs.gov/taxgroup/plants/docs/ir_pseud.html

http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Iris+pseudacorus

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Herbs & Plants

Iris setosa

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Botanical Name : Iris setosa
Family: Iridaceae
Subfamily: Iridoideae
Tribe: Irideae
Genus: Iris
Subgenus: Limniris
Series: Tripetalae
Species: Iris setosa
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Asparagales

Common Name: Iris, Beachhead,Beachhead iris, Beach-head iris, Wild flag iris, Alaska iris

Habitat : Native to USA.  It’s range is from the Arctic sea, including Alaska, Maine, Canada (including British Columbia, Newfoundland, Quebec and Yukon), Russia (including Siberia), northeastern Asia, China, Korea and southwards to Japan. It grows in moist ground on rocky shores, beachheads and headlands on the coastal plain.

Description:
These are vigorous Perennial plants with strong, sword-like foliage about 2 ft. in height.  It has tall branching stems, mid green leaves and violet, purple-blue, violet-blue, blue, to lavender flowers. There are also pink and white forms. It is one of the three Iris species in the Iris flower data set outlined by Ronald Fisher in his 1936 paper “The use of multiple measurements in taxonomic problems” as an example of linear discriminant analysis.

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CLICK TO SEE THE PICTURES

A member of the iris family (family Iridaceae) which consists of herbs growing from rhizomes, bulbs, or corms, with narrow basal leaves and showy clusters at the tips of long stalks. There are about 60 genera and 1,500 species, distributed in temperate and tropical regions. Among them, Iris, Freesia, Gladiolus, Bugle Lily, and Montbretia are popular ornamentals. Saffron dye is obtained from Crocus, and essence of violets, used in perfumes, is extracted from the rhizomes of Iris.

Iris setosa has a deep White , Blue , Purple   flower, bloom during May, June.. The sepals are deeply-veined dark purple with a yellow-white signal. The petals are very reduced in size, not exceeding the base of the sepals. Beachhead iris flowers in late spring, on a one flowered inflorescence. The leaves are stiff, narrow and green, with a purplish tinged base. The leaves are up to 12 inches high. The leaves arise from shallowly rooted, large, branching rhizomes forming clumps.

Cultivation:
Prefers a well-drained moist soil but succeeds in most soils. Dislikes lime and dry soils. The form from N. Hokkaido does not require an acid soil. Cultivated for its edible root in Japan. Many named forms have been selected for their ornamental value. Members of this genus are rarely if ever troubled by browsing deer or rabbits. Special Features:Attractive foliage, North American native, Naturalizing, All or parts of this plant are poisonous, Suitable for cut flowers.
Propagation:
Seed – best sown as soon as it is ripe in a cold frame. Stored seed should be sown as early in the year as possible in a cold frame. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle and grow them on in the greenhouse or cold frame for their first year. Plant out into their permanent positions in late spring or early summer. Division, best done in September after flowering. Very easy, larger clumps can be replanted direct into their permanent positions, though it is best to pot up smaller clumps and grow them on in a cold frame until they are rooting well. Plant them out in the spring

Edible Uses: ....Coffee………Root -….Some Inuit tribes in Alaska also roasted and ground the seeds of the iris to be used as a coffee substitute.. Caution is advised, see the notes above on toxicity. Roasted and ground seed is a coffee substitute.
Despite the toxicity of the root, it can be bounded into an edible starch that loses its poisonous when cooked. It is cultivated in Japan for its edible root.

Landscape Uses  :   Container, Massing, Specimen.

Medicinal Uses:
It is occasionally listed as a medicinal herb.  Herbalists have used the rhizome for centuries as an ingredient in various medicines, (similar to the usage of Orris roots). The Aleut (Alaskian eskimo tribe) also made a drink from the roots, to be used as a laxative,  but the Iñupiat considered the whole plant poisonous.  It is used to make a tincture, when used in small amounts to help sooth lymphatic swelling. It can be combined with arnica as an herbal oil to relieve bruises.

Other Uses:  ...Dye..……A dye is obtained from the petals, but the colour is not specified . The flower petals can be used to create a violet-blue dye, when it is used with a chrome mordant (or fixing agent). They are also were used as a grass dye for baskets.  The rhizomes can also be used to extract a perfume (similar to the essence of violets).

Known Hazards :Iris setosa is poisonous (all the plant). The rhizome contains iridin which is an oleoresin. This substance can affect the liver and digestive organs. It can cause allergic reactions such as severe rashes. It can also cause vomiting or diarrhoea.  It was used in an ingredient in a poison to put on arrowheads.

Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://www.wildflower.org/plants/result.php?id_plant=IRSE
http://www.fs.fed.us/wildflowers/beauty/iris/blueflag/iris_setosa.shtml
http://www.herbnet.com/Herb%20Uses_IJK.htm
http://www.oas.org/children/plants/Canada/Canada.html

http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Iris+setosa

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Iris_setosa

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