Tag Archives: Japanese knotweed

Jewelweed ( Impatiens )

Botanical Name: Impatiens aurea (MUHL.), Impatiens biflora (WALT.)
Family: Balsaminaceae
Genus: Impatiens
Kingdom: Planta
Order: Ericales

Synonyms: Wild Balsam. Balsam-weed. Impatiens pallida. Pale-touch-me-not. Spottedtouch-me-not. Slipperweed. Silverweed. Wild Lady’s Slipper. Speckled Jewels. Wild Celandine. Quick-in-the-hand.

Common Names: Impatiens, Jewelweed, Touch-me-not, Snapweed

Part Used: Herb.
Habitat: Members of the genus Impatiens are found widely distributed in the north temperate zone and in South Africa, but the majority are natives of the mountains of tropical Asia and Africa. It grows in lowlying, damp, rather rich soil, beside streams and in similar damp localities.
Description:
Some species are annual plants and produce flowers from early summer until the first frost, while perennial species, found in milder climates, can flower all year. Regardless of their lifespan, the largest impatiens grow up to about 2 meters (about 7 feet) tall, but most are less than half as tall. The stems somewhat translucent, the foliage showing a brilliant silvery surface when immersed in water, which will not adhere to the surface. The leaves are entire and shiny; their upperside has a thick, water-repellent cuticula that gives them a greasy feel. Particularly on the underside of the leaves, tiny air bubbles are trapped over and under the leaf surface, giving them a silvery sheen that becomes pronounced when they are held under water.They are thin, ovate oval, more or less toothed, of a tender green colour.

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The flowers, up to 2–3 cm, around 1 inch long, in most species are made up by a shoe- or horn-shaped spur for the most part, with at least the upper petals insignificant by comparison; some have a prominent labellum though, allowing pollinators to land. Others, like the busy lizzie (I. walleriana), have flattened flowers with large petals and just a tiny spur that appear somewhat similar to those of violets (Viola), an unrelated genus. A few Impatiens species have flowers intermediate between the two basic types.The oblong capsules of both species when ripe explode under the slightest disturbance, scattering the seeds widely. Most of the popular names refer to this peculiarity, others to the shape of the flowers.

The slipper-shaped, yellow flowers, in bloom from July to September, have long recurved tails, those of the first-named species being of a uniform pale-yellow, those of the second species, orange-yellow, crowded with dark spots, hence its common name of Spotted-touch-me-not.

Constituents: Impatiens contain 2-methoxy-1,4-naphthoquinone, an anti-inflammatory and fungicide naphthoquinone that is an active ingredient in some formulations of Preparation H.
Medicinal Uses:
North American impatiens have been used as herbal remedies for the treatment of bee stings, insect bites, and stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) rashes. They are also used after poison ivy (Toxicodendron radicans) contact to prevent a rash from developing. The efficacy of orange jewelweed (I. capensis) and yellow jewelweed (I. pallida) in preventing poison ivy contact dermatitis has been studied, with conflicting results. A study in 1958 found that Impatiens biflora was an effective alternative to standard treatment for dermatitis caused by contact with sumac, while later studies found that the species had no antipruritic effects after the rash has developed. Researchers reviewing these contradictions state that potential reason for these conflicts include the method of preparation and timing of application. A 2012 study found that while an extract of orange jewelweed and garden jewelweed (I. balsamina) was not effective in reducing contact dermatitis, a mash of the plants applied topically decreased it.

Impatiens glandulifera is one of the Bach flower remedies, flower extracts used as herbal remedies for physical and emotional problems. It is included in the “Rescue Remedy” or “Five Flower Remedy”, a potion touted as a treatment for acute anxiety and which is supposed to be protective in stressful situations. Studies have found no difference between the effect of the potion and that of a placebo.

All Impatiens taste bitter and seem to be slightly toxic upon ingestion, causing intestinal ailments like vomiting and diarrhea. The toxic compounds have not been identified but are probably the same as those responsible for the bitter taste, likely might be glycosides or alkaloids.

?-Parinaric acid, a polyunsaturated fatty acid discovered in the seeds of the makita tree (Atuna racemosa racemosa), is together with linolenic acid the predominant component of the seed fat of garden jewelweed (I. balsamina), and perhaps other species of Impatiens. This is interesting from a phylogenetic perspective, because the makita tree is a member of the Chrysobalanaceae in a lineage of eudicots entirely distinct from the balsams.

Certain jewelweeds, including the garden jewelweed contain the naphthoquinone lawsone, a dye that is also found in henna (Lawsonia inermis) and is also the hair coloring and skin coloring agent in mehndi. In ancient China, Impatiens petals mashed with rose and orchid petals and alum were used as nail polish: leaving the mixture on the nails for some hours colored them pink or reddish.

Impatiens has been listed as one of the 38 plants that are used to prepare Bach flower remedies, a kind of alternative medicine promoted for its effect on health. However according to Cancer Research UK, “there is no scientific evidence to prove that flower remedies can control, cure or prevent any type of disease, including cancer”

Other Uses:  A yellow dye has been made from the flowers.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Impatiens
http://www.botanical.com/botanical/mgmh/j/jewelw08.html

Subsuban

Botanical Name :Polygonum barbatum Linn.
Family  : Polygonaceae

Other Scientific Names :  Polygonum stoloniferum Blanco, Polygonum serrulatum Hook. Polygonum persicaria Walp. ,Polygonum serulatum Lagasca ,Polygonum fissum Blume Persicaria barbata Linn.  Polygonum fissum Hassk. Persicaria omerostroma (Ohki.)Sasaki. Polygonum fissum Miers., Polygonum omerostromum Ohki.   Polygonum eruthrodes Miq.,Polygonum stagnimum Miers.
.

Local Common Names: Bukakau (Bik.),Kanubsubang (Pamp.)Kaykayu (If.),Saimbangan-tubig (Sul.),Sigan-lupa (Tag.),Bearded knotweed (Engl.),Subsuban (Tag.),Jointweed (Engl.),Knotgrass (Engl.),Smart-weed (Engl.)

Other Common name: Bearded Knotweed, water milkwort
Bengali: bekh-unjubaz
Kannada: konde malle, kondemalle
Malayalam: belutta-modela-mucca
Manipuri:  Yelang
 Marathi: dhaktasheral
Mizo: anbawng
Nepali:  Bish
Tamil: niralari, neer alari
Telugu: kondamalle, neeruganneru

Habitat :It is found in the streamsides, wet areas, water sides; sea level to 1300 m.In the places like  Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hainan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangxi, Sichuan, Taiwan, Yunnan [Bhutan, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, New Guinea, Philippines, Sikkim, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Vietnam].

Description:
Herbs perennial, rhizomatous. Stems erect, 40-90 cm tall, robust, pubescent, simple or branched above. Petiole 5-8 mm, densely hispidulous; leaf blade lanceolate or elliptic-lanceolate, 7-15 × 1.5-4 cm, both surfaces pubescent, base cuneate, margin ciliate, apex acuminate; ocrea tubular, 1.5-2 cm, membranous, densely hispidulous, apex truncate, cilia 1.5-2 cm. Inflorescence terminal, spicate, erect, 4-8 cm, several spikes aggregated and panicle-like, rarely solitary; bracts funnel-shaped, glabrous, margin ciliate, each 3-5-flowered. Pedicel short. Perianth white or greenish, 5-parted; tepals elliptic, 1.5-2 mm. Stamens 5-8, included. Styles 3; stigmas capitate. Achenes included in persistent perianth, black, shiny, ovoid, trigonous, 1.5-2 mm. Fl. Aug-Sep, fr. Sep-Oct. 2n = 60.

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Edible Uses: Young leaves and shoots cooked as vegetable.

Medicinal Uses:
Parts used: Leaves, seeds, and roots.

Properties:
Considered astringent, carminative, parasiticide.

Folkloric :-
*Pounded leaves applied to wounds as cicatrizant.
*Seeds are used for colic.
*Decoction of leaves and stems used to wash wounds and ulcers.
*It has been tried for diabetes with no observed benefits.
*Sap applied to wounds as antiseptic.
*Paste of roots used for treatment of scabies.

Studies
• Anti-Ulcer: A study on the aqueous and methanolic leaf extracts of P barbatum showed reduction of gastric volume, total acidity, free acidity and ulcer index. The antiulcer activity may be due to the presence of flavanoids and tannins.
Wound-Healing: A study of wound healing on albino rats of Wistar strain showed a significant increase in wound closure rate, tensile strength and decrease in epithelization perioe in PB treated group. Study concludes that ethanolic extract of P B had greater wound healing activity than nitrofurazone ointment.

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Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider

Resources:

http://www.stuartxchange.com/Subsuban.html

http://medplants.blogspot.in/2014/05/persicaria-barbata-polygonum-barbatum.html

http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=3&taxon_id=200006714

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Japanese knotweed

Botanical Name :Fallopia japonica

Family: Polygonaceae
Genus: Fallopia
Species: F. japonica
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Caryophyllales
Synonyms. :Polygonum cuspidatum, Reynoutria japonica,Polygonum sieboldii – De Vriese
Common Names:Polygonum cuspidatum, Polygonum sieboldii, Reynoutria japonica, Fallopia japonica, Polygonum cuspidatum, Reynoutria japonica, Fleeceflower, Himalayan fleece vine, monkeyweed, Huzhang, Hancock’s curse, elephant ears, pea shooters, donkey rhubarb, sally rhubarb, Japanese bamboo, American bamboo, Mexican bamboo,

English names for Japanese knotweed Fleeceflower, Himalayan fleece vine, Monkeyweed, Huzhang (Chinese:  pinyin: Huzhàng), Hancock’s curse, elephant ears, pea shooters, donkey rhubarb (although it is not a rhubarb), sally rhubarb, Japanese bamboo, American bamboo, and Mexican bamboo (though it is not a bamboo). There are also regional names, and it is sometimes confused with sorrel.

Habitat :Native to eastern Asia in Japan, China and Korea. In North America and Europe the species is very successful and has been classified as an invasive species in several countries.

It can be found in 39 of the 50 United States and in six provinces in Canada. It is listed as an invasive weed in Ohio, Vermont, Virginia, New York, Alaska, Pennsylvania, Oregon and Washington state.[6] The species is also common in Europe. In the UK it was made illegal to spread Japanese knotweed by the Wildlife and Countryside Act 1981. It is also classed as “controlled waste” in Britain under part 2 of the Environmental Protection Act 1990. This requires disposal at licensed landfill sites

Description:
Japanese knotweed is a large, herbaceous perennial plant, has hollow stems with distinct raised nodes that give it the appearance of bamboo, though it is not closely related. While stems may reach a maximum height of 3–4 m each growing season, it is typical to see much smaller plants in places where they sprout through cracks in the pavement or are repeatedly cut down. The leaves are broad oval with a truncated base, 7–14 cm long and 5–12 cm broad, with an entire margin. The flowers are small, cream or white, produced in erect racemes 6–15 cm long in late summer and early autumn.

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Japanese knotweed was introduced from Japan in 1825 as an ornamental plant. Although attractive, it has become a notoriously invasive plant. However it also has edible and medicinal properties and contains resveratrol a remarkable substance with anti ageing properties. It is also noted for attracting wildlife.

Closely related species include giant knotweed (Fallopia sachalinensis, syn. Polygonum sachalinense) and Russian vine (Fallopia baldschuanica, syn. Polygonum aubertii, Polygonum baldschuanicum).

Now in the U.S. and Europe, Japanese knotweed is widely considered an invasive species or weed. It is listed by the World Conservation Union as one of the world’s 100 worst invasive species.

The invasive root system and strong growth can damage foundations, buildings, flood defences, roads, paving, retaining walls and architectural sites. It can also reduce the capacity of channels in flood defences to carry water.

It is a frequent colonizer of temperate riparian ecosystems, roadsides and waste places. It forms thick, dense colonies that completely crowd out any other herbaceous species and is now considered one of the worst invasive exotics in parts of the eastern United States. The success of the species has been partially attributed to its tolerance of a very wide range of soil types, pH and salinity. Its rhizomes can survive temperatures of ?35 °C (?31 °F) and can extend 7 metres (23 ft) horizontally and 3 metres (9.8 ft) deep, making removal by excavation extremely difficult. The plant is also resilient to cutting, vigorously re-sprouting from the roots. The most effective method of control is by herbicide application close to the flowering stage in late summer or autumn. In some cases it is possible to eradicate Japanese knotweed in one growing season using only herbicides. Trials in the Queen Charlotte Islands (Haida Gwaii) of British Columbia using sea water sprayed on the foliage have demonstrated promising results, which may prove to be a viable option for eradication where concerns over herbicide application are too great.

Two biological pest control agents that show promise in the control of the plant are the psyllid Aphalara itadori and a leaf spot fungus from genus Mycosphaerella.

Cultivation :
A very easily grown plant, it succeeds in ordinary garden soil in sun or shade, though it prefers a moist soil in partial shade. Japanese knotweed is an extremely invasive plant capable of sending up new shoots at a considerable distance from the main clump and also of growing up through tarmac. The sub-species cuspidatum is the form that is most likely to cause problems. It is considered to be a pest in many areas, where it is forming large clumps in the wild and out-competing native species. If grown in the garden it should be planted within a strong barrier to contain its roots. The sub-species compacta is only about 70cm tall and is far less invasive, but should still not be grown in small gardens. A report on the Natural History Programme stated that Japanese knotweed is actually becoming a very valuable habitat for spiders, frogs, grass snakes and many other creatures. Its hollow stems allow a wide variety of insects and other small creatures to overwinter and find hiding places, thus a greater abundance of food is provided for insectivores such as frogs, who are themselves eaten by grass snakes. In areas of north Wales where Japanese knotweed has run rife, it is now the primary habitat for grass snakes. Plants seem to be immune to the predations of rabbits. Often cultivated as a dye and a medicinal plant. Very closely related to P. conspicuum. Dioecious, male and female plants must be grown if seed is required.

Propagation:
Seed – sow spring in a cold frame. Seed – sow spring in a cold frame. Germination is usually free and easy. When they are large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and plant them out in the summer if they have reached sufficient size. If not, overwinter them in a cold frame and plant them out the following spring after the last expected frosts. Division in spring or autumn. Very easy, larger divisions can be planted out direct into their permanent positions. We have found that it is better to pot up the smaller divisions and grow them on in light shade in a cold frame until they are well established before planting them out in late spring or early summer.

Edible Uses:
Edible Parts: Leaves; Root; Seed; Stem.

The young stems are edible as a spring vegetable, with a flavor similar to mild rhubarb. In some locations, semi-cultivating Japanese knotweed for food has been used as a means of controlling knotweed populations that invade sensitive wetland areas and drive out the native vegetation. Some caution should be exercised when consuming this plant because it contains oxalic acid, which may aggravate conditions such as rheumatism, arthritis, gout, kidney stones or hyperacidity.

Young shoots in spring – cooked. They can be used as an asparagus substitute. They have an acid flavour and can also be used as a rhubarb substitute in pies, fruit soups, jams etc. Older stems and shoot tips – cooked. They taste like a mild version of rhubarb. Seed – raw or cooked. It is rather small and fiddly to utilize. The seed can also be ground into a powder and used as a flavouring and thickener in soups etc, or can be mixed with cereals when making bread, cakes etc. The root is sometimes eaten.

Medicinal Uses:

Antiphlogistic; Antitumor; Depurative; Diuretic; Emollient; Febrifuge; Stomachic; Vulnerary; Women’s complaints.
Both Japanese knotweed and giant knotweed are important concentrated sources of resveratrol, replacing grape byproducts. Many large supplement sources of resveratrol now use Japanese knotweed and use its scientific name in the supplement labels. The plant is useful because of its year-round growth and robustness in different climates.

Japanese knotweed is a concentrated source of emodin, used as a nutritional supplement to regulate bowel motility. The roots of Japanese knotweed are used in traditional Chinese and Japanese herbal medicines as a natural laxative. The active principle responsible for the laxative effect is emodin, present in its natural form as a complex of its analogs. Emodin has a mild laxative effect in doses of 20 to 50 mg per day.

Hu Zhang root extract is a traditional Chinese medicinal treatment.In China, the root was used medicinally to treat menstrual and postpartum difficulties.

Methanol extracts of the roots of Polygonum cuspidatum (Polygonaceae), traditionally used in Korea to maintain oral health, were shown to reduce the viability of Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus as well as inhibit sucrose-dependent adherence, water-insoluble glucan formation, glycolytic acid production and acid tolerance. The authors suggested that inhibitory effects may be mediated by the presence of alkaloids, phenolics and sterol/terpenes in the extract.

You may click to see :Medicinal Uses for Japanese Knotweed :

Other Uses:
Japanese knotweed flowers are valued by some beekeepers as an important source of nectar for honeybees, at a time of year when little else is flowering. Japanese knotweed yields a monofloral honey, usually called bamboo honey by northeastern U.S. beekeepers, like a mild-flavored version of buckwheat honey (a related plant also in the Polygonaceae).

Known Hazards Although no specific mention has been made for this species, there have been reports that some members of this genus can cause photosensitivity in susceptible people. Many species also contain oxalic acid (the distinctive lemony flavour of sorrel) – whilst not toxic this substance can bind up other minerals making them unavailable to the body and leading to mineral deficiency. Having said that, a number of common foods such as sorrel and rhubarb contain oxalic acid and the leaves of most members of this genus are nutritious and beneficial to eat in moderate quantities. Cooking the leaves will reduce their content of oxalic acid. People with a tendency to rheumatism, arthritis, gout, kidney stones or hyperacidity should take especial caution if including this plant in their diet since it can aggravate their condition.

Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider

Resources:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Japanese_knotweed
http://www.edible-plants.com/jap_knotweed.html

http://digedibles.com/database/plants.php?Polygonum+japonicum

http://www.herbnet.com/Herb%20Uses_IJK.htm

 

Cirsium Setosum

Botanical Name : Cirsium setosum
Family : Compositae
Genus  : Cirsium

Synonyms : Breea segetum – (Bunge.)Kitam.,Breea setosum – (M.Bieb.)Kitam.,Cirsium segetum – Bunge.,Serratula setosa – Willd.Breea arvensis,  Cirsium incanum, Cirsium arvense var. vestitum, Cirsium arvense var. mite, Cirsium arvense var. integrifolium, Cirsium arvense var. horridum, Cirsium arvense var. argenteum, Carduus arvensis, Breea incana, Serratula arvensis
Species :  Cirsium arvense

Habitat : E. Asia – China, S. Japan, Korea, Manchuria. Edges of fields and streams. Mountain slopes, by rivers, water lands and farmlands at elevations of 100 – 2700 metres throughout

Description:

Perennial growing to 0.5m.
It is hardy to zone 0. The flowers are dioecious (individual flowers are either male or female, but only one sex is to be found on any one plant so both male and female plants must be grown if seed is required) and are pollinated by Bees, flies, Lepidoptera (Moths & Butterflies), beetles. The plant is self-fertile.

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The plant prefers light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils. The plant prefers acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It cannot grow in the shade. It requires moist soil.


Cultivation:

There is a difference amongst botanists as to how this species should best be treated. In the Flora of China it is treated as one aggregate species, but in the Flora of Japan it is split into two distinct species and moved to a different genus as Breea segetum and Breea setosum. The plant has wide-ranging roots that send up adventitious shoots and so it has the potential to become an invasive plant in areas to which it is introduced. This species is dioecious, male and female plants must be grown if seed is required. The following notes are based on the general needs of the genus. An easily grown plant, succeeding in any ordinary garden soil in a sunny position.


Edible Uses

Edible Parts: Leaves.

Young leaves – cooked.

Medicinal Uses
The whole plant is antipyretic, depurative and haemostatic. It resolves clots and is used in the treatment of haemoptysis, haematemesis, metrorrhagia, boils and carbuncles and traumatic bleeding .

Other Uses
Oil.

The seed of all species of thistles yields a good oil by expression. No details of potential yields etc are given.

Disclaimer:The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://www.pfaf.org/database/plants.php?Cirsium+setosum
http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Cirsium_arvense