Herbs & Plants

Cistus salviifolius

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Botanical Name : Cistus salviifolius
Family: Cistaceae
Genus: Cistus
Species:C. salviifolius
Order: Malvales

*Cistus macrocalyx Sennen & Pau
*Cistus paui Sennen
*Cistus salomonis Sennen & Malag.
*Cistus salviifolius   macrocalyx Willk.
*Cistus salviifolius   longipedunculatus Willk.
*Cistus salviifolius   vulgaris Willk.
*Cistus salviifolius   biflorus Willk.
*Cistus salviifolius   cymosus Willk.
*Cistus salviifolius   grandifolius Willk.
*Cistus salviifolius var. fissipetalus Sennen
*Cistus salviifolius var. occidentalis Rouy & Foucaud
*Cistus salviifolius var. rierae Sennen
*Cistus salviifolius var. schizocalyx Sennen
*Cistus salviifolius L.
*Ledonia peduncularis var. salviifolia (L.) Spach
*Ledonia peduncularis Spach

Common Names: Sage-leaved rock-rose, Salvia cistus or Gallipoli rose,Rock Rose, Salvia cistus, Sage Leaf Rock Rose

Habitat: Cistus salviifolius is native to Europe – Mediterranean. It grows on dry woods, thickets and banks, often on acid soils and on limestone, from sea level to 1200 metres in the Alpes Maritimes.

Cistus salviifolius is an evergreen Shrub.It has spreading stems covered by clumpy hairs. This bushy shrub reaches on average 30–60 centimetres (12–24 in) in height, with a maximum of 100 centimetres (39 in). The oval-shaped green leaves are 1 to 4 centimeters long, opposite, reticulate, tomentose on both sides, with a short petiole (2–4 mm).


The inflorescence holds one or more round flowers, long-stalked, arranged at the leaf axils. The five white petals have a yellow spot at the base, forming a corolla 4–6 cm in diameter. The stamens are also yellow and the anthers shed abundant yellow pollen. This plant is pollinated by insects entomophily, especially bees. It is not frost tender. It is in leaf 12-Jan It is in flower in June, and the seeds ripen in August. The fruit is a pentagonal capsule, 5–7 mm long.

The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs). The plant is self-fertile. It is noted for attracting wildlife.

Cistus salviifolius contains flavan-3ols, oligomeric proanthocyanidins and prodelphinidins such as epigallocatechin-3-O-(4-hydroxybenzoate), epigallocatechin-(4??8)-epigallocatechin, epigallocatechin -3-O-gallate-(4??8)-epigallocatechin, epigallocatechin-(4??6)-epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate, 1-O-?-d -(6?-O-galloyl)-glucopyranosyl-3-methoxy-5-hydroxybenzene, epigallocatechin-(4??8)-epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate, 1-O-?-d- glucopyranosyl-3-methoxy-5-hydroxybenzene and rhododendrin (betuloside). It also contains ellagitannins of the punicalagin type

Edible Uses:
Edible Uses: Condiment.

The dried leaves are used as an adulterant for marjoram (Origanum majorana).
Medicinal Uses:
Not yet known.

Other Uses:
A good ground cover plant for the milder areas of Britain. The form ‘Prostratus’ has been recommended
Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.


Herbs & Plants

Zizyphus vulgaris

Botanical Name : Zizyphus vulgaris/Ziziphus jujuba
Family: Rhamnaceae
Tribe:     Paliureae
Genus:     Ziziphus
Kingdom: Plantae
Order:     Rosales

Synonyms: Zizyphus sativa. Brustbeeren. Judendornbeeren. Rhamnus Zizyphus.

Common Name :Jujube Berries, Indian jujube or Chinese date.Bengali :Kul

Vernacular names:
Jujube fruit is called  or just   in Mandarin Chinese,”pomme surette” in French, “bor” in Konkani and Marathi, “ber” in Hindi, kul in Bengali,borai in Bangladesh, ilanthappazham or badari in Malayalam,  (ilanthai/elantha pazham) in Tamil-speaking regions,  (Yelchi Hannu) in Kannada and “Regi pandu” in Telugu. It is called zinzell in Malta. In Vietnamese, the fruit is called “táo tàu,” which translates to “Chinese apple. In Urdu it is called “UNNAB”

Habitat:Jujube Berries is Originally a native of Syria, Zizyphus vulgaris was introduced into Italy in the reign of Augustus, and is now naturalized in Provence, and particularly in the islands of HyŠres, where the berries are largely collected when ripe, and dried in the sun. It is distributed in the warm-temperate and subtropical regions throughout the world.

The trees average 25 feet in height and are covered with a rough, brown bark. They have many branches, with annual thorny branchlets bearing alternate, oval-oblong leaves of a clear green colour, with three to five strongly-marked, longitudinous veins. The small flowers are pale yellow and solitary. The fruit is a blood-red drupe, the size and shape of an olive, sweet, and mucilaginous in taste, slightly astringent. The pulp becomes softer and sweeter in drying, and the taste more like wine. They have pointed, oblong stones.

Edible Uses:The freshly harvested as well as the candied dried fruits are often eaten as a snack, or with coffee. They are available in either red or black, the latter being smoked to enhance their flavor. In China and Korea, a sweetened tea syrup containing jujube fruits is available in glass jars, and canned jujube tea or jujube tea in the form of teabags is also available. Although not widely available, jujube juice and jujube vinegar are also produced; they are used for making pickles in West Bengal and Bangladesh.

In China, a wine made from jujubes, called hong zao jiu  is also produced. Jujubes are sometimes preserved by storing in a jar filled with baijiu (Chinese liquor), which allows them to be kept fresh for a long time, especially through the winter. Such jujubes are called jiu zao (??; literally “alcohol jujube”). These fruits are also a significant ingredient in a wide variety of Chinese delicacies.

In Korea, jujubes are called daechu and are used in Daechucha teas and samgyetang.

In Lebanon, Jordan and other Middle Eastern countries the fruit is eaten as snacks or alongside a dessert after a meal.[citation needed]

In Persian cuisine, the dried drupes are known as annab, while in neighboring Azerbaijan it is commonly eaten as a snack, and are known as innab. These names are related, and the Turks use a similarly related name, “hünnap”. Ziziphus jujuba grows in northern Pakistan and is known as Innab, commonly used in the Tibb Unani system of medicine. There seems to be quite a widespread confusion in the common name. The Innab is Z. jujuba: the local name Ber is not used for Innab. Rather Ber is used for three other cultivated or wild species i.e. Z. spina-christi, Z. mauritiana and Z. nummularia in Pakistan and parts of India and is eaten both fresh and dried. Often the dry fruit (Ber) was used as a padding in leather horse-saddles in parts of Baluchistan in Pakistan.[citation needed]The Arabic names Sidr is used for Ziziphus species other than Z. jujuba.

Traditionally in India, the fruits are dried in the sun and the hard nuts are removed. Then, it is pounded with tamarind, red chillies, salt, and jaggery. In some parts of the Indian state of Tamil Nadu, fresh whole ripe fruit is crushed with the above ingredients and dried under the sun to make cakes called ilanthai vadai or “Regi Vadiyalu” (Telugu).
In Madagascar, jujube fruits are eaten fresh or dried. People also use those fruits to make jam.

In Italy there is an alcoholic syrup called brodo di giuggiole.

In Vietnam, the jujube fruit is eaten freshly picked from the tree as a snack. It is also dried and used in desserts, such as sâm b? l??ng, a cold beverage that includes the dried jujube, longan, fresh seaweed, barley, and lotus seeds.

Medicinal Uses:
Constituents:  A full analysis has not yet been made, but the berries are valued for their mucilage and sugar.

Jujube paste, or ‘Pâte de Jujubes,’ is made of gum-arabic and sugar. It may be dissolved in a decoction of jujubes and evaporated, but is considered as good a demulcentwithout their addition. It is frequently merely mixed with orange-flower water.

A decoction of the roots has been used in fevers.

An astringent decoction of leaves and branchlets is made in large quantities in Algeria, and seems likely to replace the cachou.

In Europe the fruit was made into a cough medicine and tisane for medicinal reasons in times past.

The fruit has been used in traditional medicine as an emollient, expectorant, coolant, anodyne and tonic and has been used as an antidote for aconite poisoning. It is given to relieve abdominal pains during pregnancy and can be applied to wounds when used in a poultice.

The leaves can be used as a laxative and for throat problems as a decoction and the same liquid can also be used for skin problems. The roots have wound healing properties too.

The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.


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Herbs & Plants


Botanical Name: Zizyphus Jububa
Family: Rhamnaceae
Genus: Ziziphus
Species: Z. jujuba
Kingdom: Planta
Order: Rosales

Synonyms: Z. sativa. Z. vulgaris. Z. zizyphus. (L.)Karsten. Rhamnus zizyphus.

Common Names: jujube ( sometimes jujuba), red date, Chinese date, Korean date, or Indian date

English Name :Indian Jujube
Bengali Name : Boroi

Habitat : Ziziphus is native to   E. Asia – China, Japan.   It grows on  dry gravelly or stony slopes of hills and mountains.


Ziziphus is a small deciduous tree or shrub reaching a height of 5–12 metres (16–39 ft), usually with thorny branches. The leaves are shiny-green, ovate-acute, 2–7 centimetres (0.79–2.76 in) wide and 1–3 centimetres (0.39–1.18 in) broad, with three conspicuous veins at the base, and a finely toothed margin. The flowers are small, 5 millimetres (0.20 in) wide, with five inconspicuous yellowish-green petals. The fruit is an edible oval drupe 1.5–3 centimetres (0.59–1.18 in) deep; when immature it is smooth-green, with the consistency and taste of an apple, maturing brown to purplish-black and eventually wrinkled, looking like a small date. There is a single hard stone similar to an olive stone.

It is one of the most hardy fruit tree.These deciduous and evergreen trees and shrubs are natives of the warmer climates. Some are found in California, Texas and Mexico. The most popular is Z. jujuba, commonly known as the Jujube or Chinese Date. The Chinese Date isn’t a true date tree, but the 1- to 2-inch, edible fruits resemble dates and can be eaten fresh, dried or preserved. This tree ultimately grows from 15 to 25 feet high and provides a light, filtered shade. Its spiny branches are clothed with ¾- to 2½-inch, dark green leaves that are quite pest-resistant. In early summer, the Chinese Date produces clusters of tiny, yellow flowers, followed by the fruits, which ripen in late fall. This tree ordinarily begins to produce fruit the first year it is planted. The wood of this tree is hard and heavy and is widely used in some
It is hardy to zone (UK) 6. It is in flower from Apr to May, and the seeds ripen in October. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Insects.The plant is self-fertile.

Click to see the picture

Click to see the picture

Ziziphus is a genus of about 40 species of spiny shrubs and small trees in the buckthorn family Rhamnaceae, distributed in the warm-temperate and subtropical regions throughout the world. The leaves are alternate, entire, with three prominent basal veins, and 2-7 cm long; some species are deciduous, others evergreen. The flowers are small, inconspicuous yellow-green. The fruit is an edible drupe, yellow-brown, red, or black, globose or oblong, 1-5 cm long, often very sweet and sugary, reminiscent of a date in texture and flavour.

Ziziphus species are used as food plants by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species including Bucculatrix zizyphella (which feeds exclusively on the genus) and Endoclita malabaricus.

The Jujube (Z. zizyphus) is the best known species. Other species include Z. spinachristi from southwestern Asia, Z. lotus from the Mediterranean region, and Ber (Z. mauritiana), which is found from western Africa to India. Ziziphus joazeiro grows in the Caatinga of Brazil.

Potting: The Chinese Date should be grown in milder climates; it does better where the summers are long and hot. It can be grown in full sun or light shade in almost any soil, though the better the soil the more valuable the fruits will be.

Propagation: These trees are increased by rooting cuttings or by grafting named varieties on understocks raised from seeds.

The Mineral & vitamin contents of Zizyphus are: calcium,phosphorous,iron,carotene,thiamine,riboflavin,niacin and vitamin-C. Its calorific value is 74. The fruit contains zizyphic acid and tannins.
Edible Uses:
Fruit – raw or cooked. Mealy and sweet. A sourish-sweet flavour. The fruit can be eaten fresh, dried like dates or cooked in puddings, cakes, breads, jellies, soups etc. The dried fruit has the nicest taste. The fruits are often left to become wrinkled and spongy, which increases their sweetness, and are then eaten fresh or cooked. The dried fruit can also be ground into a powder. This powder is used in the preparation of ‘kochujang’, a fermented hot pepper-soybean paste that resembles miso. Fruits are about 13mm in diameter and contain one or two seeds. Average yields from wild trees in the Himalayas are 9.5kg per year. The fruit contains about 8.7% sugars, 2.6% protein, 1.4% ash, 1.7% pectin and 1.3% tannin. The fruit is about 25mm long, though it can be larger in cultivated varieties. The fruit can be used as a coffee substitute. Leaves – cooked. A famine food, they are only used when all else fails. A nutritional analysis is available.

Figures in grams (g) or miligrams (mg) per 100g of food.
Fruit (Dry weight)

*350 Calories per 100g
*Water : 0%
*Protein: 7.3g; Fat: 1.2g; Carbohydrate: 84g; Fibre: 4g; Ash: 3g;
*Minerals – Calcium: 130mg; Phosphorus: 168mg; Iron: 3.5mg; Magnesium: 0mg; Sodium: 12mg; Potassium: 1050mg; Zinc: 0mg;
*Vitamins – A: 125mg; Thiamine (B1): 0.1mg; Riboflavin (B2): 0.18mg; Niacin: 2.8mg; B6: 0mg; C: 300mg;
*Notes: The figures given here are the median of a range given in the report.

Medicinal Uses :

Jujube is both a delicious fruit and an effective herbal remedy.  It aids weight gain, improves muscular strength, and increases stamina.  In Chinese medicine, jujube is prescribed as a qi tonic to strengthen liver function.  Mildly sedative and antiallergenic, it is given to reduce irritability and restlessness..  It is also used to improve the taste of unpalatable prescriptions, as a buffer to improve synergy and minimize side effects.  In Japan, jujube has been shown to increase immune-system resistance.  In China, laboratory animals fed a jujube decoction gained weight and showed improved endurance.  In one clinical study, 12 patients with liver ailments were given jujube, peanuts, and brown sugar nightly. In 4 weeks, their liver function had improved.  The fruit is also used for chronic fatigue, diarrhea, anemia and hysteria; the seeds for palpitations, insomnia, nervous exhaustion, night sweats and excessive perspiration.  Long term use reputedly improves the complexion.
In traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), suan zao ren (Ziziphus spinosa) is considered to be sweet and sour in taste, and neutral in action. It is believed to nourish the heart yin, augment the liver blood, and calm the spirit (TCM medical terms). It is used to treat irritability, insomnia and heart palpitations.

Zizyphus is beneficial in the treatment of mental retardation.A handful of dry fruit is boiled in half litre of water and should be taken daily at night before retiring.It increases functioning of brain by releasing more glutamic acid into the bloodstream. The bark made from zizyphus is useful in arresting secretion and bleeding.

Stomach disorders:The bark can be used for treating diarrhoea,dysentary and colic.The infusion of the inner cover of the bark is used as a purgative in constipation.

Influenza and colds: Zizyphus is useful in preventing frequent attacks of cold and influenza. A teaspoonful of fresh fruit juice extracted from the fruit can be taken with a pinch of papper once daily as preventive.

Conjunctivitis:An infution of the leaves can be used as an eye lotion in case of conjunctivitis.

Scalp disorderss: A paste of its leaves can be applied over the scalp to prevent scalp disorder.It also lengthens the hair besides darkening them.

Mouth disorders: Infusion of the fresh and tender leaved,mixed with salt is a useful gargle for sore throat, inflammation onf the mouth, bleeding from gums and cracked tongue due to excessive consumption of sour fruits.

Other different uses: Fresh baked leaved are useful for piles. Those baked leaves are pounded with some castor oil. This worm poultice can be applied over piles.The process should be repeated twice daily for a week. A paste of leaves and small branches of the herb can be applied with excellant result over boils, carbuncles and abcesses to promote suppuration.It can be applied beneficially over painful boils and styes.This paste mixed with a teaspoon of lime juice , can also be applied as a poultice in the treatment of scorpion sting. Infusion of its leaves can be applied as a lotion to wash the wounds and other ulcers.

The mythological lotus tree is often equated with Z. lotus, though the Date Palm is also a possible candidate. The Indian name of Ziziphus is ber (or bor).

Known Hazards  : Caution in diabetics on allopathic medication

The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.


Miracle of Herbs

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