Tag Archives: Kathleen Wynne

Amelanchier laevis

Botanical Name: Amelanchier laevis
Family: Rosaceae
Genus: Amelanchier
Species: A. laevis
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Rosales

Synonyms : Amelanchier canadensis. non (L.)Medik.Amelanchier confusa.

Common Name : Allegheny Shadberry, Allegheny serviceberry, Smooth Serviceberry
Habitat: Amelanchier laevis is native to eastern Canada and the eastern United States, from Newfoundland west to Ontario, Minnesota, and Iowa, south as far as Georgia and Alabama.It grows on dry to moist thickets, woodland edges and edges of swamps in cool ravines and on hillsides. Naturalized in Britain on light acidic soils.
Description:
Amelanchier laevis is a deciduous Shrub growing to 9 m (29ft) by 6 m (19ft) at a medium rate. It has stems of 1–15 metres (3 ft 3 in–49 ft 3 in) or 2–17 metres (6 ft 7 in–55 ft 9 in) which are growing in small clumps. Its petioles are 12–25 millimetres (0.47–0.98 in) with green blades which are elliptic and almost ovate. The leaves have 12–17 lateral veins and 6-8 teeth per cm. The fruit, which are pomes, are edible and can be eaten raw or cooked. The fruit has a sweet flavor. The bark can be made into a herbal medicine for expectant mothers. It is a deciduous tree. It is cultivated as an ornamental shrub.

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The leaves are simple, alternate and regularly toothed and are often bronze in color, especially when young. They may be somewhat pubescent beneath when young, but become glabrous at maturity. The buds are relatively large (up to 10-12 mm) and long tapering to a sharp tip and each bud has more than 2 visible outer scales, often at least partly reddish. The plants may develop a single trunk, but they are almost always multiply-stemmed from the base, with well-developed plants reaching 20-30 feet in height or more, therefore appearing as a small tree or a very tall shrub. The bark is smooth and gray, and the trunks are often less than 10 cm in diameter. The flowers are showy with bright white petals opening in May or early June and producing numerous red or purple fleshy fruits.

It is not frost tender. It is in flower from Apr to May, and the seeds ripen from Jun to July. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Bees.The plant is self-fertile.
Cultivation:
Prefers a rich loamy soil in a sunny position or semi-shade[1, 200] but thrives in any soil that is not too dry or water-logged. Grows well in heavy clay soils. Found in the wild on light acidic soils. All members of this genus have edible fruits and, whilst this is dry and uninteresting in some species, in many others it is sweet and juicy. Many of the species have potential for use in the garden as edible ornamentals, this species is worthy of especial attention because of the quality of its fruit. The main draw-back to this genus is that birds adore the fruit and will often completely strip a tree before it is fully ripe. Trees come into bearing in about 12 years from seed. Considerable confusion has existed between this species and A. arborea, A. canadensis and A. lamarckii, see for the latest (1991) classification. It hybridizes with A. sanguinea, A. huronensis, A. wiegandii, A. stolonifera, A. canadensis, A. arborea and A. bartramiana. Grafting onto seedlings of A. lamarckii or Sorbus aucuparia is sometimes practised in order to avoid the potential problem of hybridizing. Special Features:Attracts birds, North American native, Attracts butterflies, Blooms are very showy.
Propagation:
Seed – it is best harvested ‘green’, when the seed is fully formed but before the seed coat has hardened, and then sown immediately in pots outdoors or in a cold frame. If stored seed is obtained early enough in the autumn, it can be given 4 weeks warm stratification before being left out in the winter and it should then germinate in the spring. Otherwise seed can be very slow to germinate, perhaps taking 18 months or more. When large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on in a sheltered outdoor position, planting them out once they are 20cm or more tall. If there is sufficient seed it is best to sow it thinly in an outdoor seedbed. Grow the seedlings on for two years in the seedbed before planting them out into their permanent positions during the winter. Layering in spring – takes 18 months. Division of suckers in late winter. The suckers need to have been growing for 2 years before you dig them up, otherwise they will not have formed roots. They can be planted out straight into their permanent positions if required
Edible Uses:
Edible fruit – raw or cooked. Succulent and sweet. This is one of the nicest fruits in the genus, it can be eaten and enjoyed in quantity[K]. The fruit can also be dried for winter use. Up to 18mm in diameter. The fruit is rich in iron and copper.
Medicinal Uses:.…..Miscellany…….An infusion of the bark was used by expectant mothers.

Other Uses:
 Landscape Uses:Firewood, Specimen, Woodland gardenWood – is heavy, exceedingly hard, strong, close grained. Used for tool handles etc

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.
Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amelanchier_laevis
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Amelanchier+laevis
http://www.uwgb.edu/biodiversity/herbarium/trees/amelae01.htm

Solidago missouriensis

Botanical Name : Solidago missouriensis
Family: Asteraceae
Genus: Solidago
Species: S. missouriensis
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Asterales

Common Names : Missouri goldenrod, Prairie Goldenrod, Tolmie’s goldenrod

Habitat : Solidago missouriensis is native to North America, where it is widespread across much of Canada, the United States, and northern Mexico. It grows from British Columbia east to Manitoba, south as far as Sonora, Coahuila, Texas, and Mississippi (but not California). It grows on dry prairies, gravels and rocky slopes.

Description:
Solidago missouriensis is a perennial herb growing from an underground caudex or rhizome, or both. It reaches one meter (40 inches) in maximum height. The roots may reach 2 m (6.6 ft) deep in the soil. The rigid leaves are up to 30 centimeters (12 inches) long, becoming smaller farther up the stem. The inflorescence is a branching panicle of many yellow flower heads at the top of the stem, sometimes with over 200 small heads. Each head contains about 5-14 yellow ray florets a few millimeters long surrounding 6-20 disc florets. The fruit is an achene tipped with a pappus of bristles.

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It is hardy to zone (UK) 7. It is in flower from Jul to September, and the seeds ripen from Aug to October. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Insects.It is noted for attracting wildlife.

Cultivation:
Succeeds in any moderately fertile moisture retentive soil in sun or semi-shade. Grows well in heavy clay soils. A rather greedy plant, it is apt to impoverish the soil. The plant attracts various beneficial insects such as ladybirds, lacewings and hoverflies to the garden, these insects will help to control insect pests in the garden.

Propagation:
Seed – sow spring in a cold frame. Only just cover the seed and do not allow the compost to become dry. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle, and grow them on for their first winter in pots. Plant them out into their permanent positions in spring or early summer. Division in spring or autumn. Larger divisions can be planted out direct into their permanent positions. We have found it best to pot up the smaller divisions and grow them on in a lightly shaded position in a cold frame, planting them out once they are well established in the summer
Edible Uses:
Edible Parts:….. Leaves…… Tea.……Young leaves – raw or cooked. They can be added to salads or used as a potherb. A very good tea is made from the dried leaves and dried fully expanded flowers.
Medicinal Uses:.……..Antiseptic. ………An infusion of the dried powdered herb can be used as an antiseptic.
Other Uses:..…Dye……….Mustard, orange and brown dyes can be obtained from the whole plant.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.
Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Solidago_missouriensis
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Solidago+missouriensis

Pinus strobus

Botanical Name: Pinus strobus
Kingdom: Plantae
Phylum: Pinophyta
Class: Pinopsida
Order: Pinales
Family: Pinaceae
Genus: Pinus
Subgenus: Strobus
Species: P. strobus

Synonyms: Weymouth Pine. Pin du Lord. Pinus Alba.
Common Names: Eastern white pine, White pine, northern white pine, Weymouth pine, and soft pine

Habitat: Pinus strobus is native to eastern North America. It occurs from Newfoundland west through the Great Lakes region to southeastern Manitoba and Minnesota, and south along the Appalachian Mountains and upper Piedmont to northernmost Georgia and perhaps very rarely in some of the higher elevations in northeastern Alabama, and is planted in areas near its natural range where summer temperatures are fairly moderate.

Description:
Like all members of the white pine group, Pinus subgenus Strobus, the leaves (‘needles’) are in fascicles (bundles) of five (rarely 3 or 4), with a deciduous sheath. They are flexible, bluish-green, finely serrated, and 5–13 cm (2.0–5.1 in) long, and persist for 18 months, i.e. from the spring of one season to the autumn of the next, when they are shed by abscission.

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The cones are slender, 8–16 cm (3.1–6.3 in) long (rarely longer than that) and 4–5 cm (1.6–2.0 in) broad when open, and have scales with a rounded apex and slightly reflexed tip. The seeds are 4–5 mm (0.16–0.20 in) long, with a slender 15–20 mm (0.59–0.79 in) wing, and are wind-dispersed. Cone production peaks every 3 to 5 years.

While eastern white pine is self-fertile, seeds produced this way tend to result in weak, stunted, malformed seedlings.

Mature trees can easily be 200 to 250 years old. Some white pines live over 400 years. A tree growing near Syracuse, New York was dated to 458 years in the late 1980s and trees in both Wisconsin and Michigan have approached 500 years in age

Cultivation:
Pinus strobus is cultivated by plant nurseries as an ornamental tree, for planting in gardens and parks.[21] The species is low-maintenance and rapid growing as a specimen tree. With regular shearing it can also be trained as a hedge. Some cultivars are used in bonsai

Part Used: Dried inner bark
Constituents: The powder shows starch and resin. The bark yields a maximum of 3 per cent of ash. It is a source of the terebinth of America. Coniferin is found in the cambium.

Medicinal Uses:
Expectorant, demulcent, diuretic, a useful remedy in coughs and colds, having a beneficial effect on the bladder and kidneys.The compound syrup contains sufficient morphine to assist in developing the morphine habit and should be used with caution.

Eastern white pine needles contain five times the amount of Vitamin C (by weight) of lemons and make an excellent herbal tea. The cambium is edible. It is also a source of resveratrol. Linnaeus noted in the 18th century that cattle and pigs fed pine bark bread grew well, but he personally did not like the taste. Caterpillars of Lusk’s Pinemoth (Coloradia luski) have been found to feed only on Pinus strobus.

Pine tar is produced by slowly burning pine roots, branches, or small trunks in a partially smothered flame. Pine tar mixed with beer can be used to remove tapeworms (flat worms) or nematodes (round worms). Pine tar mixed with sulfur is useful to treat dandruff, and marketed in present day products. Pine tar can also be processed to make turpentine

Native American traditional uses:
The name “Adirondack” is an Iroquois word which means tree-eater and referred to their neighbors (more commonly known as the Algonquians) who collected the inner bark of this tree, Picea rubens, and others during times of winter starvation. The white soft inner bark (cambial layer) was carefully separated from the hard, dark brown bark and dried. When pounded this product can be used as flour or added to stretch other starchy products.

The young staminate cones were stewed by the Ojibwe Indians with meat and were said to be sweet and not pitchy. In addition, the seeds are sweet and nutritious, but not as tasty as those of some of the western nut pines.

Pine resin (sap) has been used by various tribes to waterproof baskets, pails, and boats. The Chippewa also used pine resin to successfully treat infections and even gangrenous wounds. This is because pine resin apparently has a number of quite efficient antimicrobials. Generally a wet pulp from the inner bark was applied to wounds, or pine tar mixed with beeswax or butter and used as a salve was, to prevent infection.
Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pinus_strobus
http://www.botanical.com/botanical/mgmh/p/pinewh36.html