Tag Archives: Kingdom (biology)

Hypericum punctatum

Botanical Name :Hypericum punctatum
Family : Clusiaceae – Mangosteen family
Genus : Hypericum L. – St. Johnswort
Species : Hypericum punctatum Lam. – spotted St. Johnswort
Kingdom :Plantae – Plants
Subkingdom; Tracheobionta – Vascular plants
Superdivision; Spermatophyta – Seed plants
Division: Magnoliophyta – Flowering plants
Class: Magnoliopsida – Dicotyledons
Subclass :Dilleniidae
Order: Theales

Synonyms: Hypericum punctatum Lam.,HYSU4 Hypericum subpetiolatum E.P. Bicknell ex Small

Common Names : Flux Weed ,Spotted St. John’s Wort OR Dotted St. John’s Wort

Habitat: Hypericum punctatum grows in every county of Illinois, and is fairly common . Habitats include moist to mesic black soil prairies, gravel prairies, open woodlands (rocky and otherwise), savannas, woodland borders, thickets, clay banks along rivers or lakes, and areas along roadsides and railroads.

Description:
Hypericum punctatum is a perennial plant growing up   to 2½’ tall, branching occasionally in the upper half. The hairless stems are red or green. The hairless opposite leaves are up to 2½” long and 1″ across. They are oblong, oval, or bluntly lanceolate (with rounded tips), with a few pinnate or parallel veins and smooth margins. The leaves are often sessile or perfoliate, otherwise they have short petioles. Scattered translucent dots are observable on the underside of the leaves. Smaller leaves often appear in the upper axils of the larger leaves on major stems.

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Many of these stems terminate in tight clusters of yellow flowers. Each flower is a little less than ½” across, and has 5 petals. In the center, is a flask-shaped pistil that is surrounded by numerous yellow anthers on long styles. Numerous small dark dots can occur anywhere on the surface of the petals or the buds, often appearing in streaks. There is no floral scent. The blooming period occurs during mid-summer and lasts about a month. The seedpods split into 3 sections, exposing numerous tiny seeds, which are scattered by the wind when the stems sway back and forth. The root system consists of a branching taproot and short rhizomes. Vegetative colonies of this plant can develop from the rhizomes.

Cultivation: The preference is full or partial sun, moist to mesic conditions, and a rather lean soil, which reduces competition from taller plants. Rocky or gravelly soil is quite acceptable. Occasionally, the leaves turn brown in response to drought, otherwise this plant has few problems.

 

Propagation : Through seeds.

Medicinal Uses:
Some compounds of the plant have been shown to have potent anti-retroviral activity without serious side effects and they are being researched in the treatment of AIDS. Hypericum punctatum is a mild antidepressant of the class “MAO inhibitor.” The mechanism by which St. Johnswort acts as an antidepressant is not fully understood. Early research indicated that this it mildly inhibits the enzyme monoamine oxidase (MAO). MAO is responsible for the breakdown of two brain chemicals – serotonin and nor epinephrine. By inhibiting MAO and increasing nor epinephrine, it may exert a mild anti-depressive action. The antidepressant or mood elevating effects of Hypericum punctatum were originally thought to be due solely to hypericin, but hypericin does not act alone, it relies on the complex interplay of many constituents such as xanthones and flavonoids for its antidepressant actions. Hypericum punctatum may also block the receptors that bind serotonin and so maintain normal mood and emotional stability. Hypericum punctatum is used in treating a wide range of disorders, including pulmonary complaints, bladder problems, diarrhea and nervous depression. It is also very effectual in treating bed wetting in children. It has a sedative and pain reducing effect, it is especially regarded as an herb to use where there are menopausal changes triggering irritability and anxiety. In addition to neuralgic pain, it will ease fibrositis, sciatica and rheumatic pain. The oil extract of the plant can be taken for stomach ache, colic, intestinal problems, and as an expectorant for the congestion in the lungs. Externally, a medicinal infusion of the flowers in olive oil is applied to wounds, sores, burns, ulcers, swellings, cramps, rheumatism, tumors, caked breasts, and other skin problems. It is also valued in the treatment of sunburn and as a cosmetic preparation to the skin.

Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://www.everwilde.com/store/Hypericum-punctatum-WildFlower-Seed.html
http://www.illinoiswildflowers.info/prairie/plantx/sp_stjohnwortx.htm
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=HYPU
http://www.herbnet.com/Herb%20Uses_FGH.htm

http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Hypericum_calycinum_Tasmania.jpg

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Rumex sanguineus

Botanical Name : Rumex sanguineus
Family: Polygonaceae – Buckwheat family
Genus: Rumex L. – dock
Species:  Rumex sanguineus L. – redvein dock
Kingdom ; Plantae – Plants
Subkingdom ; Tracheobionta – Vascular plants
Superdivision: Spermatophyta – Seed plants
Division: Magnoliophyta – Flowering plants
Class: Magnoliopsida – Dicotyledons
Subclass:  Caryophyllidae
Order : Polygonales

Synonyms : Rumex  condylodes. Rumex  nemerosus.

Common Name :Dock, Bloody,red-veined dock,wood dock, red-vein dock, bloody dock, bloody sorrel

Habitat: Native to Europe, southwestern Asia, northern Africa. It grows on waste ground, grassy places and in woods, avoiding acid soils.

Description:
Rumex sanguineus is a Herbaceous perennial plant grow to a height of 1 to 1.5 ft. and spread up to 1 ft.Leaves are intricately veined in blood-red or dark purple. Small star shaped, green then brown flowers are produced on many branched vertical stems in summer, which stand about a foot above the foliage. The reddish-purple seed heads are showy for a long time. This plant is easy to grow from seed, and will reseed…..CLICK & SEE  THE PICTURES

You may click to see different pictures ofRumex sanguineus
It’s blooming time is June -July. Blooming colour is Green maturing to reddish-brown.Hardy in zones 4-9

Cultivation:
Easily grown in average, medium, well-drained soils in full sun. Best performance is with consistently moist soils. Soils must not be allowed to dry out. Self-seeds and can spread in the garden. Some gardeners prefer to remove the flower stalks immediately, both to prevent self-seeding and to promote bushy leaf growth. Plants may be directly seeded in the garden in spring. May be grown as an annual. Plants may not be reliably winter .Sometimes  it does best with some shade. It needs a moist situation, although it will survive dry periods by shedding its leaves. It is ideal for areas that are constantly damp or prone to flooding, such as rain gardens. It also does well in the bog garden.

Propagation: Sow seeds in situ in spring. Self-seeds freely.

Edible Uses: The new leaves can be eaten as spinach.

Medicinal Uses:
All parts may cause mild stomach upset if eaten, and contact with the foliage may irritate skin.
Has been used medicinally for cancer and for various blood diseases.  An infusion of the root is useful in the treatment of bleeding. The root is harvested in early spring and dried for later use. A decoction of the leaves is used in the treatment of several skin diseases.

Known Hazards : Plants can contain quite high levels of oxalic acid, which is what gives the leaves of many members of this genus an acid-lemon flavour. Perfectly alright in small quantities, the leaves should not be eaten in large amounts since the oxalic acid can lock-up other nutrients in the food, especially calcium, thus causing mineral deficiencies. The oxalic acid content will be reduced if the plant is cooked. People with a tendency to rheumatism, arthritis, gout, kidney stones or hyperacidity should take especial caution if including this plant in their diet since it can aggravate their condition

Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://www.monrovia.com/plant-catalog/plants/2787/limelight-japanese-stonecrop.php
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=RUSA2
http://www.finegardening.com/plantguide/rumex-sanguineus-bloody-dock.aspx
http://www.mwgs.org/index.php?rte=pltviewd&pid=10&cid=6#
http://www.herbnet.com/Herb%20Uses_DE.htm

http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Rumex+sanguineus

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Glandularia bipinnatifida

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Botanical Name : Glandularia bipinnatifida
Family :Verbenaceae – Verbena family
Genus :Glandularia J.F. Gmel. – mock vervain
Species;Glandularia bipinnatifida (Nutt.) Nutt. – Dakota mock vervain
Kingdom: Plantae – Plants
Subkingdom: Tracheobionta – Vascular plants
Superdivision:Spermatophyta – Seed plants
Division:Magnoliophyta – Flowering plants
Class: Magnoliopsida – Dicotyledons
Subclass: Asteridae
Order: Lamiales

Synonyms: Verbena bipinnatifida

Common Names:Dakota Vervain, Purple prairie verbena, Dakota mock vervain

Habitat :Native to U.S.

Description:
The 6-12 in. stems branch near the base, usually lying on the ground with rising tips. Plants are covered with long, whitish hairs. Leaves are opposite and deeply cut several times on both sides of the midrib; they are 1–3 1/2 inches long and 1 1/2 inches wide on a 1-inch stem. Branch-tip, ball-shaped flower heads are composed of tubular, five-lobed, purple flowers with dark centers. Individual flowers are about 1/2 inch long and 1/2 inch wide at the opening, with 5 sepals and 5 petals. Branches continue elongating throughout the season, producing new flowers.

CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES

This species is a member of the verbena family (family Verbenaceae), which includes about 75 genera and 3,000 species of herbs, shrubs, and trees, mostly of tropical and warm temperate regions. Among them, teak is a highly prized furniture wood, and Vervain, Lantana, Lippia or Frog Fruit are grown as ornamentals.

Medicinal Uses:
As an effective sedative tea, particularly in the early feverish states of a cold or flu.  It also stimulates sweating.  It is a good remedy for children, although the taste leaves much to be desired.  The powdered tops are mixed with lard or Vaseline and applied to the back of the neck for back or neck pain.  The herb or tea is used for goats that have just kidded and have udder infections.

Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://www.wildflower.org/plants/result.php?id_plant=GLBIB
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=GLBI2
http://www.sbs.utexas.edu/bio406d/images/pics/vrb/glandularia_bipinnatifida.htm
http://www.herbnet.com/Herb%20Uses_DE.htm

Croton texensis

Botanical Name : Croton texensis
Family : Euphorbiaceae – Spurge family
Genus : Croton L. – croton
Species: Croton texensis (Klotzsch) Müll. Arg. – Texas croton
Kingdom : Plantae – Plants
Subkingdom : Tracheobionta – Vascular plants
Superdivision: Spermatophyta – Seed plants
Division: Magnoliophyta – Flowering plants
Class: Magnoliopsida – Dicotyledons
Subclass: Rosidae
Order: Euphorbiales

Common Names:Skunkweed, doveweed.

Habitat : Native to Texsus. Texas croton grows on calcareous soils, sandy loam soils and loose sands. It can occur in great abundance and is generally associated with soil disturbance, lack of soil cover or overgrazing.

Texas croton grows on calcareous soils, sandy loam soils and loose sands. It can occur in great abundance and is generally associated with soil disturbance, lack of soil cover or overgrazing.

Description;
Croton texensis (Euphorbiaceae) is an easily overlooked gray-green annual.Although an unassuming little plant, the interesting life history of the plant lends itself to experimentation that may help elucidate the evolution of plant mating systems. Croton is foremost a dioecious annual, with distinct male and female plants. However, around 1 in every 200 plants develops as a hermaphrodite, with both male and female reproductive structures. With both mating systems present in the same population, croton can be studied to illustrate the costs and benefits leading to the maintenance of plant mating systems…..,,,……

In the field, male and female (or hermaphroditic) plants can be fairly easily distinguished based on morphology alone. This allows straightforward censusing of the population, allowing us to track the fluctuation of the sex ratio over time.

click to see the pictures….>…(01)...…......(1).…(2)..…...(3).

Texas croton has an aromatic smell when the leaves are crushed. It varies from 1 foot to 4 feet tall, depending on moisture conditions.

 

The leaves are grayish to yellowish green and may be lighter on top and darker beneath. They areusually entire or without lobes or teeth and are located alternately along the stems. Each leaf is attached to the stem by a small stalk called a petiole.

The flowers are arranged in spikes at the ends of the stems. The fruit of Texas croton is a capsule divided into three segments supporting three individual seeds.

Texas croton produces a seed crop that is very valuable to dove, quail and other seed-eating birds but has low value for livestock grazing.

Medicinal Uses:
Doveweed contains croton oil, a cathartic, and was used as such at Isleta, Acoma, Laguna, and Zuni. Preparations of the plant have been used for rheumatism, paralysis, earache (seeds placed in ear), and headache (inhalation of smoke from burning plant).  The powdered leaves are mixed with honey, beeswax, or Vaseline and applied to swollen joints.  The leaves, steeped in vinegar or wine, are applied to the temples for headaches.  The whole plant is placed under mattresses to repel bedbugs and is burned like incense as a fumigant.  The herb is still used in small doses as a laxative but it contains potentially cancer-causing irritants and internal use is not recommended.

Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://essmextension.tamu.edu/plants/brushandweeds/detail.aspx?plantID=65
http://www.unl.edu/dpilson/croton.html
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=CRTE4&photoID=crte4_2h.jpg
http://www.herbnet.com/Herb%20Uses_C.htm

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Prairie Clover

Botanical Name : Dalea purpurea
Family :Fabaceae – Pea family
Genus: Dalea L. – prairie clover
Species: Dalea purpurea Vent. – purple prairie clover
Kingdom :Plantae – Plants
Subkingdom: Tracheobionta – Vascular plants
Superdivision: Spermatophyta – Seed plants
Division :Magnoliophyta – Flowering plants
Class :Magnoliopsida – Dicotyledons
Subclass; Rosidae
Order :Fabales

Synonyms: Petalostemon violaceum. Michx.

Common Name : Clover, Velvet Prairie,Prairie Clover

Habitat :Native in Eastern and central United States. It grows in dry desert and alluvial soils to 2000 metres. Sandy prairies in Texas.

Description:
Purple prairie clover is a perennial forb, 8 to 35 inches (20-90 cm) tall, with a woody stem. The numerous leaves are 0.4-1.6 inches (1-4 cm) long, with 3 to 7 leaflets. The inflorescence is a 0.4- to 2.6-inch (1-7 cm) spike located at the ends of the branches. Branches are numerous, usually 3 per stem, but sometimes as many as 10 to 12. The mature purple prairie clover has a coarse, nonfibrous root system with a strong woody taproot that is 5.5 to 6.5 feet (1.7-2.0 m) deep. The taproot gives rise to several minutely branched lateral roots. The fruit is a 1- to-2-seeded pod enclosed in bracts

click to see the pictures…>..…(01)......(1).……..(2).….…(3).……….…………………..
Bloom Time: June – August
Bloom Color: Rose/Purple

Cultivation :
Requires a well-drained soil in full sun. A deep-rooted plant, it prefers a sandy loam with added leaf mould. This species is well-suited to informal and naturalistic plantings, especially as part of a collection of native species. Plants are monocarpic, living for a number of years without flowering and then dying after flowering. The stems, leaves and flowers are dotted with glands, making the plant look blistered. This species has a symbiotic relationship with certain soil bacteria, these bacteria form nodules on the roots and fix atmospheric nitrogen. Some of this nitrogen is utilized by the growing plant but some can also be used by other plants growing nearby.

Propagation :
Seed – pre-soak for 12 hours in warm water and sow in early spring in a greenhouse. When they are large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and plant them out into their permanent positions in the summe

Edible Uses:
Edible Parts: Root.
 Tea.…….The root was used for chewing. A pleasant sweet flavour. The dried leaves are a tea substitute

Medicinal Uses:
This was one of the favored plants of the Native Americans of the prairies. A tea made from the leaves was applied to open wounds and a tea made from the bruised leaves steeped in hot water was used to aid in the healing of wounds as well. Some tribes pulverized the root and made a tea from that powder that was a very healthy drink and a preventative medicine. Some tribes used the entire plant as a prophylactic. Early settlers mixed the bark of the white oak tree and the flowers of this species to make a medicine for diarrhea.  The Chippewa Indians made a decoction of the leaves and blossoms to be used in the treatment of heart problems. The Meskwaki Indians used it to treat diarrhea, and they also made an infusion of the roots in the treatment of measles. The Navajo used the plant to treat pneumonia.

A poultice of the steeped bruised leaves has been applied to fresh wounds. A decoction of the leaves and blossoms has been used in the treatment of heart problems, diarrhoea. An infusion of the roots has been used in the treatment of measles.
Other Uses: Broom……The tough, elastic stems have been made into brooms.

Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://www.mobot.org/gardeninghelp/plantfinder/plant.asp?code=J970
http://www.prairienursery.com/store/index.php?main_page=product_plant_info&products_id=197
http://www.herbnet.com/Herb%20Uses_C.htm
http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/forb/dalpur/all.html#DISTRIBUTION AND OCCURRENCE
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=DAPU5&photoID=dapu5_4v.jpg

http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Dalea+purpurea

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