Tag Archives: Laos

Boesenbergia rotunda

Botanical Name : Boesenbergia rotunda
Family: Zingiberaceae
Genus: Boesenbergia
Species: B. rotunda
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Zingiberales

Synonyms:Boesenbergia pandurata,Kaempferia pandurata

Common Names: Chinese keys, Fingerroot, Lesser galangal or Chinese ginger

(In English, the root has traditionally been called fingerroot, because the shape of the rhizome resembles that of fingers growing out of a center piece.)

It is known as temu kunci in Indonesian  and in Manipuri, it is called Yai-macha .

Habitat :Boesenbergia rotunda is native to China and Southeast Asia.(Cambodia; China (Yunnan); Lao People’s Democratic Republic; Myanmar; Thailand)

This species is a rhizome geophyte which grows in humid forest and deciduous forest. It is cultivated throughout Indo-China. Zingiberaceae species grow naturally in damp, shaded parts of the low-land or on hill slopes, as scattered plants or thickets.

Description:
Boesenbergia rotunda is a small perennial plant of about 15–40 cm in height. Its leaves are broad and light green while the leaf sheath is red. Each shoot consists of 3–5 elliptic-oblong-red sheathed leaves of about 7–9 cm in width and 10–20cm in length. The underground portion of the plant consists of a small globular shaped central subterraneous rhizome (1.5–2.0?cm in diameter) from which several slender and long tubers sprout all in the same direction like the fingers of a hand, thus the common name fingerroot. The tubers are about 1.0–1.5cm thick in diameter and 5–10cm long. The tissue of the tuber is looser, softer, and more watery than the central rhizome. Both the colour of the central rhizome and the tubers are dependent on the variety of B. rotunda. The yellow variety produces bright yellow rhizomes, while other varieties produce red and black rhizomes. They are strongly aromatic although different from each other. The flowers are scarlet and bloom throughout the year in tropical countries. These beautiful flowers are usually hidden at the base of the foliage, making them unnoticeable....CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES

Cultivation:  Boesenbergia rotunda is very easy  to grow. It is found it to be just as successful in the ground as it is in containers. The plant prefers rich, well drained soil. Simply plant the rhizome 1″ deep, and keep evenly moist. It will emerge in approximately two weeks.

Edible Uses:
It is widely used in Javanese cuisine in Indonesia. In Thai cooking it is called krachai  and is an ingredient of dishes such as kaeng tai pla. It is used in some kroeung pastes of Cambodian cuisine and is known as k’cheay (Khmer). In the west it is usually found pickled or frozen. It is sometimes confused with Alpinia officinarum, another plant in the family Zingiberaceae which is also known as lesser galangal.

Medicinal Uses:
Boesenbergia rotunda root is used  to treat colic and diarrhoea  in China.

Advancement in drug design and discovery research has led to the development of synthetic drugs from B. rotunda metabolites via bioinformatics and medicinal chemistry studies. Furthermore, with the advent of genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics, new insights on the biosynthetic pathways of B. rotunda metabolites can be elucidated, enabling researchers to predict the potential bioactive compounds responsible for the medicinal properties of the plant. The vast biological activities exhibited by the compounds obtained from B. rotunda warrant further investigation through studies such as drug  discovery, polypharmacology, and drug delivery using nanotechnology.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is  always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fingerroot
http://davesgarden.com/guides/pf/go/49521/
http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/44392164/0
http://www.randys-tropicalplants.com/Boesenbergia-rotunda.html
http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2012/473637/
http://www.allrareherbs.com.au/products/Chinese-Keys%2C-500ml-pot.html

Rosa laevigata

Botanical Name : Rosa laevigata
Family: Rosaceae
Genus: Rosa
Species: R. laevigata
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Rosales

Common Name :Cherokee Rose

Habitat : Rosa laevigata is native to E. Asia – Southern China from Sichuan and Hubei to Taiwan. It grows on the rocky places at low altitudes. In open fields, farmland, or in scrub at elevations of 200 – 1600 metres. This rose has naturalized across much of the southeastern United States.

Description:
This evergreen climbing rose produces long, thorny, vinelike canes that will form a mound 10-12 ft (3-3.7 m) in height and about 15 ft (4.6 m) wide. This rose is often seen sprawling across adjacent shrubs and other supports that it employs to climb to even greater heights. The pure white single flowers are 3.5-4 in (9-10 cm) in diameter and appear in spring. They are densely arranged along the length of the canes that form garlands of blossoms. The fruit of the Cherokee rose is called a hip and is large compared to other members of the rose family being 1.5-2 in (4-5 cm)long by 0.5-1 in (1-2.5 cm) wide. Cherokee rose has attractive evergreen compound leaves composed of three leaflets with the center leaflet larger than its partners. The glossy light green leaflets are oval shaped with a pointed tip and range from 1-3.5 in (2.5-9 cm)long and 1-2 in (2.5-5 cm) wide.  The flower stem is also very bristly.
CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES

The Cherokee rose’s fast growth rate and long stems armed with large hooked thorns make it an effective screening and barrier plant. It’s a useful addition to natural areas where it will shoot long arching stems that will string themselves vinelike through tree branches and shrubs. Grow on trellises, fences or tree trunks or plant in an open area where it will grow into a large mound. Rather than trim the plant into a mound, let the canes grow long so they can weave white springtime garlands through adjacent shrubbery. Cherokee rose is very happy in waterside situations where it can cast shimmering reflections upon still surfaces.

Cultivation:
Succeeds in most soils, preferring a circumneutral soil and a sunny position. Grows well in heavy clay soils. Dislikes water-logged soils. A very ornamental plant[1], but it is not very hardy in Britain and only succeeds outside in the warmer parts of the country. It can be cut back to the ground even in southern England in cold winters, though it will usually resprout from the base. It is the state flower of Georgia and is also the parent of several modern garden cultivars. The flowers have a clove-like fragrance. If any pruning is necessary then this should be carried out immediately after the plant has finished flowering. Grows well with alliums, parsley, mignonette and lupins. Garlic planted nearby can help protect the plant from disease and insect predation. Grows badly with boxwood. Hybridizes freely with other members of this genus. Plants in this genus are notably susceptible to honey fungus.

Propagation: Seed. Rose seed often takes two years to germinate. This is because it may need a warm spell of weather after a cold spell in order to mature the embryo and reduce the seedcoat[80]. One possible way to reduce this time is to scarify the seed and then place it for 2 – 3 weeks in damp peat at a temperature of 27 – 32°c (by which time the seed should have imbibed). It is then kept at 3°c for the next 4 months by which time it should be starting to germinate. Alternatively, it is possible that seed harvested ‘green’ (when it is fully developed but before it has dried on the plant) and sown immediately will germinate in the late winter. This method has not as yet(1988) been fully tested[80]. Seed sown as soon as it is ripe in a cold frame sometimes germinates in spring though it may take 18 months. Stored seed can be sown as early in the year as possible and stratified for 6 weeks at 5°c. It may take 2 years to germinate.  Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle. Plant out in the summer if the plants are more than 25cm tall, otherwise grow on in a cold frame for the winter and plant out in late spring. Cuttings of half-ripe wood with a heel, July in a shaded frame. Overwinter the plants in the frame and plant out in late spring. High percentage. Cuttings of mature wood of the current seasons growth. Select pencil thick shoots in early autumn that are about 20 – 25cm long and plant them in a sheltered position outdoors or in a cold frame. The cuttings can take 12 months to establish but a high percentage of them normally succeed. Division of suckers in the dormant season. Plant them out direct into their permanent positions. Layering. Takes 12 months.

Edible Uses:

Edible Parts: Fruit; Seed.

Fruit – raw or cooked. The pear-shaped fruit is up to 4cm long[200], but there is only a thin layer of flesh surrounding the many seeds. Sugar can be extracted from the fruit, it is also used to ferment rose wine. Some care has to be taken when eating this fruit, see the notes above on known hazards. The seed is a good source of vitamin E, it can be ground and mixed with flour or added to other foods as a supplement. Be sure to remove the seed hairs.

Medicinal Uses:
The leaves are a famous vulnerary. The fruits, root and leaves stabilize the kidney. A decoction is used in the treatment of chronic dysentery, urinary tract infections, wet dreams, prolapse of the uterus, menstrual irregularities and traumatic injuries. The root bark is astringent and used in the treatment of diarrhea and menorrhagia.  The dried fruits are used internally in the treatment of urinary dysfunction, infertility, seminal emissions, urorrhea, leucorrhea and chronic diarrhea. The root is used in the treatment of uteral prolapse.  The flowers are used in the treatment of dysentery and to restore hair cover. The fruit of many members of this genus is a very rich source of vitamins and minerals, especially in vitamins A, C and E, flavanoids and other bio-active compounds. It is also a fairly good source of essential fatty acids, which is fairly unusual for a fruit. It is being investigated as a food that is capable of reducing the incidence of cancer and also as a means of halting or reversing the growth of cancers.

Known Hazards: There is a layer of hairs around the seeds just beneath the flesh of the fruit. These hairs can cause irritation to the mouth and digestive tract if ingested.

Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rosa_laevigata
http://www.herbnet.com/Herb%20Uses_C.htm
http://www.floridata.com/ref/r/rosalaev.cfm

http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Rosa+laevigata

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Alpinia galanga

Botanical Name :Alpinia galanga
Family: Zingiberaceae
Subfamily: Alpinioideae
Tribe: Alpinieae
Genus: Alpinia
Species: A. galanga
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Zingiberales

Common Name : Greater galangal (or simply Thai galangal). The galangals are also called blue ginger or Thai ginger,Galanga Root, Greater Galanga, Siamese Ginger, Siamese Galanga, Java Galangal, El Galangal, El Adkham,hang Dou Kou, Laos, Galgant, Naukyo, Lenkuas, Galanga Maior, Grosser Galgant, Da Liang Jiang, Gran

Habitat :Cultivated in Southeast Asia, India, China and Australia

Description:
It is a perennial herb, between one and two metres in height, depending on variety. The leaves are 25-35 cm long, rather narrow blades. The flowers are borne at the top of the plant and are small, white and streaked with deep-red veining. The rhizome resembles ginger in shape but it is much smaller. Some varieties have a dark reddish-brown skin and the interior is nearly white. The rhizomes are tough and difficult to break. It prefers rich, moist soil in a protected, shady position and is drought and frost tender. Frost will damage the leaves but will rarely kill the clump. In a permaculture system it is a useful understorey plant.

CLICK TO SEE THE PICTURES

Alpinia galanga.The plant grows from rhizomes in clumps of stiff stalks up to two meters in height with abundant long leaves which bears red fruit. It is native to South Asia and Indonesia. It is cultivated in Malaysia, Laos, and Thailand. A. galanga is the galangal used most often in cookery. The robust rhizome has a sharp, sweet taste and smells like a blend of black pepper and pine needles. The red fruit is  used in traditional Chinese medicine and has a flavor similar to cardamom. ...CLICK & SEE

Known as Chittarattai in Tamil, this form of ginger is used with another root called Athi-Mathuram (Glycyrrhiza Glabra) as folk cure to cold and sore throat.

Edible Uses: 
The rhizome is a common ingredient in Thai soups and curries, where is used fresh in chunks or thin slices, mashed and mixed into curry paste, or dried and powdered. Indonesian rendang is usually spiced with galangal.

Medicinal Uses:

The rhizome has been shown to have antimalarial activity in mice.

Under the names Chewing John, Little John to Chew, and Court Case Root it is used in African-American folk medicine and hoodoo folk magic.

Alpinia galanga rhizome contains the flavonol galangin

Alpinia Galanga rhizome is used against rheumatism, bronchial catarrh, bad breath and ulcers whooping colds in children, throat infections, to control incontinence and fever. Alpinia species show promise as anti-fungals, hypotensives, enhancers of sperm count and motility. Anti-tumor and anti-dementia effects have been observed in rodents.

Alpinia Galanga is a stimulating aromatic and has been successfully employed to aid the digestive process, preventing fermentation and removing flatus. It is useful in case of dyspepsia, preventing vomiting or sickness of the stomach and facilitating digestion. It may be used in all cases in which a stimulating aromatic is indicated. It tones up the tissues and is sometimes prescribed in fever. Homoeopaths use it as a stimulant. It has some reputation as a remedy for perineal relaxation with hemorrhoids and for a lax and pendulous abdomen. It is used as a snuff to treat cold and flu symptoms. Galangal Root has also been used as a digestive aid, especially in combating dyspepsia and flatulence. It is also seen as a remedy for seasickness and motion sickness. It is used against nausea, flatulence, dyspepsia, rheumatism, catarrh and enteritis. It also possesses tonic and antibacterial qualities and is used for these properties in veterinary and homeopathic medicine. This herb has a constricting or binding effect, for example: one that checks hemorrhages or secretions by coagulation of proteins on a soft surface. It also restores, nourishes, and supports the entire body; it exerts a gently strengthening effect on the body.

An aromatic stimulant.  Has been used as a snuff in catarrh and nervous headache.  It is used for nonulcer dyspepsia with flatulence and inflammations of the gastrointestinal tract and upper respiratory trace.  In traditional medicine it is also used as a tonic for low sexual drive and as an adjuvant for diabetes and hypertension.  Somewhat similar to ginger

In Manipuri, it is known as Kanghu. The rhizome is an abortifacient. It has carminative, anti-tuberculosis and stimulant property. Ground rhizome is also used in the treatment of skin infections like eczema, ringworm, etc.

Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://www.greenharvest.com.au/Plants/galangal_info.html
http://www.indiamart.com/chandraayurved/herbal-medicinal-products.html
http://www.motherherbs.com/alpinia-galanga.html
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alpinia_galanga
http://www.herbnet.com/Herb%20Uses_C.htm

http://www.gardenworldimages.com/Details.aspx?ID=148569&TypeID=1&searchtype=&contributor=0&licenses=1,2&sort=REL&cdonly=False&mronly=False

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Huniyan

Botanical Name : Premna herbacea Roxb.
Family : Verbenaceae/Lamiaceae
Subfamily : Viticoideae
Genus :Premna
Species :Premna herbaceaI
Order : Lamiales

Scientific names:
Premna herbacea Roxb.
Premna timoriana H. Lam.
Pygmaeopremna humilis Merr.

Common names: Huniyan (Buk.),Qian jie cao (Chin.)

Habitat :In open grasslands at low and medium altitudes in Cagayan, Isabela, Bontoc, and Nueva Viscaya Provinces in Luzon, and in Mindanao. Dry places; 200-1700 m. Hainan, W Yunnan [Bhutan, Cambodia, India, Laos, Myanmar, Nepal, New Guinea, Philippines, Thailand, Vietnam; Australia].
Native of
•ASIA-TEMPERATE
China: China – Yunnan [w.]
•ASIA-TROPICAL
Indian Subcontinent: Bangladesh; India; Nepal; Sri Lanka
Indo-China: Cambodia; Laos; Myanmar; Thailand; Vietnam
Malesia: East Timor; Indonesia – Irian Jaya, Java, Kalimantan, Sumatra; Malaysia; Papua New Guinea; Philippines
•AUSTRALASIA
Australia: Australia – Northern Territory [n.], Western Australia

Description:
Huniyan is a small, inconspicuous undershrub growing up to 15 cm in height, produced from stout, elongated, woody rootsz, with hardly any stems. Roots are about as thick as a crowquill with numerous, almost-globular, woody knots. Leaves are simple, obovate-oblong or obovate, up to 13 cm long, 6.5 cm wide, and pointed at both ends, with entire and irregularly toothed margins. Stalks are very short, 2 to 4 mm long. Flowers are greenish-white, 4-parted, and borne on short, terminal inflorescences about 1 cm long. Fruit is black, broadly obovoid, and 4 to 5 mm in diameter…….click & see

click to see the picture

Cultivated:
•ASIA-TROPICAL
Indian Subcontinent: India; Sri Lanka

Constituents:
* Root contains an orange-brown acid resin (soluble in ether, alcohol and alkaline solutions), traces of an alkaloid, and starch.
* Study yielded sirutekkone, a diterpenoid.

Medicinal Uses:
Folkloric
*In India, the juice of the root, mixed with juice of ginger and warm water, given for asthma.
*Bitter root is considered as stomachic; given fro rheumatism and dropsy.
*Root bark used for toothache.
*Leaves are used for fever, cough, rheumatism; poultices applied to boils.
*In Ayurveda, alone or as ingredient, used for bronchitis, asthma, hypertension, tumors, inflammation, hiccough, epilepsy and helminthiasis.

Studies
:-
• Antipyretic / Antinociceptive / Anti-Inflammatory: Study of alcoholic extract of roots of Premna herbacea in animal models showed significant antipyretic activity in rabbits, mild nociceptive activity in mice, and significant activity in chronic inflammation.
• Toxicity Study: Alcoholic extract was found to be safe up to a dose of 8.0 g/kg in mice.
• Bharangin / Cytotoxic Properties: Bharangin, a novel diterpenoid quinonemethid, has been isolated from the hexane extract of root nodules. Bharangin exhibited cytotoxic properties against P-338 tumor cell line.

Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resource:
http://www.stuartxchange.com/Huniyan.html
http://species.wikimedia.org/wiki/Premna_herbacea
http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=2&taxon_id=210001751
http://pg.pharm.su.ac.th/activity/saitong/saitong2.htm

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Callicarpa arborea Roxb

Botanical Name : Callicarpa arborea Roxb.
Family : Verbenaceae
Common Names :Khoja, Bormala,Guren (Np), Maaraa (Rai), Bori (Tha.)

Habitat :Mixed forests on mountain slopes; 1000-2500 m. Guangxi, SE Xizang, S Yunnan [Bangladesh, Bhutan, Cambodia, India, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, Thailand, Vietnam].250-2000 m; Himalaya (Kumaun to Bhutan).

Description:
Trees ca. 8 m tall; branchlets, inflorescences, and petioles densely tomentose, hairs stellate or verticillately branched. Leaf blade elliptic, oblong-elliptic, or ovate, 13-37 X 7-13 cm, leathery, abaxially densely yellow-brown stellate tomentose, adaxially dark green and shiny, base cuneate to rounded, margin entire. Cymes 6-11 cm across; peduncle 4-angled, longer than petioles. Calyx cup-shaped, truncate or nearly so, outside densely gray stellate tomentose. Corolla purple, ca. 3 mm. Stamens much longer than corolla. Ovary densely stellate tomentose. Fruit purple-brown, ca. 2 mm in diam. Fl. May-Jul, fr. Aug-Dec.
Click to see the picture

Medicinal Uses:

Click to see :BIOLOGICALLY ACTIVE NATURAL PRODUCTS OF THE GENUS CALLICARPA

Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=2&taxon_id=200019235
http://vaniindia.org.whbus12.onlyfordemo.com/herbal/plantdir.asp
http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=110&taxon_id=200019235
http://www.crcnetbase.com/doi/abs/10.1201/9781420006803.ch37

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