Habitat : Eleutherococcus sessiliflorus is native to E. Asia – China, Korea, Manchuria. It grows in moist woods, wooded riverbanks, forest edges and clearings.
Eleutherococcus sessiliflorus is a deciduous Shrub growing to 4.5 m (14ft 9in). Branches unarmed or with scattered, erect or recurved prickles. Petiole 3-12 cm, unarmed or with small prickles; petiolules 2-10 mm; leaflets 3-5, obovate, oblong-obovate, or oblong-lanceolate, 8-18 × 3-7 cm, papery, secondary veins 5-7 pairs, distinct, adaxially glabrous or slightly scabrous, base cuneate, margin irregularly serrate, apex acuminate. Inflorescence terminal, a raceme of umbels, borne on leafy shoots, with 3-6 capitate umbels; peduncles 0.5-3 cm, densely pubescent; pedicels absent (flowers sessile). Calyx with 5 teeth, white pubescent. Corolla dull purplish. Ovary 2-carpellate; styles united basally into a column, free apically. Fruit obovoid-globose, 1-1.5 cm; styles persistent, ca. 3 mm.
It is in flower from Jul to August. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs)Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and can grow in nutritionally poor soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers moist soil. It can tolerate atmospheric pollution.
Succeeds in an open loamy soil, preferring a well-drained humus-rich soil in full sun. Tolerates poor soils and atmospheric pollution. A very cold resistant plant if it is sheltered from cold winds, tolerating temperatures down to at least -15°c. A very ornamental plant, it spreads vigorously by means of suckers. This species is closely related to E. divaricatus. Propagation:
Seed – best sown as soon as it is ripe in the autumn in a cold frame. It can be slow to germinate. Stored seed requires 6 months warm followed by 3 months cold stratification and can be very slow to germinate. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle and grow them on in light shade in a cold frame or greenhouse for at least the first winter. Plant out in late spring or early summer. Cuttings of half-ripe wood, July/August in a frame. Cuttings of ripe wood of the current season’s growth, 15 – 30cm long in a cold frame. Root cuttings in late winter. Division of suckers in the dormant season.
Edible Uses:... Drink; Tea….Young leaves – raw or cooked and used as a vegetable. Old leaves are dried and used as a tea substitute. A wine is made from the bark. It is highly fancied by the Chinese. It is probably used mainly for medicinal purposes.
The root bark contains saponins, acanthosides, cardiac glycosides and polysaccharides. It is adaptogenic, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antipyretic and diuretic. It is used in Korea in the treatment of lumbago, neuralgia, arthritis and oedema.
Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.
*Artemisia armeniaca Willd. ex Ledeb.
*Artemisia australis Ehrh. ex DC.
*Artemisia canescens Willd.
*Artemisia cernua Dufour ex Willk. & Lange
*Artemisia cernuiflora Dufour ex Willk. & Lange
*Artemisia eschscholtziana Besser
*Artemisia hispanica Jacq. 1786 not Lam. 1783 nor Weber ex Stechmann 1775 nor Stechm. ex Besser 1836
*Artemisia inconspicua Spreng.
*Artemisia jacquinii Raeusch.
*Artemisia microcephala Hillebr.
*Artemisia pinnatifida Jacquem. ex DC.
*Artemisia pyromacha Viv.
*Artemisia ramosa Lag. ex Willk. & Lange
*Artemisia seriphium Pourr. ex Willk. & Lange
Common Names: Biennial Wormwood
Habitat :Artemisia biennis is native to N. America – Quebec to British Columbia and south to New England, Indiana etc. It grows on open ground, clearings, burns, roadsides and waste places.
Artemisia biennis is an annual or biennial herb producing a single erect green to reddish stem up to 2 metres (6 ft 7 in) in maximum height. It is generally hairless and unscented. The frilly leaves are up to 13 centimetres (5.1 in) long and divided into thin, lance-shaped segments with long teeth. Leaves are alternate, 1-3 inches long, deeply divided into long, narrow lobes with coarsely toothed edges. Lower leaves can be double divided. Leaves and stems are hairless throughout. Stems can be simple or much branched at the base. Plants typically have a narrow, spire-like profile The inflorescence is a dense rod of clusters of flower heads interspersed with leaves. Flowers are numerous, yellow to green and globe like, 1/8 inch across in densely packed, short columnar clusters in the leaf axils, forming leafy, compound spikes on the upper stems and branches, several feet long on large specimens. The fruit is a tiny achene less than a millimeter wide.
The plant can be easily grown in a well-drained circumneutral or slightly alkaline loamy soil, preferring a sunny position. Established plants are drought tolerant. Plants are longer lived, more hardy and more aromatic when they are grown in a poor dry soil. Members of this genus are rarely if ever troubled by browsing deer.
Seed – surface sow spring in a greenhouse. Do not allow the compost to dry out. When large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and plant them out in early summer. The seed can also be sown in situ during late spring.
Parasiticide; Poultice; Skin.
The plant as been used in the treatment of stomach cramps, colic and painful menstruation. Externally, it has been used for treating sores and wounds. The report does not specify which part of the plant is used. The seeds, mixed with molasses, have been used as a parasiticide in getting rid of worms
Known Hazards: Although no reports of toxicity have been seen for this species, skin contact with some members of this genus can cause dermatitis or other allergic reactions in some people. Resources:
Think about this the next time you fill your plate with kale or spinach: a study published recently in JAMA Ophthalmology, found that boosting leafy green vegetable intake is associated with a reduced risk of developing glaucoma, a leading cause of blindness.
Harvard researchers analyzed the dietary information reported by more than 100,000 men and women in two long-term studies, each lasting more than 25 years. Those who ate the most leafy greens had a risk of developing glaucoma that was 20% to 30% lower than that of those who ate the least. What’s the link? Glaucoma causes damage to the optic nerve, through increased pressure from fluid in the eye or impaired blood flow to the optic nerve. Leafy greens are loaded with nitrate, which the body converts to nitric oxide. “Nitric oxide is important for maintaining optimal blood flow, and possibly for keeping eye pressure low” speculates Dr. Jae Hee Kang, the lead author of the study and a Harvard Medical School assistant professor. The study doesn’t prove that leafy greens reduce glaucoma risk; it only shows an association between the two. Eating leafy greens is also linked to lower rates of inflammation, cancer, heart disease, and even macular degeneration.
Botanical Name : Gentianella quinquefolia Family: Gentianaceae Genus: Gentianella Species: G. quinquefolia Kingdom:Plantae Order: Gentianales
Synonyms : Gentiana quinqueflora. L. emend Sm. Gentiana quinquefolia.
Common Names: Agueweed, Ague weed, Five-flowered gentian, Stiff gentian Habitat :Gentianella quinquefolia is native to Eastern N. America – southern Ontario to Tennessee and Florida. It grows on rich woods and moist fields. Description:
This wildflower is an annual or biennial plant about ½–2′ tall. Small plants are unbranched or sparingly branched, while large plants form frequent lateral stems in the upper leaf axils. The stems are light green to reddish purple, 4-angular, and slightly winged; the central stem is erect, while the lateral stems curve upward. Pairs of opposite leaves occur along each stem, each pair rotating about 90° from the pair of leaves immediately below. The leaves are up to 2½” long and about half as much across, becoming slightly smaller as they ascend the stems. The leaves are ovate-cordate to ovate, sessile or slightly clasping at their bases, and smooth along their margins. Their upper surfaces are yellowish green, green, or tinted slightly purple; each leaf has 3-5 parallel veins. Both the stems and leaves are hairless.
The central stem and upper lateral stems (if present) terminate in clusters of 3-7 flowers on short pedicels. Frequently, there are additional clusters of 1-5 flowers from the axils of the upper leaves. All of these flowers are held stiffly erect. Each flower is about ¾” long and ¼” across; it has a long tubular corolla and a short green calyx with 5 slender teeth. The apex of each corolla has 5 triangular lobes that fold together to form a point; the corolla is closed or nearly so. There are no interconnecting fringes to join these lobes. The corollas are blue-violet, purple, or nearly white; they have fine purple veins along their sides. Inside each corolla, there are five stamens and a pistil. The erect lobes of the calyx are narrowly oblong-lanceolate in shape. Underneath the clustered flowers, the leaves are reduced to leafy bracts. The blooming period occur from late summer to mid-fall and lasts about 1-2 months. There is no noticeable floral scent. Each flower is replaced by a seed capsule that divides into 2 parts to release the numerous tiny seeds. These seeds are distributed by wind and water. The root system consists of a taproot. This wildflower reproduces by reseeding itself; it does not spread vegetatively.
The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Insects
Cultivation: Requires a damp humus-rich soil and should be planted in a situation approaching its native habitat..
Propagation : Seed – must be sown in situ as soon as it is ripe in the autumn.
The root is cathartic, febrifuge, haemostatic, stimulant and stomachic. A tea or tincture of the root is a bitter tonic, used to stimulate the digestion and a poor appetite. An infusion has also been used to treat diarrhoea, sore chest, worms and haemorrhages. A homeopathic remedy is made from the root. It is used in the treatment of intermittent fevers and as a stomachic and tonic. Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider. Resources:
Vernacular names:Fennel is known as(Saunf) in Hindi and (Mouree) in Bengali. It is called (perunjeeragam) in Tamil and (perumjeeragam) in Malayalam. In Kannada (Dodda jeerige) or (Bade saunf) or(Badaa saunf).
Habitat :Fennel grows wild in most parts of temperate Europe, but is generally considered indigenous to the shores of the Mediterranean, whence it spreads eastwards to India. It has followed civilization, especially where Italians have colonized, and may be found growing wild in many parts of the world upon dry soils near the sea-coast and upon river-banks. It flourishes particularly on limestone soils and is now naturalized in some parts of this country, being found from North Wales southward and eastward to Kent, being most frequent in Devon and Cornwall and on chalk cliffs near the sea. It is often found in chalky districts inland in a semi-wild state.
Fennel is a hardy, perennial, umbelliferous herb, with yellow flowers and feathery leaves.It is erect, glaucous green, and grows to heights of up to 2.5 m, with hollow stems. The leaves grow up to 40 cm long; they are finely dissected, with the ultimate segments filiform (threadlike), about 0.5 mm wide. (Its leaves are similar to those of dill, but thinner.) The flowers are produced in terminal compound umbels 5–15 cm wide, each umbel section having 20–50 tiny yellow flowers on short pedicels. The fruit is a dry seed from 4–10 mm long, half as wide or less, and grooved.
click to see the pictures Edible Uses:
The bulb, foliage, and seeds of the fennel plant are widely used in many of the culinary traditions of the world. The small flowers of wild fennel (mistakenly known in America as fennel “pollen” are the most potent form of fennel, but also the most expensive. Dried fennel seed is an aromatic, anise-flavoured spice, brown or green in colour when fresh, slowly turning a dull grey as the seed ages. For cooking, green seeds are optimal. The leaves are delicately flavoured and similar in shape to those of dill. The bulb is a crisp vegetable that can be sautéed, stewed, braised, grilled, or eaten raw. They are used for garnishes and to add flavor to salads. They are also added to sauces and served with pudding. The leaves used in soups and fish sauce and sometimes eaten raw as salad.
Fennel seeds are sometimes confused with those of anise, which are similar in taste and appearance, though smaller. Fennel is also used as a flavouring in some natural toothpastes. The seeds are used in cookery and sweet desserts.
Many cultures in India, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Iran and the Middle East use fennel seed in their cookery. It is one of the most important spices in Kashmiri Pandit and Gujarati cooking. It is an essential ingredient of the Assamese/Bengali/Oriya spice mixture panch phoron and in Chinese five-spice powders. In many parts of India and Pakistan, roasted fennel seeds are consumed as mukhwas, an after-meal digestive and breath freshener. Fennel leaves are used as leafy green vegetables either by themselves or mixed with other vegetables, cooked to be served and consumed as part of a meal, in some parts of India. In Syria and Lebanon, it is used to make a special kind of egg omelette (along with onions, and flour) called ijjeh.
Many egg, fish, and other dishes employ fresh or dried fennel leaves. Florence fennel is a key ingredient in some Italian and German salads, often tossed with chicory and avocado, or it can be braised and served as a warm side dish. It may be blanched or marinated, or cooked in risotto.
In Spain the stems of the fennel plant are used in the preparation of pickled eggplants, “berenjenas de Almagro”.
Cultivation: Fennel will thrive anywhere, and a plantation will last for years. It is easily propagated by seeds, sown early in April in ordinary soil. It likes plenty of sun and is adapted to dry and sunny situations, not needing heavily manured ground, though it will yield more on rich stiff soil. From 4 1/2 to 5 lb. of seed are sown per acre, either in drills, 15 inches apart, lightly, just covered with soil and the plants afterwards thinned to a similar distance, or sewn thinly in a bed and transplanted when large enough. The fruit is heavy and a crop of 15 cwt. per acre is an average yield.
Medicinal Uses: Parts Used: Seeds, leaves, roots. Constituents:Fennel contains anethole, which can explain some of its medical effects: It, or its polymers, act as phytoestrogens.
The essence of fennel can be used as a safe and effective herbal drug for primary dysmenorrhea, but could have lower potency than mefenamic acid at the current study level.
Intestinal tract: Fennel is widely employed as a carminative, both in humans and in veterinary medicine (e.g., dogs), to treat flatulence by encouraging the expulsion of intestinal gas. Anethole is responsible for the carminative action.
On account of its aromatic and carminative properties, fennel fruit is chiefly used medicinally with purgatives to allay their tendency to griping and for this purpose forms one of the ingredients of the well-known compound Liquorice Powder. Fennel water has properties similar to those of anise and dill water: mixed with sodium bicarbonate and syrup, these waters constitute the domestic ‘gripe water’, used to correct the flatulence of infants. Volatile oil of Fennel has these properties in concentration. Fennel tea, formerly also employed as a carminative, is made by pouring half a pint of boiling water on a teaspoonful of bruised fennel seeds.
Fennel can be made into a syrup to treat babies with colic (formerly thought to be due to digestive upset), but long-term ingestion of fennel preparations by babies is a known cause of thelarche.
Eyes: In the Indian subcontinent, fennel seeds are also eaten raw, sometimes with some sweetener, as they are said to improve eyesight. Ancient Romans regarded fennel as the herb of sight. Root extracts were often used in tonics to clear cloudy eyes. Extracts of fennel seed have been shown in animal studies to have a potential use in the treatment of glaucoma.
Blood and urine: Fennel may be an effective diuretic and a potential drug for treatment of hypertension.
Breastmilk: There are historical anecdotes that fennel is a galactagogue, improving the milk supply of a breastfeeding mother. This use, although not supported by direct evidence, is sometimes justified by the fact that fennel is a source of phytoestrogens, which promote growth of breast tissue. However, normal lactation does not involve growth of breast tissue. Two case reports resulted in illness for the newborn child: “Both mothers had both been drinking more than 2 liters daily of an herbal tea mixture reportedly containing licorice, fennel, anise, and goat’s rue ” “The authors attributed the maternal and infant symptoms to anethole, which is found in both fennel and anise; however, the anethole levels were not measured in breastmilk, nor were the teas tested for their content.”
Syrup prepared from fennel juice was formerly given for chronic coughs. It is one of the plants which is said to be disliked by fleas, and powdered fennel has the effect of driving away fleas from kennels and stables.
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.