Tag Archives: Learning disability

Dyslexia

Definition:
Dyslexia is a disorder occurs in children. It is a learning disorder characterized by difficulty reading due to problems identifying speech sounds and learning how they relate to letters and words. Also called specific reading disability, dyslexia is a common learning disability in children

Dyslexia, also known as reading disorder, is characterized by trouble with reading despite normal intelligence. Different people are affected to varying degrees. Problems may include difficulties in spelling words, reading quickly, writing words, “sounding out” words in the head, pronouncing words when reading aloud and understanding what one reads. Often these difficulties are first noticed at school. When someone who previously could read loses their ability, it is known as alexia. The difficulties are involuntary and people with this disorder have normal desire to learn…………..CLICK & SEE THE  PICTURES

It occurs in children with normal vision and intelligence. Sometimes dyslexia goes undiagnosed for years and isn’t recognized until adulthood.

Dyslexia is the most common learning disability, affecting 3–7 % of the population; however, up to 20% may have some degree of symptoms. While dyslexia is more often diagnosed in men, it has been suggested that it affects men and women equally. Dyslexia occurs in all areas of the world. Some believe that dyslexia should be best considered as a different way of learning, with both benefits and downsides.

There’s no cure for dyslexia. It’s a lifelong condition caused by inherited traits that affect how our brain works. However, most children with dyslexia can succeed in school with tutoring or a specialized education program. Emotional support also plays an important role.
Symptoms:
It is very difficult to recognize dysplexia before the child enters school, but some early clues may indicate a problem. Once the child reaches school age, the school teacher may be the first to notice a problem. The condition often becomes apparent as a child starts learning to read.

Symptoms found before school age:

Signs and symptoms that a young child may be at risk of dyslexia include:

*Late talking
*Learning new words slowly
*Difficulty learning nursery rhymes
*Difficulty playing rhyming games
Symptoms found at the school age:

Once the child is in school, dyslexia signs and symptoms may become more apparent, including:

*Reading well below the expected level than the child’s age
*Problems processing and understanding what he or she hears
*Difficulty comprehending rapid instructions
*Problems remembering the sequence of things
*Difficulty seeing (and occasionally hearing) similarities and differences in letters and words
*Inability to sound out the pronunciation of an unfamiliar word
*Difficulty spelling
*Trouble learning a foreign language

Symptoms found in teens and adults:

The symptoms are similar to those in children. Though early intervention is beneficial for dyslexia treatment, it’s never too late to seek help. Some common dyslexia symptoms in teens and adults are :

* Difficulties with summarizing stories
* Difficulty with memorization, reading aloud.
*Difficulty in learning foreign languages.
*Difficulty with time management
*Trouble learning a foreign language
*Difficulty memorizing
*Difficulty doing math problems

Adult dyslexics can often read with good comprehension, though they tend to read more slowly than non-dyslexics and perform worse in spelling tests or when reading nonsense words – a measure of phonological awareness.

A common myth about dyslexia is that its defining feature is reading or writing letters or words backwards, but this is true of many children as they learn to read and write

Associated conditions:
Dyslexia is often accompanied by several learning disabilities, but it is unclear whether they share underlying neurological causes. These associated disabilities include:

*Dysgraphia – A disorder which primarily expresses itself through difficulties with writing or typing, but in some cases through difficulties associated with eye–hand coordination and direction- or sequence-oriented processes such as tying knots or carrying out repetitive tasks. In dyslexia, dysgraphia is often multifactorial, due to impaired letter-writing automaticity, organizational and elaborative difficulties, and impaired visual word forming which makes it more difficult to retrieve the visual picture of words required for spelling.

*Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder – A significant degree of comorbidity has been reported between ADHD and reading disorders such as dyslexia. ADHD occurs in 12–24% of all individuals with dyslexia.

*Auditory processing disorder – A listening disability that affects the ability to process auditory information. This can lead to problems with auditory memory and auditory sequencing. Many people with dyslexia have auditory processing problems, and may develop their own logographic cues to compensate for this type of deficit. Some research indicates that auditory processing skills could be the primary shortfall in dyslexia.

*Developmental coordination disorder – A neurological condition characterized by marked difficulty in carrying out routine tasks involving balance, fine-motor control, kinesthetic coordination, difficulty in the use of speech sounds, problems with short-term memory, and organization.
Causes:
Researchers have been trying to find the neurobiological basis of dyslexia since the condition was first identified in 1881. For example, some have tried to associate the common problem among dyslexics of not being able to see letters clearly to abnormal development of their visual nerve cells.

CLICK & SEE THE PICTURE : 

Dyslexia has been linked to certain genes that control how the brain develops. It appears to be an inherited condition — it tends to run in families.

These inherited traits appear to affect parts of the brain concerned with language, interfering with the ability to convert written letters and words into speech.

Neuroanatomy:
Modern neuroimaging techniques such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and positron emission tomography (PET) have shown a correlation between both functional and structural differences in the brains of children with reading difficulties. Some dyslexics show less electrical activation in parts of the left hemisphere of the brain involved with reading, such as the inferior frontal gyrus, inferior parietal lobule, and the middle and ventral temporal cortex. Over the past decade, brain activation studies using PET to study language have produced a breakthrough in the understanding of the neural basis of language. Neural bases for the visual lexicon and for auditory verbal short-term memory components have been proposed,   with some implication that the observed neural manifestation of developmental dyslexia is task-specific (i.e. functional rather than structural). fMRIs in dyslexics have provided important data which point to the interactive role of the cerebellum and cerebral cortex as well as other brain structures.

The cerebellar theory of dyslexia proposes that impairment of cerebellum-controlled muscle movement affects the formation of words by the tongue and facial muscles, resulting in the fluency problems that are characteristic of some dyslexics. The cerebellum is also involved in the automatization of some tasks, such as reading.[48] The fact that some dyslexic children have motor task and balance impairments has been used as evidence for a cerebellar role in their reading difficulties. However, the cerebellar theory is not supported by controlled research studies

Genetics:
Research into potential genetic causes of dyslexia has its roots in post-autopsy examination of the brains of people with dyslexia. Observed anatomical differences in the language centers of such brains include microscopic cortical malformations known as ectopias, more rarely, vascular micro-malformations, and microgyrus. The previously cited studies and others[51] suggest that abnormal cortical development presumed to occur before or during the sixth month of fetal brain development was the cause of the abnormalities. Abnormal cell formations in dyslexics have also been reported in non-language cerebral and subcortical brain structures. Several genes have been associated with dyslexia, including DCDC2 and KIAA0319 on chromosome 6, and DYX1C1 on chromosome 15

Mechanisms:
The dual-route theory of reading aloud was first described in the early 1970s. This theory suggests that two separate mental mechanisms, or cognitive routes, are involved in reading aloud. One mechanism is the lexical route, which is the process whereby skilled readers can recognize known words by sight alone, through a “dictionary” lookup procedure. The other mechanism is the nonlexical or sublexical route, which is the process whereby the reader can “sound out” a written word. This is done by identifying the word’s constituent parts (letters, phonemes, graphemes) and applying knowledge of how these parts are associated with each other, for example, how a string of neighboring letters sound together. The dual-route system could explain the different rates of dyslexia occurrence between different languages (e.g. the Spanish language dependence on phonological rules accounts for the fact that Spanish-speaking children show a higher level of performance in non-word reading, when compared to English-speakers).

Dyslexia disorder is not caused by mutation in one gene; in fact, it appears to involve the combined effects of several genes. Studying the cognitive problems associated with other disorders helps to better understand the genotype-phenotype link of dyslexia. Neurophysiological and imaging procedures are being used to ascertain phenotypic characteristics in dyslexics, thus identifying the effects of certain genes.

Diagnosis:
There’s no one test that can diagnose dyslexia. Your child’s doctor will consider a number of factors, such as:

*Child’s mental development, educational issues and medical history.
The doctor will likely ask the chil questions about these areas. The doctor will likely also want to know about any conditions that run in your child’s family, including whether any family members have a learning disability.

*Child’s home life.
The doctor may ask for a description of hi or her family and home life, including who lives at home and whether there are any problems at home.

*Questionnaires.
The child’s doctor may have the child, family members or teachers answer written questions. Child may be asked to take tests to identify reading and language abilities.
Vision, hearing and brain (neurological) tests. These can help determine whether another disorder may be causing or adding to the child’s poor reading ability………....CLICK & SEE 

*Psychological testing.
The doctor may ask the parent or child questions to better understand the child’s psychological state. This can help determine whether social problems, anxiety or depression may be limiting his or her abilities.

*Testing reading and other academic skills.
Child may take a set of educational tests and have the process and quality of reading skills analyzed by a reading expert.
Treatment & Management:
There’s no known way to correct the underlying brain abnormality that causes dyslexia — dyslexia is a lifelong problem. However, early detection and evaluation to determine specific needs and appropriate treatment can improve success.

Through the use of compensation strategies, therapy and educational support, dyslexic individuals can learn to read and write. There are techniques and technical aids which help to manage or conceal symptoms of the disorder. Removing stress and anxiety alone can sometimes improve written comprehension. For dyslexia intervention with alphabet-writing systems, the fundamental aim is to increase a child’s awareness of correspondences between graphemes (letters) and phonemes (sounds), and to relate these to reading and spelling by teaching how sounds blend into words. It has been found that reinforced collateral training focused on reading and spelling yields longer-lasting gains than oral phonological training alone. Early intervention – that done while the language areas of the brain are still developing – is the most successful in reducing the long-term impacts of dyslexia. There is some evidence that the use of specially-tailored fonts may mitigate the effects of dyslexia. These fonts, which include Dyslexie, OpenDyslexic, and Lexia Readable, were created based on the idea that many of the letters of the Latin alphabet are visually similar and may therefore confuse dyslexics. Dyslexie and OpenDyslexic both put emphasis on making each letter more unique in order to be more easily identified. Font design can have an effect on reading, reading time, and the perception of legibility of all readers, not only those with dyslexia.

There have been many studies conducted regarding intervention in dyslexia. Among these studies one meta-analysis found that there was functional activation as a result.

Alternative therapy: Regular practice of Yaga with Pramayama under the supervision of an expart may give very good result in improving neurogical difficulties.

Prognosis:
The prognosis for children with dyslexia is variable and dependent on the cause. In the case of primary dyslexia, the earlier the diagnosis is made and intervention started, the better the outcome. It is also important to focus on the child’s self-esteem, since dealing with dyslexia can be extremely frustrating.

Dyslexic children require special instruction for word analysis and spelling from an early age. However, there are fonts that can help dyslexics better understand writing. The prognosis, generally speaking, is positive for individuals who are identified in childhood and receive support from friends and family.

Lastly it is important to recognize that many well-known and successful individuals have suffered from dyslexia, including Albert Einstein and Steven Spielberg, just to name a couple.

Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.This is purely for educational purpose.

Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dyslexia
http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/dyslexia
http://www.medicinenet.com/dyslexia/page6.htm#what_is_the_prognosis_for_a_person_with_dyslexia

Dyslexia

Definition:
Dyslexia comes from the Greek language meaning ‘difficulty with words’. It is a broad term defining a learning disability that impairs a person’s fluency or comprehension accuracy in being able to read, speak, and spell, and which can manifest itself as a difficulty with phonological awareness, phonological decoding, orthographic coding, auditory short-term memory, and/or rapid naming. Dyslexia is separate and distinct from reading difficulties resulting from other causes, such as a non-neurological deficiency with vision or hearing, or from poor or inadequate reading instruction. It is believed that dyslexia can affect between 5 to 10 percent of a given population although there have been no studies to indicate an accurate percentage.

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There are three proposed cognitive subtypes of dyslexia: auditory, visual and attentional. Although dyslexia is not an intellectual disability, it is considered both a learning disability and a reading disability. Dyslexia and IQ are not interrelated, since reading and cognition develop independently in individuals who have dyslexia.

Accomplished adult dyslexics may be able to read with good comprehension, but they tend to read more slowly than non-dyslexics, and may perform more poorly at nonsense word reading (a measure of phonological awareness), and spelling.

Dyslexia usually occurs in children with normal vision and normal intelligence. Children with dyslexia usually have normal speech, but may have difficulty interpreting spoken language and writing.

Dyslexia can go undetected in the early grades of schooling. The child can become frustrated by the difficulty in learning to read, and other problems can arise that disguise dyslexia. The child may show signs of depression and low self-esteem. Behavior problems at home as well as at school are frequently seen. The child may become unmotivated and develop a dislike for school. The child’s success in school may be jeopardized if the problem remains untreated.

Children with dyslexia need individualized tutoring, and treatment for dyslexia often involves a multisensory education program. Emotional support of your child on your part also plays an important role.

 

Symptoms:
The symptoms of dyslexia vary according to the severity of the disorder as well as the age of the individual.

Once your child is in school, dyslexia symptoms may become more apparent, including:

*Reading at a level well below the expected level for the age of your child
*Problems processing and understanding what he or she hears
*Difficulty comprehending rapid instructions
*Trouble following more than one command at a time
*Problems remembering the sequence of things
*Difficulty seeing (and occasionally hearing) similarities and differences in letters and words
*An inability to sound out the pronunciation of an unfamiliar word
*Seeing letters or words in reverse (b for d or saw for was) — although seeing words or letters in reverse is common for children younger than 8 who don’t have dyslexia, children with dyslexia will continue to see reversals past that age
*Difficulty spelling
*Trouble learning a foreign language

Causes:
Dyslexia is caused by differences in the areas of the brain that deal with language, which aren’t yet fully understood.

Several areas in the brain interact in a complex way to coordinate the manipulation of words needed for reading, writing and spelling, so the features of any one person’s dyslexia will depend on which areas are affected and how.

There may be problems, for example, receiving sensory information through vision or hearing, holding it or structuring it in the brain, or retrieving it later, or there may be problems with the speed of processing information.

Brain-imaging scans show that when dyslexic people try to process information their brains work differently to those without dyslexia. This has nothing to do with intellect – people with dyslexia show a normal range of intelligence.

Inherited or genetic factors are important in dyslexia and other family members are often affected.

Complications:
Your child’s inability to read well may not affect achievement in other school subjects, such as arithmetic. However, because reading is a skill basic to most other school subjects, a child who has dyslexia is at a great disadvantage in most classes and may have trouble learning.

Left untreated, dyslexia may lead to low self-esteem, behavioral problems, anxiety, delinquency, aggression, and withdrawal or alienation from friends, parents and teachers. The degree to which these problems develop may relate to the severity of the condition.

Diagnosis:
Dyslexia diagnosis involves an evaluation of medical, cognitive, sensory-processing, educational and psychological factors. Your doctor may ask about your child’s developmental and medical history as well as your family medical history.

Doctor may also suggest that your child undergo:

*Vision, hearing and neurological evaluations. These evaluations can help determine whether another disorder may be causing or contributing to your child’s poor reading ability.

*A psychological assessment. This can help determine whether social problems, anxiety or depression may be limiting your child’s abilities.

*An evaluation of educational skills. Your child may take a set of educational tests and have the process and quality of his or her reading skills analyzed by an expert.

Treatment:
There is no cure for dyslexia, but dyslexic individuals can learn to read and write with appropriate educational support.

Especially for undergraduates, some consideration of what ‘reading’ is and what it is for can be useful. There are techniques (reading the first sentence [and/or last] of each paragraph in a chapter, for example) which can give an overview of content. This can be sufficient for some purposes. Since stress and anxiety are contributors to a dyslexic’s weaknesses in absorbing information, removing these can assist in improving understanding. When a dyslexic knows that not every reading experience must be onerous, it greatly helps their mental approach to the task.

The best approaches acknowledge that the objective in helping to improve a dyslexic’s ‘reading’ is not to ‘read-like-a-non-dyslexic-does’, but to find a way of extracting information from text that works efficiently for someone who processes such information differently from the majority.

For alphabet writing systems the fundamental aim is to increase a child’s awareness of correspondences between graphemes and phonemes, and to relate these to reading and spelling. It has been found that training focused towards visual language and orthographic issues yields longer-lasting gains than mere oral phonological training.

The best form of approach is determined by the underlying neurological cause(s) of the dyslexic symptoms.

Context sensitive spell checkers combined with text-to-speech systems offer forms of assistive technology to dyslexia users, supporting reading and writing.

Recent research suggests that adaptive working memory training using a program called Jungle Memory was effective in boosting IQ, working memory, and literacy scores in students with dyslexia.

Fast ForWord software, which works on auditory processing, working memory and other aspects of dyslexia has also been successful in helping dyslexia.

Other approaches can help, too. In cases linked to visual differences, coloured overlays and lenses can lead to improvement because they may stop the letters from ‘dancing on the page’ (a common complaint).

Coping and support:-
Emotional support and opportunities for achievement in activities that don’t involve reading are important for children with dyslexia.

If your child has dyslexia:

*Be supportive. Having difficulty learning to read may affect your child’s self-esteem. Be sure to provide love and to support his or her talents and strengths.

*Talk to your child. Explain to your child what dyslexia is and that it’s not a failure on his or her part. The better your child understands this, the more likely he or she will cope with and compensate for this learning disability.

*Take steps at home to make it easier for your child to study. Provide a clean, quiet, organized place for your child to study, and designate a study time. Also, make sure your child gets enough rest, good nutrition and family support — through outings and activities — to provide a better environment in which he or she can learn.

*Work with your child’s school. Talk with teachers frequently to make sure your child is able to stay on track. Be sure your child gets extra time for tests that require reading, if needed. Ask your child’s teacher if it would help your child to record the day’s lessons to playback later. If available, tutoring sessions with a reading-disorders specialist can be very helpful for many children with dyslexia.

You may also want to consider joining a support group to stay in contact with parents who face similar learning disabilities in their children. Belonging to a support group can provide you with both good information and emotional support. Check with your doctor or your child’s reading specialist to find out if there are any support groups in your area.

Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.This is purely for educational purpose.

Resources:
http://www.bbc.co.uk/health/physical_health/conditions/dyslexia2.shtml
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dyslexia
http://www.medicinenet.com/dyslexia/article.htm
http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/dyslexia/DS00224

http://www.readinghorizons.com/research/dyslexia/information.aspx

http://www.causesdyslexia.net/dyslexia-biological-cause/

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

Definition:
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common childhood disorders and can continue through adolescence and adulthood.. Children with ADHD have impaired functioning in multiple settings, including home, school, and in relationships with peers. If untreated, the disorder can have long-term adverse effects into adolescence and adulthood.

Symptoms include difficulty staying focused and paying attention, difficulty controlling behavior, and hyperactivity (over-activity).

……….

ADHD has three subtypes:
1.Predominantly hyperactive-impulsive ……
*Most symptoms (six or more) are in the hyperactivity-impulsivity categories.
*Fewer than six symptoms of inattention are present, although inattention may still be present to some degree.

2.Predominantly inattentive
…………………
*The majority of symptoms (six or more) are in the inattention category and fewer than six symptoms of hyperactivity-impulsivity are present, although hyperactivity-impulsivity may still be present to some degree.

*Children with this subtype are less likely to act out or have difficulties getting along with other children. They may sit quietly, but they are not paying attention to what they are doing. Therefore, the child may be overlooked, and parents and teachers may not notice that he or she has ADHD.

3.Combined hyperactive-impulsive and inattentive. .
*Six or more symptoms of inattention and six or more symptoms of hyperactivity-impulsivity are present.
*Most children have the combined type of ADHD

Treatments can relieve many of the disorder’s symptoms, but there is no cure. With treatment, most people with ADHD can be successful in school and lead productive lives. Researchers are developing more effective treatments and interventions, and using new tools such as brain imaging, to better understand ADHD and to find more effective ways to treat and prevent it.

Signs & Symptoms
Symptoms of ADHD will appear over the course of many months, and include:

Impulsiveness: a child who acts quickly without thinking first.
Hyperactivity: a child who can’t sit still, walks, runs, or climbs around when others are seated, talks when others are talking.

Inattention: a child who daydreams or seems to be in another world, is sidetracked by what is going on around him or her.

Inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity are the key behaviors of ADHD. It is normal for all children to be inattentive, hyperactive, or impulsive sometimes, but for children with ADHD, these behaviors are more severe and occur more often. To be diagnosed with the disorder, a child must have symptoms for 6 or more months and to a degree that is greater than other children of the same age.

Children who have symptoms of inattention may:
*Be easily distracted, miss details, forget things, and frequently switch from one activity to another
*Have difficulty focusing on one thing
*Become bored with a task after only a few minutes, unless they are doing something enjoyable
*Have difficulty focusing attention on organizing and completing a task or learning something new
*Have trouble completing or turning in homework assignments, often losing things (e.g., pencils, toys, assignments) needed to complete tasks or activities
*Not seem to listen when spoken to
*Daydream, become easily confused, and move slowly
*Have difficulty processing information as quickly and accurately as others
*Struggle to follow instructions.

Children who have symptoms of hyperactivity may:
*Fidget and squirm in their seats
*Talk nonstop
*Dash around, touching or playing with anything and everything in sight
*Have trouble sitting still during dinner, school, and story time
*Be constantly in motion
*Have difficulty doing quiet tasks or activities.

Children who have symptoms of impulsivity may:
*Be very impatient
*Blurt out inappropriate comments, show their emotions without restraint, and act without regard for consequences
*Have difficulty waiting for things they want or waiting their turns in games
*Often interrupt conversations or others’ activities.

ADHD Can Be Mistaken for Other Problems too.
Parents and teachers can miss the fact that children with symptoms of inattention have the disorder because they are often quiet and less likely to act out. They may sit quietly, seeming to work, but they are often not paying attention to what they are doing. They may get along well with other children, compared with those with the other subtypes, who tend to have social problems. But children with the inattentive kind of ADHD are not the only ones whose disorders can be missed. For example, adults may think that children with the hyperactive and impulsive subtypes just have emotional or disciplinary problems.

Diagnosis:
If ADHD is suspected, the diagnosis should be made by a professional with training in ADHD. This includes child psychiatrists, psychologists, developmental/behavioral pediatricians, behavioral neurologists, and clinical social workers. After ruling out other possible reasons for the child’s behavior, the specialist checks the child’s school and medical records and talks to teachers and parents who have filled out a behavior rating scale for the child. A diagnosis is made only after all this information has been considered.

Children mature at different rates and have different personalities, temperaments, and energy levels. Most children get distracted, act impulsively, and struggle to concentrate at one time or another. Sometimes, these normal factors may be mistaken for ADHD. ADHD symptoms usually appear early in life, often between the ages of 3 and 6, and because symptoms vary from person to person, the disorder can be hard to diagnose. Parents may first notice that their child loses interest in things sooner than other children, or seems constantly “out of control.” Often, teachers notice the symptoms first, when a child has trouble following rules, or frequently “spaces out” in the classroom or on the playground.

No single test can diagnose a child as having ADHD. Instead, a licensed health professional needs to gather information about the child, and his or her behavior and environment. A family may want to first talk with the child’s pediatrician. Some pediatricians can assess the child themselves, but many will refer the family to a mental health specialist with experience in childhood mental disorders such as ADHD. The pediatrician or mental health specialist will first try to rule out other possibilities for the symptoms. For example, certain situations, events, or health conditions may cause temporary behaviors in a child that seem like ADHD.

Between them, the referring pediatrician and specialist will determine if a child:

*Is experiencing undetected seizures that could be associated with other medical conditions
*Has a middle ear infection that is causing hearing problems
*Has any undetected hearing or vision problems
*Has any medical problems that affect thinking and behavior
*Has any learning disabilities
*Has anxiety or depression, or other psychiatric problems that might cause ADHD-like symptoms
*Has been affected by a significant and sudden change, such as the death of a family member, a divorce, or parent’s job loss.
A specialist will also check school and medical records for clues, to see if the child’s home or school settings appear unusually stressful or disrupted, and gather information from the child’s parents and teachers. Coaches, babysitters, and other adults who know the child well also may be consulted.

The specialist also will ask:
*Are the behaviors excessive and long-term, and do they affect all aspects of the child’s life?
*Do they happen more often in this child compared with the child’s peers?
*Are the behaviors a continuous problem or a response to a temporary situation?
*Do the behaviors occur in several settings or only in one place, such as the playground, classroom, or home?
The specialist pays close attention to the child’s behavior during different situations. Some situations are highly structured, some have less structure. Others would require the child to keep paying attention. Most children with ADHD are better able to control their behaviors in situations where they are getting individual attention and when they are free to focus on enjoyable activities. These types of situations are less important in the assessment. A child also may be evaluated to see how he or she acts in social situations, and may be given tests of intellectual ability and academic achievement to see if he or she has a learning disability.

Finally, if after gathering all this information the child meets the criteria for ADHD, he or she will be diagnosed with the disorder.

Treatment
Effective treatments for ADHD are available, and include behavioral therapy and medications.

Currently available treatments focus on reducing the symptoms of ADHD and improving functioning. Treatments include medication, various types of psychotherapy, education or training, or a combination of treatments.

Getting Help: Locate Services
Locate mental health services in your area, affordable healthcare, NIMH clinical trials, and listings of professionals and organizations.

Click to see for more locational services
You may also clic to see:->
*Child and Adolescent Mental Health:
*Treatment of Children with Mental Disorders
*Information about medications
*Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Information and Organizations from NLM’s MedlinePlus (en Español) :
*Listen to a NIH podcast about a study on ADHD medications by the National Institute on Environmental and Health Sciences:

*Chiropractic Care for ADD/ADHD

*ADD & Toxins

Resources:
http://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/topics/attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-adhd/index.shtm

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Cornu Cervi

Botanical Name :Cornu Cervi Parvum
Family: Orchidaceae
Subfamily: Epidendroideae
Genus: Phalaenopsis
Species: P. cornu-cervi
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Asparagales
Pinyin Mandarin Name: Lu Rong
Synonyms : Phalaenopsis devriesiana
Common English Name:  Velvet of Young Deer Horn
Part of Plant Used: Velvet of the horn
Nature: Warm
Taste : Sweet, salty
Habitat :Cornu Cervi is native to  Burma, Borneo, Java, Moloca, Sumatra, Thailand.
Plants grow on trees trunks in the dense forest in India, Myanamar, Thailand, Laos, Vietnam, Nicobar Islands, Malaysia, Java, Borneo, Sumatra, and the Philippines at elevations of 1000 meters and below.
Description:
The very rare red form of Phal. cornu-cervi, the form known as fma. chattaladae, awarded a Silver Medal by the Taiwan Orchid Growers’ Association ! This form of the species is distinct in its solid suffusion of red pigment over every segment of the flower, as opposed to many which are actually Phal. cornu-cervi var. rubescens, where the yellow background of the flower is actually visible on the lateral sepals. These plants can flower and re-flower on the same flattened spikes for several years, so don’t remove them until they have turned brown. A fully mature plant can carry over 6 flowering spikes of fragrant flowers at a time, each spike blooming several times during a single year. Very Highly Recommended.
click & see the pictures
Plant flowers in the spring to fall with 9 to 12 flowers. Flowers are fragrant and 3 to 5 cm wide. The chromosome number is 2n = 38.

The plant was first described by Breda as Polychilos cornu-cervi in 1827. The plants were first cultivated in England by Messrs. Low & Co. when Rev. C. S. brought several plant back in living condition in 1864
Meridians Entered: Liver, Kidneys

Medicinal Usages:
This herb is used in formulas to treat anemia after chronic disease, impotence, and weakness of back and knees with cold intolerance; also used to treat children for failure to thrive, mental retardation, learning disabilities, and skeletal deformities (TCM: deficient :Yang, deficient Blood, and deficient Kidney Yang; deficient Essence).
Click for more information
Traditional Usages and Functions
Tonifies Kidneys and fortifies Yang; tonifies the Governing Channel, benefits Essence and Blood, and strengthens sinews and bones; bolsters the Penetrating and Conception Channels and strengthens the Girdle Channel; tonifies and nourishes Qi and Blood.

Processing is Required for proper use.

Cautions in Use: Do not use this herb when there is a strong Yin deficiency or heat signs caused by Yin deficiency.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://www.acupuncture-and-chinese-medicine.com/cornu-cervi.html
http://www.phals.net/cornu-cervi/index_e.html

http://www.orchids.com/Phal-cornu-cervi-f-chattaladae-Red-Wan-Chiao-SMTOGA-x–P4208.aspx
http://orchids.wikia.com/wiki/Phalaenopsis_cornu-cervi

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phalaenopsis_cornu-cervi