Herbs & Plants

Peltigera Canina

[amazon_link asins=’B007NC3JCO,B000001UIO,0140019863,B01K5VGWNW,B01MF5W8CO,B01MTJ9VHC,B00DGYSYLY,B074DZG7J6,B0015D0CO0′ template=’ProductCarousel’ store=’finmeacur-20′ marketplace=’US’ link_id=’ed85025a-7ca3-11e7-a20f-db6ce25bfa45′]

Botanical Name :Peltigera Canina
Family: Peltigeraceae
Kingdom: Fungi
Class  :Ascomycetes
Order :Peltigerales
Genus: Peltigera
Species: Peltigera canina.

Synonyms: Lichen Caninus. Lichen Cinereus Terrestis. Ash-coloured Ground Liverwort.

Common Name :British Lichen or felt lichen, English  Liverwort

Habitat :Peltigera Canina grows in Britain where the drainage is good; on mudwalls and molehill

The marginal disks of this lichen are at first veiled and project from the thallus, retaining fragments of the veil of the margin. The fronds are foliaceous, coriaceous, ascending, soft, underside is veined and attached to the ground or to whatever substance it grows upon – where they make handsome plants, especially when in fruit or studded with the little red parasite to which they are subject.

Upper surface of fresh thallus grey-brown, with convex wrinkles (‘bullate’) (compare P. rufescens), ash-grey and lacking wrinkles when dry, densely but minutely felted-tomentose, lacking isidia, margins of main lobes generally down-turned towards the tips but side-margins often erect, crisped-undulate (beware key in Smith et al. (2009)!), lower surface white-tomentose, with irregular, fluffy, confluently-based rhizines. Widespread but local in turf on dunes and on gravelly and sandy soils inland.

Medicinal Uses:
Part Used: Lichen.
Deobstruent, slightly purgative and held in esteem as a remedy for liver complaints.The plant was formerly considered of great value in hydrophobia.

The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.


Enhanced by Zemanta
Herbs & Plants

Iceland moss

[amazon_link asins=’B01A3PARYU,B0080JKXQ4,B01BFNQ1YY,B00JLRFWFQ,B00E75T3HA,B00B53JQGU,B00L8BKT7O,B005DZHJRE’ template=’ProductCarousel’ store=’finmeacur-20′ marketplace=’US’ link_id=’13eecfb9-086b-11e7-a78f-c3d0253416fb’]

Botanical Name : Cetraria islandica
Family: Parmeliaceae
Genus:     Cetraria
Species: C. islandica
Kingdom: Fungi
Division: Ascomycota
Class:     Lecanoromycetes
Order:     Lecanorales

Synonyms: Cetraria. Iceland Lichen.

Common Name :  Iceland Moss, Island cetraria lichen, Oriental cetraria lichen

Other names: Iceland Lichen, Eryngo-leaved liverwort

Habitat:Iceland moss grows abundantly in the mountainous regions of northern countries, and it is specially characteristic of the lava slopes and plains of the west and north of Iceland. It is found on the mountains of north Wales, north England, Scotland and south-west Ireland. In North America its range extends through Arctic regions, from Alaska to Newfoundland, and south in the Rocky Mountains to Colorado, and to the Appalachian Mountains of New England.A common plant in northern countries and in the mountainous part of warmer countries.
It grows on damp places, usually on rocks and the bark of trees, especially conifers.

Iceland Moss is a composite life form (lichen), symbiotic connection between algae and fungus. It has an appearance similar to moss. It is shrub-like plant, with crinkled, gray-green to dark brown forked branches. The upper side is darker; the underside is lighter, whitish. It grows up to 1, 2 meters in height.  The whole plant is tough and springy.

There is no known information on the cultivation of this plant. It requires clean air and is very intolerant of atmospheric pollution so cannot be grown in towns. See the plants native habitat above for ideas on how it can be encouraged to grow. This species is a lichen, which is actually a symbiotic association of two different species, one an algae and the other a fungus. It is very slow-growing. This plant is often used in commercially produced disinfectants.

Propagation :
The only way of reproducing this plant is vegetatively. Almost any part of the plant can be used to produce a new plant, simply separate a portion and place it in its new hom.

Edible Uses:
A jelly is made by boiling the whole plant. It is nutritious and medicinal. Rather bitter, it requires leaching, which can be done by changing the cooking water once or twice during the cooking process. The dried and powdered plant can be mixed with wheat and used in making bread. It is very bitter and the process required to leach it is far too time-consuming and tedious to be countenanced

Medicinal Uses:

Parts Used :Lichen

Constituents: It contains about 70 per cent of lichen starch and becomes blue on the addition of iodine. It also contains a little sugar, fumaric acid, oxalic acid, about 3 per cent of cetrarin and 1 per cent of licheno-stearic acid.

Demulcent, tonic, and nutritive when deprived of its bitter principle. Excellent in chronic pulmonary troubles, catarrh, digestive disturbances, dysentery, advanced tuberculosis. Decoction, B.P. 1885, 1 to 4 OZ. Ground, it can be mixed with chocolate or cocoa.

Iceland Moss is strongly antibiotic and expectorant. It soothes irritated tissues, especially mucous membranes and is often used in cough medications. It eases dry cough and helps in case of a sore throat. It has beneficial results in cases of tuberculosis and bronchitis. It also controls vomiting, has excellent effects in treatment of gastroenteritis, loss of appetite and food poisoning. Used externally, the plant is an excellent remedy for vaginal discharge, boils and wounds.

Iceland moss has been used since ancient times as a cough remedy and has also been used in European folk medicine as a cancer treatment. In present day herbalism it is highly prized for its strongly antibiotic and demulcent actions, being used especially to soothe the mucous membranes of the chest, to counter catarrh and calm dry and paroxysmal coughs – it is particularly helpful as a treatment for elderly people. Iceland moss has both a demulcent and a bitter tonic effect within the gut – a combination almost unique amongst medicinal herbs. The whole plant is strongly antibiotic, antiemetic, strongly demulcent, galactogogue, nutritive and tonic. It is excellent when used internally in the treatment of chronic pulmonary problems, catarrh, dysentery, chronic digestive disturbances (including irritable bowel syndrome and food poisoning) and advanced tuberculosis. Externally, it is used in the treatment of boils, vaginal discharges and impetigo. The plant can be harvested as required throughout the year, preferably during dry weather, and can also be dried for later use. Use with caution. The German Commission E Monographs, a therapeutic guide to herbal medicine, approve Cetraria islandica for cough & bronchitis, dyspepsia, inflammation of mouth and pharynx, loss of appetite.
Other Uses:
Disinfectant; Dye.

A powerful antibiotic can be obtained from the plant and this has become a fundamental ingredient in a wide range of commercially produced disinfectants. A brown dye is obtained from the plant.

Known Hazards: Some herbs could react with certain medication. Therefore, it is advisable to consult your doctor/herbalist before consumption of any herb.   Indigestion and nausea with large doses. Rare liver damage. Herb bitterness possible in breast milk .

The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.


Enhanced by Zemanta
Herbs & Plants

Cladonia Pyxidata

[amazon_link asins=’B07BRTD5JT,B07BSW8XZQ,B078TBNWJW’ template=’ProductCarousel’ store=’finmeacur-20′ marketplace=’US’ link_id=’af9f6fae-7d99-11e8-aff0-a3c16e2f49b4′]

Botanical Name :Cladonia Pyxidata
Family: Cladoniaceae /Lichenes
Species :C.pyxidata
Kingdom :Fungi
Division: Ascomycota
Class: Lecanoromycetes
Order : Lecanorales

Part Used: Whole plant.

Habitat:Cladonia Pyxidata is native to North-west America, but now a common weed in many counties in Britain.

Cladonia is one of a numerous genus of lecidineous lichens. It grows abundantly in the woods and hedges and is a common species; it has no odour; taste sweetish and mucilagenous.

click to see the pictures :

Medicinal  Uses: Expectorant, a valuable medicine in whooping cough.

The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider


Enhanced by Zemanta
Herbs & Plants

Rocella tinctoria

[amazon_link asins=’B00S730YWG,B00Z46VAMW,B00PI6SNKA,B00OAYL7IG,B00UY9QFK6,B00OLFH5E4,B0009K4EDK,B06XCFYNCZ,B014VR129K’ template=’ProductCarousel’ store=’finmeacur-20′ marketplace=’US’ link_id=’348934f0-6793-11e7-8387-81af37011e39′][amazon_link asins=’B01J8VDBNO,114848244X,B01IOF1LNW,B00VQIAE38,B01N147BE0,B01J2HI0EY,1140955047,B01I7JDUXE,B01J2G1K9M’ template=’ProductCarousel’ store=’finmeacur-20′ marketplace=’US’ link_id=’5623ce2c-6793-11e7-862d-b36d50243bdf’]

Botanical Name : Rocella tinctoria
Family: Roccellaceae
Genus:     Roccella
Species: R. tinctoria
Kingdom: Fungi
Division: Ascomycota
Class:     Arthoniomycetes
Order:     Arthoniales

Synonyms: Roccella,Lacmus. Orchella Weed. Dyer’s Weed. Lacca caerulea. Lacca musica. Orseille. Persio. Rock Moss. Lichen Roccella. Roccella phycopsis. Roccella Pygmaea. Turnsole. Touresol. Laquebleu.

Common Name : Cudbear,Litmus

Habitat:  Rocella tinctoria is a type of lichen. It is a thallophytic plant of the division Lichenes; occur as crusty patches or bushy growths on tree trunks or  bare ground, seashore rocks on all warm coasts and some mountain rocks.

Roccella tinctoria is a small, dry, perennial lichen, in appearance a bunch of wavy, tapering branched, drab-coloured stems from 2 to 6 inches high, springing from a narrow base. These bear nearly black warts at intervals, the apothecia or means of fructification peculiar to lichens. It is found principally on the Mediterranean coasts but other species from other localities are also sources of commercial Litmus.

Blue and Red Orchil or Archil are used for dyeing, colouring and staining. The red is prepared by steeping the lichen in earthen jars and heating them by steam. The blue is similarly treated in a covered wooden vessel. They are used as a thickish liquid for testing purposes.

Cudbear, prepared in a similar way, is also used as a dye. It is dried and pulverized, and becomes a purplish-red in colour.

The preparation of Litmus is almost exclusively carried on in Holland, the details being kept a secret. About nineteen kinds seem to be there, varying very much in value.

The lichens are coarsely ground with pearlashes, and macerated for weeks in wooden vessels in a mixture of urine, lime and potash or soda, with occasional stirring. In fermentation the mass becomes red and then blue, and is then moulded into earthy, crumbling cakes of a purplish-blue colour. The scent is like violets and indigo and the taste is slightly saline and pungent. Indigo is mixed with inferior kinds to deepen the colour.

Blue Litmus Paper is prepared by steeping unsized white paper in an infusion or Test Solution of Litmus, or by brushing the infusion over the paper, which must be carefully dried in the open air.

Red Litmus Paper is similarly prepared with an infusion faintly reddened by the addition of a small percentage of sulphuric or hydrochloric acid.

Vegetable red, much used in colouring foods, is a sulphonated derivative of orchil.

Click to see the pictures : …>……(01)....(1).……....(2).…….…(3).……...(4).…....(5)...

Other Species:
Two of the chief sources of Litmus are now R. Montagnei of Mozambique and Dendrographa leucophoea of California.

Lecanora Tartare, or Tartarean Moss, was formerly much used in Northern Europe.

R. pygmaea is found in Algeria\.

R. fuciformis is larger, with flatter, paler branches.

R. phycopsis is smaller and more branched.

Inferior kinds of Litmus are prepared from species of Variolaria, Lecanora and Parmelia.

Medicinal Uses:
Part Used: The whole plant, for its pigment.

Chemical Constituents: The lichen contains a brown resin, wax, insoluble and lichen starches, yellow extractive, gummy and glutinous matters, tartrate and oxalate of lime and chloride of sodium. The colouring principles are acids or acid anhydrides, themselvescolourless but yielding colour when acted upon by ammonia, air and moisture.

The chief of these are Azolitmin and Erythro-litmin, sometimes called leconoric, orsellic and erythric acids.

The dye is tested by adding a solution of calcium hypochlorite to the alcoholic tincture, when a deep blood-red colour, quickly fading, should appear, or the plants can be macerated in a weak solution of ammonia, which should produce a rich violet-red.

Demulcent and emollient. A decoction is useful in coughs and catarrhs.

Other Uses:  R. tinctoria is the lichen from which Litmus is obtained. The lichen is boiled with water, containing chalk in suspension, and then concentrated in vacuum; it is then dried, freed from impurities and put in large vats together with the liquor and ammonia. It is kept at 25 to 30 degrees F. for two or three months and then dried and powdered.

Litmus is used officially as a test for acids and alkalis. Acids impart a red colour to blue Litmus and alkaloids cause reddened Litmus to return to its original blue. It may be used in solid or liquid forms as well as on the papers.
click to see..>...(1)..…….(2)..
Cudbear is a purplish-red powder prepared from a species of the Rocella tinctoria, Lecanora Acharius and other lichens.

Cudbear is employed for colouring purposes as a dye.It  is very difficult to extract, so the liquid preparations are rarely uniform in colour, and for this reason powdered Cudbear is generally used. The powder is made from an ammoniacal infusion of the lichen evaporated to dryness and then reduced to powder. In pharmacy it is sometimes used as a test for alkalies and acids.

It is an alcoholic or agueous preparation of a deep red colour, which is lightened by the addition of acids and changed to a purplish red by alkalies. It yields about 35 per cent of ash, mostly sodium chloride.

The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider


Enhanced by Zemanta
Herbs & Plants


[amazon_link asins=’B01BIEA29K,B00014UJMO,B00A75XNCA,B00KLGBF2K’ template=’ProductCarousel’ store=’finmeacur-20′ marketplace=’US’ link_id=’b559321e-4d85-11e7-aaea-07eef8e4f463′]

Botanical Name :Usnea barbata
Family: Parmeliaceae
Genus: Usnea
Kingdom: Fungi
Division: Ascomycota
Class: Lecanoromycetes
Order: Lecanorales
Common Names : Old Man’s Beard, Beard Lichen, or Treemoss.

Habitat ;Usnea grows all over the world. Like other lichens it is a symbiosis of a fungus and an alga. The fungus belongs to the division Ascomycota, while the alga is a member of the division Chlorophyta.

Usnea looks very similar to Spanish moss, so much so that the latter plant’s Latin name is derived from it (Tillandsia usneoides, the ‘Usnea-like Tillandsia‘).


Usnea is a lichen; a combination of an algae and a fungus growing together. Also known as Old Man’s beard, it grows in little hair-like tufts, with the green algae covering the white string like fungus. The best way to identify Usnea is to pull a string apart and look for this white thread.

This plant grows profusely in wet climates, like the Pacific Northwest, sometimes this  tufts up to a foot long.

There are several species, some of them are:

*Usnea barbata
*Usnea dasypoga
*Usnea florida
*Usnea hirta
*Usnea rubicunda
*Usnea rubiginea
*Usnea scabrida
*Usnea subfloridana

The species Usnea longissima was renamed Dolichousnea longissima in 2004.

Medicinal Uses:
UsesUsnea has been used medicinally for at least 1000 years. Usnic acid (C18H16O7), a potent antibiotic and antifungal agent is found in most species. This, combined with the hairlike structure of the lichen, means that Usnea lent itself well to treating surface wounds when sterile gauze and modern antibiotics were unavailable. It is also edible and high in vitamin C.

In modern American herbal medicine, Usnea is primarily used in lung and upper respiratory tract infections, and urinary tract infections. There are no human clinical trials to either support or refute either practice, although in vitro research does strongly support Usnea’s antimicrobial properties.

Usnea also has shown usefulness in the treatment of difficult to treat fish infections in aquariums and ponds; in part due to the Usnic Acid for digestive internal infections or external infections, and as well for gill infections/stress due to Mucilage which is also contained in Usnea.

Usnea was one ingredient in a product called Lipokinetix, promoted to induce weight loss via increase in metabolic rate. Lipokinetix has been the topic of an FDA warning in the USA, due to potential hepatotoxicity, although it is unclear yet if any toxicity would be attributable to the Usnea. Lipokinetix also contained PPA, caffeine, yohimbine and diiodothyronine. There is reason to believe that usnic acid, in high concentrations, could possess some toxicity. The National Toxicology Program is currently evaluating the issue.

There is no formal scientific information on the safety or efficacy of oral use of Usnea, although its long history of use strongly suggests value.

Disclaimer:The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.



Enhanced by Zemanta