Categories
Herbs & Plants

Epimedium grandiflorum

[amazon_link asins=’B001NGJMNG,B01AN5ZM54,B01A2UQVSC,B06Y5FKX3X,B007DWBNZ4,B00QBLWZFK,B00KLGLLB0,B06W5T9Q5Y,B00HLVRRAM’ template=’ProductCarousel’ store=’finmeacur-20′ marketplace=’US’ link_id=’b32d52f6-6141-11e7-99f7-f380b2e04db2′]

Botanical Name : Epimedium grandiflorum
Family: Berberidaceae
Genus: Epimedium
Subgenus:Epimedium
Species:E. grandiflorum
Kingdom:Plantae
Order: Ranunculales

Synonyms:
*Epimedium macranthum var. violaceum (C. Morren & Decne.) Franch.
*Epimedium grandiflorum forma violaceum
*Epimedium violaceum

Common Names: Large flowered barrenwort, Bishop’s hat, Barrenwort, Longspur Epimedium. It is known as dam du?ng hoac in Vietnamese.

Habitat: Epimedium grandiflorum is native to China, Japan and Korea. It grows in the moist deciduous woodlands in the hills. Calcareous rocks in moist woodland. (This entry refers to sub-species E. grandiflorum higoense. Shimau.)
Description:
Epimedium grandiflorum is a deciduous perennial plant, growing to 30 cm (12 in), with bright red stems with green heart-shaped leaves (copper-tinged when young) which are slightly hairy on the bottom. In spring it produces pink, white, yellow or purple long-spurred flowers.

CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES

Main Bloom Time: Early spring. Form: Spreading or horizontal. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Bees.The plant is not self-fertile.
Cultivation:
Succeeds in any fertile humus-rich soil, preferring a moist but well-drained peaty loam. Requires a lime-free soil. Grows best in the light dappled shade of a woodland. Plants can succeed in the dry shade of trees. A shallow-rooting plant, the rhizomes creeping just below the soil and the finer roots occupying the top 30cm of the soil. A clump-forming species, the rhizomes making only short new growth each year, it needs to be divided every 3 – 4 years in order to maintain vigour. Plants are hardy to about -20°c, though the flowers in spring can be damaged by late frosts. A very ornamental plant, there are several named varieties. It grows well in the rock garden or wild garden. Plants are self-sterile and so more than one clone is required for cross-fertilization in order for seed to be produced. Plants will often hybridise with other species growing nearby. Members of this genus are rarely if ever troubled by browsing deer or rabbits. Special Features: Attractive foliage, Naturalizing.
Propagation:
Seed – best sown in a cold frame as soon as it is ripe in late summer. Sow stored seed as early as possible in the year in a cold frame. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle and grow them on in light shade in the cold frame or greenhouse for at least their first winter. Plant them out in mid to late summer. Division, best carried out in August to September according to one report, in late spring according to another. Larger clumps can be replanted direct into their permanent positions, though it is best to pot up smaller clumps and grow them on in a cold frame until they are rooting well. Plant them out in the spring. Cuttings in late summer
Edible Uses:    Young plant and young leaves – cooked & eaten. Soaked and then boiled. (This suggests that the leaves are bitter and need to be soaked in order to remove the bitterness.)
Medicinal Uses:

Antiasthmatic; Antibacterial; Antirheumatic; Antitussive; Aphrodisiac; Hypoglycaemic; Tonic; Vasodilator.

The aerial parts of the plant are antiasthmatic, antibacterial, antirheumatic, antitussive, aphrodisiac, hypoglycaemic, tonic and vasodilator. Its use lowers blood sugar levels. It is used in the treatment of impotence, seminal emissions, lumbago, arthritis, numbness and weakness of the limbs, hypertension and chronic bronchitis. It has an action on the genitals similar to the male sex hormone and can increase the weight of the prostate gland and seminal vesicle, it has increased copulation in animals and increases the secretion of semens. The leaves are used as an aphrodisiac. Administered orally, the leaf extract increases the frequency of copulation in animals.

Traditional Chinese medicine:
E. grandiflorum may have anti-impotence properties due to the presence of icariin, a relatively weak inhibitor of PDE5 in comparison to substances like sildenafil (viagra). Western peer-reviewed research into the efficacy of E. grandiflorum as an aphrodisiac is lacking; however, the herb has been used for this purpose in traditional Chinese medicine and is a common ingredient of herbal remedies for impotence.[citation needed] It is commonly packed in a capsule with other ingredients or sold as herbal flakes or powder with the name “horny goat weed”

Other Uses:
Landscape Uses:Border, Container, Ground cover, Rock garden, Woodland garden.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.
Resources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Epimedium_grandiflorum
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Epimedium+grandiflorum

Advertisements
Categories
Healthy Tips

Balance Your Immunity Now

[amazon_link asins=’B01MZ6TLPO,B00UICMLS4,B01M3NOYI8,B01LID3NNI,B06XRDXRPK,B00CFBFQ3I,B06X9PWNKK,B06VSJWLVQ,B017HTYN54′ template=’ProductCarousel’ store=’finmeacur-20′ marketplace=’US’ link_id=’faee3ec6-7106-11e8-b679-a950b378e0a2′]
It’s no surprise that more than 200,000 people are hospitalized with the flu and its complications each year. But what is shocking is that most people assume that getting sick is just part of life. But it doesn’t have to slow you down each and every year, leaving you and your family with aches and pains… stuffy noses… sleepless nights… hacking coughs… low energy levels… and skin outbreaks.

The main reason we get sick is not just the infection of bugs or germs. Put simply: You get sick because your immune system fails to go into action fast enough… or your immune system gets beaten down and worn out.

Due to the following :-

*Poor diet

*Stress

*Environmental pollutants

*Overuse of prescription and over-the-counter meds

*Global living and overcrowding

.
But you can keep the germs, colds and bacteria at bay by not only boosting your immune system, but maintaining the strength of your immunity with all-natural nutrients found only in the breakthrough Super Immune5 Plus™ formula from Health Resources™. In this soon-to-be released combination you will get:

Inside your body there is a mechanism designed to defend you from millions of bacteria, microbes, viruses, toxins and parasites.

*Astragalus—an ancient herb used in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) that has been shown to boost the infection-fighting abilities of the body’s white blood cells by 83 percent, according to Prescription for Herbal Healing: An Easy A-to-Z Reference for Hundreds of Common Disorders and Their Herbal Remedies by Phyllis A. Balch, M.D. The Encyclopedia of Popular Herbs states that astragalus can improve levels of natural killer (NK) cells, which are responsible for patrolling the body in search of microscopic foreign invaders and infected cells.

[amazon_link asins=’B0002I25HQ,B000MGR2EE,B000ABCYGM,B00F1J733W,B00HM7FEIC,B00ZDO6TY4,B001TIESF0,B00028NW6Y,B000GPAWRK’ template=’ProductCarousel’ store=’finmeacur-20′ marketplace=’US’ link_id=’e0338923-6257-11e7-9713-b7206d6125b7′]

*Scute, or Chinese skullcap—multiple scientific journals including Food & Chemical Toxicology; Bioscience, Biotechnology & Biochemistry; European Journal of Pharmacology; and Experimental Biology & Medicine report that scute can help block inflammation-causing enzymes, reduce free radical damage, promote normal breathing patterns, protect nerve cells from damage and soothe stomach discomforts.

[amazon_link asins=’B0017O5SVO,B00WNG6BX4,B000OO0U2K,B01IDRYGQK,B000PIMTNS,B00016AI32,B07281J7VX,B00410DWE6,B00VQTIQ32′ template=’ProductCarousel’ store=’finmeacur-20′ marketplace=’US’ link_id=’10615e82-6258-11e7-a993-4b6fef05e99b’]

*Reishi mushroom—has been scientifically studied and proven to help isolate viral strains, including influenza, and block the reproduction of infected cells, as reported in the Journal of Ethnopharmacology. Results from a Chinese study published in the Journal of Medicinal Food, show that Reishi can beneficially boost the body’s fatigue levels due to illness and improve immunity.

[amazon_link asins=’B000QS7GQ2,B01IQILU06,B00WGROEAW,B015IF7U68,B01M0O6G2E,B000158G32,B00024D290,B009E7V5R2,B00GEHKYHC’ template=’ProductCarousel’ store=’finmeacur-20′ marketplace=’US’ link_id=’35e89af9-6258-11e7-963e-03ac625c1d0c’]

*Andrographisconducted at the Universities of Exeter and Plymouth in the United Kingdom, seven double-blind, placebo-controlled trials evaluated patients with the common cold. Individuals who were given andrographis reported significant upper respiratory improvements, compared to the placebo group.

[amazon_link asins=’B002VD8BEG,B001FUJOHY,B00064X2F0,B0002I6Q30,B001G7R8O2,B00028M6MA,B01LWMG9UX,B0041UB0Z4,B01M1K7719′ template=’ProductCarousel’ store=’finmeacur-20′ marketplace=’US’ link_id=’5b13d556-6258-11e7-b3c6-0fbe71654530′]

*Isatisaccording to the Hebei Journal of Medicine, isatis has anti-inflammatory, antiviral and immune-boosting properties when it comes to colds and infection. The journal also indicates that isatis can boost the body’s production of NK cells.
You don’t want to be left with a weakened immune system that’s practically begging for foreign invaders to attack. Pre-order Super Immune5 Plus™ from Health Resources™ now because the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) indicates cold and flu season runs from early November through March.

[amazon_link asins=’B00WNG372C,B000S94PUO,B003U34LDQ,B010GBIW8Y,B00J9RLSWY,B000S99FRM,B003JOIF2Y,B003U37WFA,B002VNOXJ8′ template=’ProductCarousel’ store=’finmeacur-20′ marketplace=’US’ link_id=’7a0b3c0f-6258-11e7-bfa8-c374a0384c22′]

Source : BETTER Health Research :

Enhanced by Zemanta
Categories
Herbs & Plants

Reishi (Ganoderma lucidum)

Botanical Name :Ganoderma lucidum
Family: Ganodermataceae
Genus: Ganoderma
Kingdom: Fungi
Phylum: Basidiomycota
Class: Agaricomycetes
Order: Polyporales
Species: G. lucidum

Common Names : Reishi , Ling-zhi, ling chih, ling chi mushroom
Other Names :Língzh? (traditional Chinese) Japanese: reishi; Korean: yeongji, hangul

Habitat :
Ganoderma lucidum, and its close relative Ganoderma tsugae, grow in the northern Eastern Hemlock forests. These two species of bracket fungus have a worldwide distribution in both tropical and temperate geographical regions, including North and South America, Africa, Europe, and Asia, growing as a parasite or saprotroph on a wide variety of trees. Similar species of Ganoderma have been found growing in the Amazon. In nature, Lingzhi grows at the base and stumps of deciduous trees, especially maple. Only two or three out of 10,000 such aged trees will have Lingzhi growth, and therefore its wild form is generally rare. Today, Lingzhi is effectively cultivated both indoors under sterile conditions and outdoors on either logs or woodchip beds.

Taxonomy and naming:
The name Ganoderma is derived from the Greek ganos “brightness, sheen”, hence “shining” and derma “skin”, while the specific epithet lucidum in Latin for “shining” and tsugae refers to being of the Hemlock (Tsuga). Another Japanese name is mannentake , meaning “10,000 year mushroom”.

There are multiple species of lingzhi, scientifically known to be within the Ganoderma lucidum species complex and mycologists are still researching the differences between species within this complex of species.

Description:
Lingzhi is a polypore mushroom that is soft (when fresh), corky, and flat, with a conspicuous red-varnished, kidney-shaped cap and, depending on specimen age, white to dull brown pores underneath. It lacks gills on its underside and releases its spores through fine pores, leading to its morphological classification as a polypore.

click to see the pictures…>…...(1).…….(2).……..(3)..…....(4).….(5).….……..…….
It is a Parasitic on living hardwoods (especially oaks) and saprobic on the deadwood of hardwoods; causing a white butt and root rot; growing alone or gregariously, usually near the base of the tree; annual; widely distributed east of the Rocky Mountains, and occasionally recorded in the western states.

Varieties:
Ganoderma lucidum generally occurs in two growth forms, one, found in North America, is sessile and rather large with only a small or no stalk, while the other is smaller and has a long, narrow stalk, and is found mainly in the tropics. However, many growth forms exist that are intermediate to the two types, or even exhibit very unusual morphologies, raising the possibility that they are separate species. Environmental conditions also play a substantial role in the different morphological characteristics lingzhi can exhibit. For example, elevated carbon dioxide levels result in stem elongation in lingzhi. Other forms show “antlers’, without a cap and these may be affected by carbon dioxide levels as well.

According to Compendium of Materia Medica, lingzhi may be classified into six categories according to their shapes and colors, each of which is believed to nourish a different part of the body. (Red-heart, Purple-joints, Green-liver, White-lungs/skin, Yellow-spleen, Black-kidneys/brain).

Biochemistry
Ganoderic acid A, a compound isolated from Lingzhi.Ganoderma lucidum produces a group of triterpenes, called ganoderic acids, which have a molecular structure similar to steroid hormones. It also contains other compounds many of which are typically found in fungal materials including polysaccharides such as beta-glucan, coumarin, mannitol, and alkaloids.

Medicinal Uses:
Common Uses: Alcoholism/Drug Abuse * Allergies/hay Fever * Anxiety/Panic * Bronchitis * Chronic Fatigue * General Health Tonics * Hypertension HBP * Immune System * Liver * Stress *

Properties: Immunostimulant* Hypoglycemic* Cardic tonic Cordial* Expectorant* AntiViral*
Parts Used: Fruiting body

Traditions: Traditional Chinese Medicine *

Reishi, or Ling zhi is the extract of the Ganoderma lucium mushroom. This mushroom has been used in traditional Chinese and Japanese medicines for thousands of years, who place it in the highest class of tonic medicines, those who benefit the vital life energy or Qi. Reishi mushrooms are commonly prescribed for a host of conditions such as anxiety, high blood pressure, bronchitis, insomnia, and asthma but is particularly renowned for its use in hepatitis and other diseases of the liver and for promoting longevity.

The Western focus on reishi is on the mushroom’s immuno-enhancing and anti-tumor activities, the exact mechanism is still unknown.

Lingzhi research and therapeutic usage:-
Lingzhi may possess anti-tumor, immunomodulatory and immunotherapeutic activities, supported by studies on polysaccharides, terpenes, and other bioactive compounds isolated from fruiting bodies and mycelia of this fungus (reviewed by R. R. Paterson and Lindequist et al.). It has also been found to inhibit platelet aggregation, and to lower blood pressure (via inhibition of angiotensin-converting enzyme), cholesterol, and blood sugar.

Laboratory studies have shown anti-neoplastic effects of fungal extracts or isolated compounds against some types of cancer. In an animal model, Ganoderma has been reported to prevent cancer metastasis, with potency comparable to Lentinan from Shiitake mushrooms.

The mechanisms by which G. lucidum may affect cancer are unknown and they may target different stages of cancer development: inhibition of angiogenesis (formation of new, tumor-induced blood vessels, created to supply nutrients to the tumor) mediated by cytokines, cytoxicity, inhibiting migration of the cancer cells and metastasis, and inducing and enhancing apoptosis of tumor cells. Nevertheless, G. lucidum extracts are already used in commercial pharmaceuticals such as MC-S for suppressing cancer cell proliferation and migration.

Additional studies indicate that ganoderic acid can help to strengthen the liver against liver injury by viruses and other toxic agents in mice, suggesting a potential benefit of this compound in the prevention of liver diseases in humans, and Ganoderma-derived sterols inhibit lanosterol 14?-demethylase activity in the biosynthesis of cholesterol . Ganoderma compounds inhibit 5-alpha reductase activity in the biosynthesis of dihydrotestosterone.

Besides effects on mammalian physiology, Ganoderma is reported to have anti-bacterial and anti-viral activities. Ganoderma is reported to exhibit direct anti-viral with the following viruses; HSV-1, HSV-2, influenza virus, vesicular stomatitis. Ganoderma mushrooms are reported to exhibit direct anti-microbial properties with the following organisms; Aspergillus niger, Bacillus cereus, Candida albicans, and Escherichia coli.

Preparation
Due to its bitter taste, Lingzhi is traditionally prepared as a hot water extract. Thinly sliced or pulverized lingzhi (either fresh or dried) is added to a pot of boiling water, the water is then brought to a simmer, and the pot is covered; the lingzhi is then simmered for two hours. The resulting liquid is fairly bitter in taste, with the more active red lingzhi more bitter than the black. The process is sometimes repeated. Alternatively, it can be used as an ingredient in a formula decoction or used to make an extract (in liquid, capsule, or powder form). The more active red forms of lingzhi are far too bitter to be consumed in a soup.


You may click to see: Ganoderma Lucidum – The Wonder Herb :

Can Ganoderma Lucidum cure your stubborn diseases?”

Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides can induce human monocytic leukemia cells into dendritic cells with immuno-stimulatory function:

Ganoderma lucidum, Reishi or Ling Zhi, a fungus used in oriental medicine. :

Disclaimer:The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://www.mushroomexpert.com/ganoderma_lucidum.html
http://www.anniesremedy.com/herb_detail299.php
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lingzhi_mushroom

Enhanced by Zemanta
Categories
Suppliments our body needs

Red yeast rice (Monascus purpureus)

Dried grain red yeast rice
Image via Wikipedia

[amazon_link asins=’B01JQCED5U,B01GK5GDDG,B004DGM1VS,B01M1C6P2F,B01MEGYQ6X,B00118623Y,B003TZ476Q,B00YEXD8Q2,B004R61SD6′ template=’ProductCarousel’ store=’finmeacur-20′ marketplace=’US’ link_id=’c3126eb5-f7ac-11e7-98b4-31cd315fc366′]

Latin name: Monascus purpureus
Other names: Hong Qu, red rice, red yeast
Synonyms:
Alkaloids, angkak, anka, ankaflavin, Asian traditional fermentation foodstuff, astaxanthin, beni-koju, ben-koji, Chinese red yeast rice, citrinin, CRYR, dehydromonacolin K, dietary red yeast, dihydromeyinolin, dihydromonacolin K, dihydromonacolin L, DSM1379, DSM1603, ergosterol, flavonoids, GABA, glycosides, HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors, hon-chi, hong qu, hongqu, hung-chu, hydroxymethylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase, KCCM11832, koji, linoleic acid, lovastatin, M9011, mevinolin, monacolin hyroxyacid, monacolin J, monacolin K, monacolin K (hydroxyl acid form), monacolin L, monacolin M, monacolin X, Monascaceae (yeast family), monascopyridine A, monascopyridine B, monascopyridine C, monascopyridine D, monascorubramine, monascorubrin, Monascus , Monascus anka , Monascus purpureus fermentate, Monascus purpureus HM105, Monascus purpureus NTU568, Monascus purpureus Went rice, Monascus ruber , oleic acid, orange anka pigment, palmitoleic acid, Phaffia rhodozyma , red fermented rice, red koji, red leaven, red mould rice, red rice, red rice yeast, red yeast, red yeast rice extract, rice, RICE products, rubropunctamine, rubropunctatin, RYR, RYRE, saponins, statins, stearic acid, xuezhikang, Xue Zhi Kang, yellow anka pigment, zhitai, Zhi Tai.

Definition:

Red yeast rice, red fermented rice, red kojic rice, red koji rice, or ang-kak, is a bright reddish purple fermented rice, which acquires its colour from being cultivated with the mold Monascus purpureus. In Japan, it is known as beni-koji ( lit. “red koji”) or akakoji ( also meaning “red koji”) and in Taiwan it is sometimes also called âng-chau , in Taiwanese. Among the Hakka, it is known as fungkiuk. In China it is widely available under the brand name XueZhiKang, and in Singapore it is available as Hypocol.

CLICK & SEE

Red yeast rice is sold in jars at Asian markets as a pasteurized wet aggregate, whole dried grains, or as a ground powder. It was a commonly used red food colouring in East Asian and Chinese cuisine prior to the discovery of chemical food colouring. It has also been used in Chinese herbal medicine.

Red yeast rice is the product of yeast ( Monascus purpureus ) grown on rice, and is served as a dietary staple in some Asian countries. It contains several compounds collectively known as monacolins, substances known to inhibit cholesterol synthesis. One of these, “monacolin K,” is a potent inhibitor of HMG-CoA reductase, and is also known as mevinolin or lovastatin (Mevacor®, a drug produced by Merck & Co., Inc).

Red yeast rice extract has been sold as a natural cholesterol-lowering agent in over the counter supplements, such as CholestinTM (Pharmanex, Inc). However, there has been legal and industrial dispute as to whether red yeast rice is a drug or a dietary supplement, involving the manufacturer, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), and the pharmaceutical industry (particularly producers of HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor prescription drugs or “statins”).

The use of red yeast rice in China was first documented in the Tang Dynasty in 800 A.D. A detailed description of its manufacture is found in the ancient Chinese pharmacopoeia, Ben Cao Gang Mu-Dan Shi Bu Yi, published during the Ming Dynasty (1368-1644). In this text, red yeast rice is proposed to be a mild aid for gastric problems (indigestion, diarrhea), blood circulation, and spleen and stomach health. Red yeast rice in a dried, powdered form is called Zhi Tai. When extracted with alcohol it is called Xue Zhi Kang.

Red yeast rice has been used in China as a preservative, spice, and food coloring. It’s used to give Peking duck its characteristic red color and can also be an ingredient in fish sauce, fish paste, and rice wine. Red yeast rice is used in traditional Chinese medicine as a remedy for poor circulation, indigestion, and diarrhea.

Red yeast rice contains naturally-occurring substances called monacolins. Monocolins, particularly one called lovastatin, is believed to be converted in the body to a substance that inhibits HMG-CoA reductase, an enzyme that triggers cholesterol production. This is the way the popular statin drugs work.

Because of this action, red yeast rice products containing a higher concentration of monocolins have been developed and marketed as a natural product to lower cholesterol.

The problem is that the primary ingredient in these supplements, lovastatin, is also the active pharmaceutical ingredient in prescription drugs for high cholesterol such as Mevacor. In fact, lovastatin was originally derived from another type of red yeast called Monascus ruber.

Production:-
Red yeast rice is produced by cultivating Monascus purpureus on polished rice. The rice is first soaked in water until the grains are fully saturated. The raw soaked rice can then either be directly inoculated, or steamed for the purpose of sterilizing and cooking the grains prior to inoculation. Inoculation is done by mixing M. purpureus spores or powdered red yeast rice together with the processed rice. The mix is then incubated in an environment around room temperature for 3–6 days. During this period of time, the rice should be fully cultured with M. purpureus, with each rice grain turning bright red in its core and reddish purple on the outside.

The fully cultured rice is then either sold as the dried grain, or cooked and pasteurized to be sold as a wet paste, or dried and pulverized to be sold as a fine powder. China is the world’s largest producer of red yeast rice.

Due to the high cost of chemical dyes, some producers of red yeast rice have tried to adulterate their products with red dye #2 Sudan Red G (in Chinese).

Uses:

Culinary

The dried grain can be prepared and eaten in the same manner as white rice–a common practice among Asians. It can also be added to other foods.

CLICK & SEE

Red yeast rice is used to colour a wide variety of food products, including pickled tofu, red rice vinegar, char siu, Peking Duck, and Chinese pastries that require red food colouring. It is also traditionally used in the production of several types of Chinese wine, Japanese sake (akaisake), and Korean rice wine (hongju), imparting a reddish colour to these wines.

Although used mainly for its colour in cuisine, red yeast rice imparts a subtle but pleasant taste to food.

Traditional Chinese Medicine
In addition to its culinary use, red yeast rice is also used in traditional Chinese herbology and traditional Chinese medicine. Its use has been documented as far back as the Tang Dynasty in China in 800 A.D. and taken internally to invigorate the body, aid in digestion, and remove “blood blockages”.

CLICK & SEE

Modern Medicine
Red yeast rice when produced using the ‘Went’ strain of Monascus purpureus contains significant quantites of the HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor lovastatin which is also known as mevinolin, a naturally-occurring statin. It is sold as an over the counter dietary supplement for controlling cholesterol (See ref.: Medicine Net). There is strong scientific evidence for its effect in lowering blood levels of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein/LDL (“bad cholesterol”), and triglyceride levels (see below). Because an approved drug is identical to the molecule it is therefore regulated as a drug by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA).

CLICK & SEE

In 1998, the U.S. district court in Utah allowed a product containing red yeast rice extract known as Cholestin to be sold without restriction, but this was reversed on appeal. (Moore, 2001) (see ref.: PDRhealth). Cholestin as a product continues to be marketed but no longer contains red yeast rice (RYR). Other companies sell red yeast rice products but most of them use a different strain of yeast or different growing conditions, resulting in RYR with a negligible statin content. The labeling on these new products often says nothing about cholesterol lowering. As late as August 2007, FDA noted supplements being sold containing significant lovastatin levels.(FDA, 2007)

In 2006 Liu et al published a meta-analysis of clinical trials (Chinese Med 2006;1:4-17). The article cited 93 published, controlled clinical trials (91 published in Chinese). Total cholesterol decreased by 35 mg/dl, LDL-cholesterol by 28 mg/dl, triglycerides by 35 mg/dl, and HDL-cholesterol increased by 6 mg/dl. Zhao et al reported on a four-year trial in people with diabetes (J Cardio Pharmacol 2007;49:81-84). There was a 40-50% reduction in cardio events and cardio deaths in the treated group. Ye et al reported on a four-year trial in elderly Chinese patients with heart disease (J Am Geriatr Soc 2007;55:1015-22). Deaths were down 32%. There is at least one report in the literature of a statin-like myopathy caused by red yeast rice (Mueller PS. Ann Intern Med 2006;145:474-5).

An article in the June 15, 2008, issue of the American Journal of Cardiology found that red yeast rice may provide benefits beyond those provided by statins. The researchers reported that the benefits seemed to exceed those reported with lovastatin alone.

ConsumerLab.com found large variation in the active compounds between red yeast rice supplements, and also found that some of them were contaminated with citrinin, a nephrotoxic mycotoxin. Evidence about the side effects of red yeast rice is limited, but it may have similar side effects to the drug lovastatin, which include kidney problems and other side effects.[4] Regular medical monitoring is needed to detect such effects.

Evidence:
These uses have been tested in humans or animals. Safety and effectiveness have not always been proven. Some of these conditions are potentially serious, and should be evaluated by a qualified healthcare provider.

Uses based on scientific evidence :-

High cholesterol
Since the 1970s, human studies have reported that red yeast lowers blood levels of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein/LDL (“bad cholesterol”), and triglyceride levels. Other products containing red yeast rice extract can still be purchased, mostly over the Internet. However, these products may not be standardized and effects are not predictable. For lowering cholesterol, there is better evidence for using prescription drugs such as lovastatin…..GRADE: A

Coronary heart disease
Preliminary evidence shows that taking Monascus purpureus by mouth may result in cardiovascular benefits and improve blood flow. Additional study is needed before a firm recommendation can be made…GRADE: C

Diabetes
Early human evidence suggests the potential for benefits in diabetics. Additional study is needed before a firm recommendation can be made….GRADE C

Key to grades :-
A: Strong scientific evidence for this use;
B: Good scientific evidence for this use;
C: Unclear scientific evidence for this use;
D: Fair scientific evidence against this use;
F: Strong scientific evidence against this use.

Regulation:-
Red yeast rice is classified as a dietary supplement by the FDA. Because of its similarity to the statin drugs, there is an ongoing legal debate about whether red yeast rice should be reclassified as a prescription drug rather than a dietary supplement.

Click for Grading rationale

Uses based on tradition or theory :-
The below uses are based on tradition or scientific theories. They often have not been thoroughly tested in humans, and safety and effectiveness have not always been proven. Some of these conditions are potentially serious, and should be evaluated by a qualified healthcare provider.

Acetaminophen toxicity, anthrax, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antioxidant, blood circulation problems, bruised muscles, bruises, cancer, colic in children, cuts, diarrhea, digestion, dysentery (bloody diarrhea), exercise performance enhancement, food additive (coloring), food preservative, hangover, high blood pressure, HIV (associated hyperlipidemia), immunosuppression, indigestion, liver disorders, metabolic disorders, obesity, ovarian cancer, postpartum problems, spleen problems, stomach problems, weight loss, wounds.

Dosing:
The below doses are based on scientific research, publications, traditional use, or expert opinion. Many herbs and supplements have not been thoroughly tested, and safety and effectiveness may not be proven. Brands may be made differently, with variable ingredients, even within the same brand. The below doses may not apply to all products. You should read product labels, and discuss doses with a qualified healthcare provider before starting therapy.

Adults (18 years and older)
1,200 milligrams of concentrated red yeast powder capsules have been taken two times per day by mouth with food.

The average consumption of naturally occurring red yeast rice in Asia has been reported as 14-55 grams per day.

Children (younger than 18 years)
There is not enough scientific evidence to recommend red yeast for children.

Safety:
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration does not strictly regulate herbs and supplements. There is no guarantee of strength, purity or safety of products, and effects may vary. You should always read product labels. If you have a medical condition, or are taking other drugs, herbs, or supplements, you should speak with a qualified healthcare provider before starting a new therapy. Consult a healthcare provider immediately if you experience side effects.

Allergies
There is one report of anaphylaxis (a severe allergic reaction) in a butcher who touched meat containing red yeast.

Side Effects and Warnings:-
There is limited evidence on the side effects of red yeast. Mild headache and abdominal discomfort can occur. Side effects may be similar to those for the prescription drug lovastatin (Mevacor®). Heartburn, gas, bloating, muscle pain or damage, dizziness, asthma, and kidney problems are possible. People with liver disease should not use red yeast products.

In theory, red yeast may increase the risk of bleeding. Caution is advised in patients with bleeding disorders or taking drugs that may increase the risk of bleeding. Dosing adjustments may be necessary. A metabolite of Monascus called mycotoxin citrinin may be harmful.

Pregnancy and Breastfeeding
Prescription drugs with similar chemicals as red yeast cannot be used during pregnancy. Therefore, it is recommended that pregnant or breastfeeding women not take red yeast.

Interactions:-
Most herbs and supplements have not been thoroughly tested for interactions with other herbs, supplements, drugs, or foods. The interactions listed below are based on reports in scientific publications, laboratory experiments, or traditional use. You should always read product labels. If you have a medical condition, or are taking other drugs, herbs, or supplements, you should speak with a qualified healthcare provider before starting a new therapy.

Interactions with Drugs
There are not many studies of the interactions of red yeast rice extract with drugs. However, because red yeast rice extract contains the same chemicals as the prescription drug lovastatin, the interactions may be the same. Fibrate drugs or other cholesterol-lowering medications may cause additive effects or side effects when taken with red yeast. Alcohol and other drugs that may be toxic to the liver should be avoided with red yeast rice extract. Taking cyclosporine, ranitidine (Zantac®), and certain antibiotics with red yeast rice extract may increase the risk of muscle breakdown or kidney damage.

Certain drugs may interfere with the way the body processes red yeast using the liver’s “cytochrome P450” enzyme system. Inhibitors of cytochrome P450 may increase the chance of muscle and kidney damage if taken with red yeast.

In theory, red yeast may increase the risk of bleeding when taken with drugs that increase the risk of bleeding. Some examples include aspirin, anticoagulants (“blood thinners”) such as warfarin (Coumadin®) or heparin, anti-platelet drugs such as clopidogrel (Plavix®), and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as ibuprofen (Motrin®, Advil®) or naproxen (Naprosyn®, Aleve®).

Red yeast may produce gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and therefore can have additive effects when taken with drugs that affect GABA such as neurontin (Gabapentin®).

Red yeast may also interact with digoxin, niacin, thyroid medications, and blood pressure-lowering medications. Caution is advised.

Red yeast may alter blood sugar levels; patients with diabetes or taking insulin or blood sugar-lowering medications by mouth should consult with a qualified healthcare professional, including a pharmacist. Dosing adjustments may be necessary.

Interactions with Herbs and Dietary Supplements

Red yeast may interact with products that cause liver damage or are broken down in the liver. Grapefruit juice may increase blood levels of red yeast. Milk thistle, St. John’s wort, niacin, and vitamin A may interact with red yeast rice extract. Coenzyme Q10 levels may be lowered by red yeast rice extract. Cholesterol-lowering herbs and supplements such as guggul or fish oils may have increased effects when taken with red rice yeast. Although not well studied, red yeast may also interact with astaxanthin and zinc. Caution is advised.

Certain herbs and supplements may interfere with the way the body processes red yeast using the liver’s “cytochrome P450” enzyme system. Inhibitors of cytochrome P450 may increase the chance of muscle and kidney damage if taken with red yeast.

In theory, red yeast may increase the risk of bleeding when taken with herbs and supplements that are believed to increase the risk of bleeding. Multiple cases of bleeding have been reported with the use of Ginkgo biloba , and fewer cases with garlic and saw palmetto. Numerous other agents may theoretically increase the risk of bleeding, although this has not been proven in most cases.

Red yeast may also interact with digitalis (foxglove), or herbs and supplements that affect the thyroid or blood pressure. It may also have anti-inflammatory effects and should be used cautiously with other herbs or supplements that may have anti-inflammatory effects.

Red yeast may alter blood sugar levels in the blood, and patients with diabetes or taking herbs and supplement to control blood sugar should use with caution.

Disclaimer:The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

.
You may Click to see :->

>Red Yeast Rice as Herbals & Supplements

>Red Yeast Rice and Cholesterol
Are there Side Effects of Red Yeast Rice?

>Most important information about red yeast rice

Resources:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Red_yeast_rice
http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/druginfo/natural/patient-redyeast.html#skip
http://altmedicine.about.com/od/herbsupplementguide/a/redyeastrice.htm

 

Reblog this post [with Zemanta]