Tag Archives: Linoleic acid

Carapa guianensis

Botanical Name  : Carapa guianensis
Family  :MELIACEAE(Mahogany family)
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Sapindales
Genus: Carapa

Synonym(s): Carapa nicaraguensis C. DCCarapa slateri StandleyGranatum guianense (Aublet) KuntzeXylocarpus carapa Spreng.

Common Names  : Andiroba Oil,(English) : bastard mahogany, carapa, crabwood
(French) : andiroba, bois rouge, cabirma de Guinea, carapa
(Spanish) : andiroba, cabrima de guiana, caobilla, cedro macho, masábalo, najesi
(Trade name) : andiroba, bastard mahogany, crabwood

Habitat:Carapa guianens  is native  to Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guadeloupe, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Panama, Peru, Puerto Rico, Surinam, Trinidad and Tobago, Venezuela
Exotic : Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore

Description:
Carapa guianensis is a deciduous or semi-evergreen, monoecious, medium-sized to large trees up to 35 (max. 55) m tall; bole straight and cylindrical; branchless up to 20 (max. 30) m; up to 100 (max. 200) cm in diameter, sometimes fluted, with short buttresses up to 2 m high. Bark surface flaking into squarish scales or in horizontal strips, light grey to greyish brown or dark brown, sometimes reddish; inner bark fibrous, red or pinkish brown. Young plants produce taproots but the trees tend to become surface rooted. Leaves alternate, paripinnate with a dormant glandular leaflet at the apex, exstipulate; leaflets opposite, entire. Shows gigantic leaves in the monocaulous juvenile stage, decreasing in size when branching is initiated. Flowers small, white, borne in a large, axillary or subterminal thyrse; unisexual but with well-developed vestiges of the opposite sex; tetramerous to pentamerous (max. sextamerous); calyx lobed almost to the base; petals slightly contorted. Fruit dehiscent, 4-lobed, pendulous, subglobose, woody capsule containing 2-4 seeds in each lobe. Seeds smooth, pale brown, angular, with woody sarcotesta

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Medicinal Uses:
Constituents:andirobin, arachidic acid, acetoxy-gedunins, epoxyazadiradiones, deacetoxygedunins, hydroxylgedunins, gedunins, hexadecenoic acid, linoleic acid, linolenic acid, oleic acid, palmitic acid, palmitoleic acid, and stearic acid

Andiroba oil is an anti-inflammatory oil rich in omega-3 fatty acids that promote skin healing from cuts and may slow the growth of skin cells in psoriasis and age spots. It promotes normal circulation to the skin and relieves pain and swelling. Andiroba oil is used in heated massage to relieve arthritis.,1

Traditionally it is used by the Amerindians to treat skin problems (rashes, boils and ulcers) and as an insect repellant.
This oil accelerates healing of skin damage by providing myristic acid, one of the chemical building blocks that form the skin’s protective outer layer.
The oil, which has anti inflammatory properties, is rich in essential fatty acids, such as omega-3 fatty acids, limonoids, triterpenes and contains among others: linoleic acid (9%), oleic acid: (50.5), linolenic acid: (0.3%).Linoleic acid has shown to lower cholesterol levels and reduce elevated blood pressure.
Andiroba is an all-natural product, does not contain any preservatives and other chemicals. Andiroba oil can be applied directly to the skin.

The Northwest Amazons use the bark and leaves for fever-reducing and worm-inhibiting tea, and externally as a wash for skin problems, ulcers, and insect bites, and as an insect repellent.2

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider

Resources:
http://www.worldagroforestrycentre.org/sea/products/afdbases/af/asp/SpeciesInfo.asp?SpID=1738
http://www.anniesremedy.com/herb_detail413.php
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carapa

http://www.tropilab.com/carapa-gui.html

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Borage

Botanical Name:Borago officinalis L
Family: Boraginaceae (borage family)
Kingdom: Plantae
Genus: Borago
Species: B. officinalis
Common Names:”starflower”, Borage
Parts Used:Fresh leaves. The blue flowers are sometimes tried as a food colourant

Habitat: Originating in Syria, but naturalized throughout the Mediterranean region, as well as Asia Minor, Europe, North Africa, and South America.The plant grows wild in Central and Eastern Europe.

Description:
Borage (Borago officinalis L.) is an annual herb.It grows to a height of 60-100 cm (2-3 feet), and is bristly or hairy all over the stems and leaves; the leaves are alternate, simple, and 5-15 cm (2-6 in) long. The flowers are complete, perfect with five narrow, triangular-pointed petals. Flowers are most often blue in color, although pink flowers are sometime observed. White flowered types are also cultivated. The flowers arise along scorpiod cymes to form large floral displays with multiple flowers blooming simultaneously, suggesting that borage has a high degree of geitonogamy. It has an indeterminate growth habit which may lead to prolific spreading. In milder climates, borage will bloom continuously for most of the year.
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The bright blue, star-shaped flowers (which bloom most of the summer) make borage one of the prettiest herb plants, thought the dark green leaves are rather plain. The flavor of the leaves resembles that of cucumber. The plant will grow to a height of about 18 inches, and spread about 12 inches. This hardy annual has a messy, straggling habit.

Cultivation:
Borage is not a fussy plant, but the richer the soil, the bushier the plant will be. It prefers full sun, and needs protection from wind as it is easily blown over. Seeds can be sown throughout the season, and once growth is established, it will continue to seed itself. Place plants close together so they can support each other. A plant or two in an indoor pot will provide leaves all winter, but it will need lots of sun.

Borage is an excellent companion plant for tomatoes, squash and strawberries. The plant actually improves the flavor of tomatoes growing nearby.

Constituents:
The leaves contain an essential oil (below 0.1%) dominated by 2,6 nonadienal, which is also a main components in cucumber aroma (cucumber aldehyde).

Several non-volatile components have also been identified, among those the toxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids intermedine, lycopsamine, amabiline and supinine. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids, which are extremely common in the Boraginaceae family, are powerful hepatotoxins that cause severe liver damage on chronic ingestion, often with lethal outcome. Although the total concentration in borage is extremely small (around 10?ppm in the dried herb), it has been argued that borage is an unsafe herb when used in folk medicine; the risks associated with casual culinary usage are probably negligible. In the flowers, thesinine (a non-toxic pyrrolizidine alkaloid) has been found.

The fatty oil obtained from borage seeds (“borage oil”, “starflower oil”) is rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids, e.g., ?-linolenic acid (20%). Pyrrolizidine alkaloids seem to occur only in negligible traces in this oil, if at all.

The seed oil is desired as source of gamma-linolenic acid (GLA, 18:3, cis 6,9,12-octadecatrienoic acid), for which borage is the highest known plant-based source (17-28%). The seed oil content is between 26-38% and in addition to GLA contains the fatty acids palmitic acid (10-11%), stearic acid (3.5-4.5%), oleic acid (16-20%), linoleic acid (35-38%), eicosenoic acid (3.5-5.5%), erucic acid (1.5-3.5%), and nervonic acid (1.5%). The oil is often marketed as “starflower oil” or “borage oil” for uses as a GLA supplement, although healthy adults will typically produce ample GLA through dietary linoleic acid.

Culinary Uses:
Borage production does include use as either a fresh vegetable or a dried herb. As a fresh vegetable, borage, with a cucumber like taste, is often used in salads or as a garnish. The flower, which contains the non-toxic pyrrolizidine alkaloid thesinine, has a sweet honey-like taste and is one of the few truly blue-colored edible things, is often used to decorate dessert.

Vegetable use of borage is common in Germany and the Spanish regions of Aragón and Navarra. Although often used in soups, one of the better known German borage recipes is the Green Sauce (Grüne Sauce) made in Frankfurt. The leaves and flowers were originally used in Pimms before it was replaced by mint. It is used to flavour pickled gherkins in Poland.

*Borage flowers and leaves are the traditional decoration for gin-based summer cocktails, and may be set in ice cubes to garnish other drinks.

*The flowers and young leaves may be used to garnish salads. dips, and cucumber soups.

*Candied borage flowers make attractive cake decorations.

*Chopped leaves can be added to soups and stews during the last few minutes of cooking.

*The leaves can be cooked with cabbage leaves (two parts cabbage, one part borage.)

*Borage does not dry well for culinary use.

Medicinal Use:
Naturopathic practitioners uses of borage for regulation of metabolism and the hormonal system, and consider it to be a good remedy for PMS and menopause symptoms such as the hot flash. Borage is sometimes indicated to alleviate and heal colds, bronchitis, and respiratory infections in general for its anti-inflammatory and balsamic properties. The flowers can be prepared in infusion to take advantage of its medicinal properties. The oleic and palmitic acid of borage may also confer a hypocholesterolemic effect.It is notable that the leaves have been found to contain small amounts (10 ppm of dried herb) of the liver-toxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids: intermedine, lycopsamine, amabiline and supinine.

Tea made from the dried flowers is a traditional calming drink in Iran (Echium amoenum ). It has a rich purple color that turns bright pink by adding a few drops of lemon juice

The ancient Greek naturalist Pliny said that borage ‘maketh a man merry and joyful.’ Dioscorides, the first century Greek physician, mentioned the use of borage to ‘comfort the heart, purge melancholy and quiet the lunatic person.’
John Evelyn, the seventeenth century English herbalist, spoke of borage ‘to revive the hypochondriac and cheer the hard student’, while his contemporary Culpepper used the plant for ‘putrid and pestilential fever, the venom of serpents, jaundice, consumption, sore throat and rheumatism.’
For centuries it was thought to be a mood elevator when ingested as a tea or as leaves steeped in wine. This may or may not be the case. There is some evidence that perparations made from seed oil have a use in soothing and relieving inflammations associated with respiratory disorders

*Because it is a tonic plant for the adrenal glands, borage provides an invaluable support for a stressful lifestyle.

*Borage is rich in minerals, especially potassium.

*A tea made with borage helps to reduce fevers and ease chest colds.

*An infusion of borage acts as a galactogogue, promoting the production of milk in breastfeeding mothers.

Other Uses:

*Borage makes an excellent facial steam for improving very dry, sensitive skin.

*The flowers may be dried to add color to potpourri.

Disclaimer:The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://www.gardenguides.com/plants/info/herbs/borage.asp#morebelow
http://www.piam.com/mms_garden/plants.html
http://www.uni-graz.at/~katzer/engl/Bora_off.html
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Borage

Tawa Tawa aka Gatas Gatas weed

 

Boto-botonesan or phonetic variations are shared by three plants of different species: (1) Mutha (Cyperus rotundus) Boto-botones (2) Gatas-gatas (Euphorbia hirta) botobotonis, botbotonis, botonis (3) Botoncillo (Gomphrena globosa) botbotonis, botones-botonesan.

1. Mutha:-

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Botanical Name:BOTO-BOTONES/Cyperus rotundus /Hsiang-fu
Common names: Balisanga (Ilk.) ,Barsanga (Ilk.) ,Boto-botones (Bik.) ,Galonalpas (Pamp.),Kusung (Pamp.),Mala-apulid (Pamp.), Mota (Pamp.),Mutha (Tag.),Omadiung (Pamp.) ,Onoran (Pamp.),Sur-sur (Pamp.) ,Tarugug (Bik.) ,Hsiang-fu (Chin.)

Habitat: Found throughout the Philippines; a common weed in gardens, lawns and wastelands.throughout the Philippines.
Part utilized : Rhizome

Description:
* Slender, erect, glabrous, perennial grasslike plant, 10 to 40 cm high. Rhizomes or underground stems wiry, bearing black, hard, ovoid tubers about 1 cm in diameter. Above ground stem solitary, distinctly 3-angled.
* Leave as long as the stems.
* Flowers: inflorescence umbel-type, simple or compound, 2 to 6 cm long, with rather long rays or spikes. Spike with 3 to 8 spikelets. Spikelets brown, flat, slender, 10 to 25 mm long with 10 to 25 florets per spikelet. Rachilla of the spikelet distinctly winged. Glumes of the floret distichously arranged, the first 2 empty, the third one bisexual.
* Fruits: 3-angled nuts.

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* Harvest from December to January.
* Wash and sun-dry or heat-dry in a clean frying pan.
* Scrape off the fibrous roots.

Characteristics Effects:
-Fragrant, slightly bitter tasting rhizome.

Medicinal Uses:Demulcent, analgesic, stimulative, laxative, regulates menstrual flow.

Folkloric uses:
* Indigestion and constipation: 2 to 6 gms of dried material in a standard cup of water, boil to concentration and drink.
* Skin diseases: Wash the diseased portion with the hot decoction.
* Chest pains caused by deterred blood flow of blood and energy circulation: boil to decoction 4 to 9 gms of dried drug preparation together with 4 gms of Citrus (dalanghita, kahel, suha, kalamansi, etc.) and drink.
* Neurogenic gastralgia, abdominal distention, heaviness at the chest, acidic vomiting: 3 to 9 gms dried material in decoction.
*Irregular menstruation, painful menstruation: 3 to 9 gms dried material in decoction.
* Sprains and bruises, furuncle infections: Use pounded fresh material as poultice or cook the pulverized drug material in vinegar and apply as hot poultice.

Sources:http://www.stuartxchange.org/Mutha.html

2) Gatas-gatas:-

Botanical Name:Euphorbia hirta
Common Name:Tawa-tawa,botobotonis, botbotonis, botonis,AUTRALIAN ASTHMA WEED, SNAKE WEED,Fei-yang ts’ao

Chinese names:
Euphorbia hirta L. var. typica L.C. Wheel,Fei-yang ts’ao, Ta fei-yang, ta nai-chiang ts’ao, ju-chih ts’ao (milk herb), ta-ti chin, ta ju-chih ts’ao (giant milk herb).

Parts used :Entire plant.

Habitat:Abundant in waste places and open grasslands.

Description:
Slender-stemmed, annual hairy plant with many branches from the base to the top, spreading up to 40 cms tall, reddish or purplish in color. Leaves are opposite, elliptic-oblong to oblong-lanceolate, distichoous, 1 to 2.5 cms long, blotched with purple in the middle, toothed at the edge. Numerous involucres, purplish to greenish in color, dense, axillary, short-stalked clusters or crowded cymes, about 1 mm in length. Capsules are broadly ovoid, hairy, three-angled, about 1.5 cms.

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Constituents:
Gallic acid; quercetin; triacontane; cetyl alcohol; phytosterin; phytosterolin; jambulol; melissic, palmitic, oleic, and linoleic acid.

Medicinal Uses:Anti-asthmatic, pectoral, hemostatic, sedative, soporific, diuretic, antidote.

Folkloric
*Called gatas-gatas because of the healing property of the milky juice.
*Juice used for colics.
*Juice used as ophthalmic drops for conjunctivitis or ulceration of the cornea.
*Infusion or tea of the plant, 4 glasses daily, for bronchits and labored breathing, asthma, chronic dysentery.
*Decoction of dry plant used for skin disease.
*Decoction of fresh plant used as gargle for the treatment of thrusth.
*Decoction of the root used to allay vomiting, chronic diarrheas, and fevers.
*Root decoction also beneficial for nursing mothers deficient in milk: 4-5 glasses of tea.
*The same root decoction as an enema for constipation.
Root used for snake bites.
Asthma: Make into cigarette or burn and inhale smoke.
Superficial bleeding: Crush leaves and apply on affected paret, as local hemostatic.
Plant decoction: 25 gms of the whole plant to a pint of boiling water; boil for 3-4 minutes; drink 3-5 glasses a day. Externally as needed.

Recent interests from the folk medicine grapevine:DENGUE
(A flurry of queries and web blogs, gatas-gatas has found new interest for gatas-gatas (tawa-tawa) for its use in dengue, with increasing anecdotal reports of “cures.” )

A recommended decoction:
*Cut the roots off 5 to 6 gatas-gatas plants.
*Rinse.
*Put the tawa tawa into a pot of boiling water for 1 minute.
*Let cool.
*Drink the decoction, 1 to 1 1/2 glasses every hour for 24 hours.

Sources:http://www.stuartxchange.org/GatasGatas.html

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3)Botoncillo



Botanical Name:
Gomphrena globosa L.
Common Name:Hyptis capitata, bababañga, liñga-liñgahan.
Bokingon (Tag.) Bukingan (Tag.)
Botbotones (Ilk.) Bulah (Bag.)
Botoncillo (Sp.) Butingan (S.L.Bis.)
Botones-botonesan (Tag.)

Habitat: In settled areas throughout the Philippines.

Parts utilized: Flowers.

Description:
* An erect, branched, pubescent annual, the branches more or less thickened and often purplish at the nodes.

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* Leaves: opposite, petioled, oblong acute or obtuse, 7 to 11 cm long.

* Flowers: numerous, densely crowded in globose heads, the heads are white, pink or purple, solitary, peduncled, 1.5 to 2 cm long in diameter, subtended by 2 bracts. Bracteoles 8 to 10 mm long, enclosing the flowers, lateral, keeled. Sepals, pubescent, 5, lanceolate, cleft at the tip, usually without staminodes. Ovary 1-celled, 1-ovuled; style short or long, stigmas 2.

* Fruits: utricles, compressed, indehiscent.

Propagation:Propagate by seeds or cuttings

Hervesting: Collect the head inflorescence during May to October, during the flowering season. and Sun-dry

Properties: Sweet tasting. Antitussive, antiasthmatic.

Medicinal uses:
Bronchial asthma, acute and chronic bronchitis, whooping cough: Decoction of 9-15 g of dried material or 10 head inflorescence.
Sources:http://www.stuartxchange.org/Botoncillo.html

Disclaimer:The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

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