Tag Archives: Loam

Ephedra torreyana

Botanical Name :Ephedra torreyana
Family: Ephedraceae
Genus: Ephedra
Species: E. torreyana
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Gnetophyta
Class: Gnetopsida
Order: Ephedrales

Common Name :Ephedra, Torrey

Habitat :Ephedra torreyana is native to south-western N. America – Arizona and Colorado south to New Mexico, Texas and Mexico.
It grows in  dry gravelly or sandy plains, hills and canyons, 900 – 1800 metres in New Mexico. Dry rocky to sandy areas; 500–2000 m

Description:
Ephedra torreyana is an evergreen Shrub growing to 1m.
It is hardy to zone 0. It is in leaf all year, in flower from April to May. The flowers are dioecious (individual flowers are either male or female, but only one sex is to be found on any one plant so both male and female plants must be grown if seed is required)The plant is not self-fertile.

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The plant prefers light (sandy) and medium (loamy) soils and requires well-drained soil. The plant prefers acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It cannot grow in the shade. It requires dry or moist soil and can tolerate drought.

Cultivation :
Requires a well-drained loamy soil and a sunny position. Established plants are drought resistant and are also lime tolerant. Dioecious, male and female plants must be grown in fruit and seed are required.

Propagation:
Seed – best sown as soon as it is ripe in the autumn in a greenhouse. It can also be sown in spring in a greenhouse in a sandy compost. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots as soon as they are large enough to handle and grow them on for at least their first winter in a greenhouse. Plant out in the spring or early summer after the last expected frosts and give some protection in their first winter. Division in spring or autumn. Layering.

Edible Uses:
Edible Parts: Fruit.

Edible Uses: Tea.

An excellent tea is made by boiling the stems for a few minutes and allowing the brew to steep. Fruit – raw or cooked.

Medicinal Uses:

Diuretic; Kidney; Pectoral; Salve; Stomachic; VD.

This plant has a wide reputation as a cure for syphilis. A decoction of the stems is used, this decoction is also used in treating coughs, bladder and kidney problems and stomach disorders. A decoction of the leaves and stems has been used as a lotion on itchy skin. The stems of most members of this genus contain the alkaloid ephedrine and are valuable in the treatment of asthma and many other complaints of the respiratory system. The whole plant can be used at much lower concentrations than the isolated constituents – unlike using the isolated ephedrine, using the whole plant rarely gives rise to side-effects. Ephedra does not cure asthma but in many cases it is very effective in treating the symptoms and thus making life somewhat easier for the sufferer. The stems can be used fresh or dried and are usually made into a tea, though they can also be eaten raw. The young stems are best if eating them raw, though older stems can be used if a tea is made. The stems can be harvested at any time of the year and are dried for later use.

In some areas of the southwest this species is preferred as a diuretic to the greener species (Ephedra viridis and E. trifurca). Native tribes of the southwest used it for a variety of ailments. The Pima made a decoction from stems and used as an antiluetic (anti-syphilitic). The Mescalero Apache made a decoction from the entire plant and used as an antiblenorrhagic. Spanish New Mexicans made a decoction and used it to reduce fever and to relieve kidney pain.  The recipe is: boil a handful of the plant in a quart of water, then strain through a cloth. Drink one glass of this tea (hot) at least three times a day, about 1 hour before meals. When the pain is gone, one must eat a chopped red onion three times before meals for approximately 6 to 8 days. A decoction of the stems is used, in treating coughs, bladder and kidney problems and stomach disorders. A decoction of the leaves and stems has been used as a lotion on itchy skin.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider

Resources:
http://digedibles.com/database/plants.php?Ephedra+torreyana
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ephedra_torreyana
http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Ephedra_torreyana

http://www.herbnet.com/Herb%20Uses_DE.htm

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Ranunculus pennsylvanicus

Botanical Name : Ranunculus pennsylvanicus
Family: Ranunculaceae
Genus: Ranunculus
Species: R. pensylvanicus
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Ranunculales

Synonyms : Ranunculus pensylvanicus

Common Names:Pennsylvania Buttercup, Bristly Buttercup,Bristly Crowfoot

Habitat : Ranunculus pennsylvanicus   is native to Northern N. America – Labrador to Alaska and south to Colorado. It grows  in  the   wet meadows, alluvium, ditches etc. Stream banks, bogs, moist clearings, depressions in woodlands from sea level to 1700 metres

Description:
Ranunculus pennsylvanicus is an    annual/perennial   herbs, or woody climbers  growing to 1 m (3ft 3in) with acrid  sap.  Leaves usually alternate, sometimes opposite; simple or compound, with clasping or dilated base; stipules none. Flowers    hypogynous, actinomorphic or sometimes zygomorphic, bisporangiate or occasionally monosporangiate; perianth of similar
segments or differentiated into calyx and corolla; capels usually  separate; stamens numerous. Fruit an achene, follicle or berry. It is in flower from Jun to August. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Insects.

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The plant prefers light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils.The plant prefers acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils..It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade.It requires moist or wet soil.

Cultivation:
We have very little information on this species and do not know if it will be hardy in Britain, though judging by its native range it should succeed outdoors in most areas of the country. The following notes are based on the general needs of the genus. Prefers a moist loamy soil. A greedy plant, inhibiting the growth of nearby plants, especially legumes.

Propagation :
Seed – sow spring in a cold frame. When they are large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and plant them out in the summer.

Edible Uses: Leaves – cooked. The leaves contain toxins but in too low a concentration to be harmful.

Medicinal Uses:The plant is rubefacient. It is used to raise blisters

Other Uses :
The entire plant can be boiled to yield a red dye. It is mixed with the bark of bur oak (Quercus macrocarpa) which acts to fix the colour. The entire plant can be boiled with rushes (Juncus spp) or flags (Iris spp and Acorus calamus) to colour them yellow for use in making mats, baskets etc.

Known Hazards : Although no specific record of toxicity has been found for this plant, many if not all members of this genus are poisonous. These toxins can be destroyed by heat or by drying. Many if not all plants in this genus also have a strongly acrid juice that can cause blistering to the skin.

Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
https://www.kb.osu.edu/dspace/bitstream/handle/1811/1936/V17N04_106.pdf?sequence=1
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Ranunculus%20pennsylvanicus
http://www.herbnet.com/Herb%20Uses_AB.htm
http://www.wnmu.edu/academic/nspages/gilaflora/ranunculus_pennsylvanicus.html

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White baneberry

Botanical Name : Actaea pachypoda
Family: Ranunculaceae
Genus: Actaea
Species: A. pachypoda
Kingdom: Plantae
Subkingdom: Tracheobionta
Division: Magnoliophyta
Superdivision: Spermatophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Order: Ranunculales

Common Names:Doll’s-eyes, White Baneberry

Habitat :Actaea pachypoda  is  native to eastern North America.

Description:
It is a herbaceous perennial plant growing to 50 cm or more tall (1½ to 2 feet tall and 3 feet wide). It has toothed, bipinnate compound leaves up to 40 cm long and 30 cm broad. The white flowers are produced in spring in a dense raceme about 10 cm long. Its most striking feature is its fruit, a 1 cm diameter white berry, whose size, shape, and black stigma scar give the species its other common name, “doll’s eyes”. The berries develop and ripen over the summer, and persist on the plant until frost. Fall color may be yellowish, and is fairly unremarkable..

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White baneberry prefers clay to coarse loamy upland soils, and are found in hardwood and mixed-forest stands. In cultivation it requires part to full shade, rich loamy soil, and regular water with good drainage to reproduce its native habitat.

Medicinal Uses:
Baneberry root tea is sometimes used as an appetite stimulant, but is also used to treat stomach pains, coughs, colds, menstrual irregularities, and postpartum pains. It works well in increasing milk flow in nursing women and is used as a purgative after childbirth. White Baneberry has been used as a remedy for snake-bite, especially rattlesnake bite.

Known Hazards: The berries are highly poisonous, and the entire plant is considered poisonous to humans. First Nations peoples are reported to have drunk a tea made from the root of this plant after childbirth.

The berries contain cardiogenic toxins which can have an immediate sedative effect on human cardiac muscle tissue, and are the most poisonous part of the plant. Ingestion of the berries can lead to cardiac arrest and death. The berries are harmless to birds, the plant’s primary seed dispersers.

Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://www.herbnet.com/Herb%20Uses_AB.htm
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Actaea_pachypoda
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=ACPA
http://www.edelweissperennials.com/Large_Image.aspx?nm=1087&gclid=CNHwxKC_6KgCFU195QodwmtdEQ#

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Flueggea suffruticosa

Botanical Name :Flueggea suffruticosa
Family: Euphorbiaceae
Subfamily: Phyllanthoideae
Tribe: Phyllantheae.
Genus: Flueggea
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Order: Malpighiales
Species: F. suffruticosa
Synonyms : S. ramiflora. Pharnaceum suffruticosa. Xylophylla ramiflora.
Common Name :yi ye qiu (chinese)

Habitat
:E. Asia – Japan. Thickets and grassy slopes in Central and South Japan

Description  : Flueggea suffruticosa is a decidious Shrub growing to 1.5 m (5ft). It is in flower from Aug to September, and the seeds ripen from Sep to October. The flowers are dioecious (individual flowers are either male or female, but only one sex is to be found on any one plant so both male and female plants must be grown if seed is required)The plant is not self-fertile.

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It has light green leaves and an attractive upright, arching growth habit. Flowers appear in mid to late summer and are a greenish white, followed by green fruit capsules, neither of which are very showy. It prefers well drained soils and full sun. F. suffruticosa adds a graceful touch in borders, parks, or residential landscapes. . Mature height about 6-8 feet. Zones 4-7.

The plant prefers light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils.The plant prefers acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils..It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade.It requires moist soil.

Cultivation :

Succeeds in any rich loamy soil in a sunny position. Dioecious. Male and female plants must be grown if seed is required.


Propagation :

Seed – we have no information for this species but would suggest sowing the seed as soon as it is ripe in a cold frame. It should germinate freely in spring[K]. When they are large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on in the greenhouse for their first winter. Plant them out into their permanent positions in late spring or early summer, after the last expected frosts. Cuttings of half-ripe wood, July/August in sand in a frame

Edible Uses :
Edible Parts: Fruit;  Leaves.


Medicinal Uses:

This plant is commonly used in Chinese herbalism, where it is considered to be one of the 50 fundamental herbs. It is used in the treatment of contusions and nervous paralysis. The plant contains securinine, this acts as a stimulant on the central nervous system – it is particularly useful in the treatment of facial paralysis and is also thought to be of value in the treatment of multiple sclerosis.

Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://www.rarefindnursery.com/index.cfm/action/productdetail/product_id/3671.htm
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Securinega+suffruticosa
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flueggea_suffruticosa
http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/taxon.pl?405540

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Bai Bei Feng (Buddleja asiatica )

Botanical Name : Buddleja asiatica
Family : Buddleiaceae
Genus : Buddleia

Local names: Alatin (Bag.); amuging (Ig.); anaiop (If.); doknaw (Ting.); dumdumaui (If.); du?galau (Ibn.); lagien-ti-subisub (Ilk.); lagundisalasa (Bis.); malasambung (Tag.); maligus (Bon.); salibug (Tagb.); sambong-gala (Tag.); talikamo (Tag.); tugnang (Ilk.).

Habitat: E. Asia – India to the Philippines. Second growth forest, sandy river banks, grass, savannah, landslips and deserted village sites.Woodland Garden; Sunny Edge; Dappled Shade.(Malasambung is chiefly found in thickets, in recently cleared places, etc., at medium altitudes, sometimes at sea level and sometimes up to 2,000 meters, from northern Luzon to Palawan and Mindanao. It also occurs in India to China and Malaya.)

Description:
This is an erect,evergreen branched shrub 1 to 2 meters in height. The branches and lower surfaces of the leaves are densely hairy, being soft and smooth to the touch on account of numerous, small, grayish or brownish hairs. The leaves are lanceolate, 5 to 15 centimeters long, pointed at the base, tapering to a sharp, pointed tip, and toothed at the margins. The flowers are white, 3.5 to 4 millimeters long, hairy, and borne in large numbers on ample panicles, which grow up to 15 centimeters in length. The fruit is reflexed capsule, oblong, and about as along as the flower.

 

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It is hardy to zone 8. It is in leaf all year, in flower from January to April. The flowers are dioecious (individual flowers are either male or female, but only one sex is to be found on any one plant so both male and female plants must be grown if seed is required) and are pollinated by Bees, Lepidoptera (Moths & Butterflies). The plant is not self-fertile.

The plant prefers light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils, requires well-drained soil and can grow in nutritionally poor soil. The plant prefers acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils and can grow in very alkaline soil. It cannot grow in the shade. It requires dry or moist soil and can tolerate drought. It can tolerate atmospheric pollution.

Cultivation.
Requires a sunny position, succeeding in most reasonably good soils so long as they are well-drained. Prefers a rich loamy soil. Plants are very tolerant of alkaline soils[200]. Of doubtful hardiness in most of Britain, it is likely to be damaged or killed by temperatures lower than 0°c. However, one report says that it succeeds outdoors in southern Cornwall whilst other reports say that it might be hardy on a south or south-west facing wall in the mildest areas of this country[11, 166, 182, 188]. So long as the plant is well mulched it resprouts freely from the base if cut back by severe weather. A very ornamental plant[1], the cut flowers last well in water. Hybridizes freely with other members of this genus. Any pruning is best done after flowering. An excellent plant for bees and butterflies. Dioecious. Male and female plants must be grown if seed is required.

Propagation
Seed – cold stratify for 4 weeks at 4°c and surface sow the seed in February/March in a greenhouse (the pre-chilling might not be required for this species). Germination usually takes place within 3 – 4 weeks at 21°c. When large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on in the greenhouse for at least their first winter, planting them out into their permanent positions in late spring or early summer, after the last expected frosts. Seedlings are inclined to damp off and so should be watered with care and kept well-ventilated. Cuttings of half-ripe wood, July/August in a frame. Use short side-shoots. Very high percentage. Cuttings of mature wood of the current season’s growth, 15 – 20cm long, October/November in a frame.

Edible Uses
Edible Uses: Drink.

The dried and powdered root is used in the preparation of a fermented liquor.

Medicinal Uses
Abortifacient; Skin.
The plant has been used as an abortifacient and also in the treatment of skin complaints. The juice of the plant is applied as a wash to treat skin diseases.Guerrero states that in Philippines this plant is used locally for abortion. Also it is used in skin diseases and as a cure for loss of weight.

Other Uses

Wood.

Wood – tough, moderately hard. It could be used for making walking sticks.

Scented Plants
Flowers: Fresh
The flowers, which are produced in the winter, have a wonderful strong aroma rather like freesias.

Disclaimer:The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://www.pfaf.org/database/plants.php?Buddleia+asiatica
http://www.bpi.da.gov.ph/Publications/mp/html/m/malasambung.htm

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