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Herbs & Plants

Ligusticum porteri

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Botanical Name : Ligusticum porteri
Family: Apiaceae
Genus: Ligusticum
Species: L. porteri
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Apiales

Common Names: Osha, Osha root, Porter’s lovage, Porter’s licorice-root, lovage, wild lovage, Porter’s wild lovage, loveroot, Porter’s ligusticum, bear medicine, bear root, Colorado cough root, Indian root, Indian parsley, wild parsley, mountain ginseng, mountain carrot, nipo, empress of the dark forest, chuchupate, chuchupati, chuchupaste, chuchupatle, guariaca, hierba del cochino or yerba de cochino, raíz del cochino, washía (tarahumara).

Habitat : Osha is strictly a mountain plant, and it is most commonly found in deep, moist soils rich in organic material. The plant requires partial shade. Osha is widely distributed from British Columbia south into Oregon and Washington State, and throughout the Rocky Mountains and the high mountains of New Mexico. It is most common in the upper limits of the subalpine zone, so in the southern part of its range, it grows at elevations from 7,000 feet to 10,000 feet (2100 m to 3000 m), while from Utah, Wyoming, and Montana northwards, it grows as low as 5,000 feet (1500 m).

Osha is dependent on mycorrhizal fungi, and attempts to artificially cultivate the plant outside of its habitat have not been successful. Cultivation of osha in areas where it naturally grows have been more successful

Description:
Osha has the typical appearance of members of the parsley family, with parsley-like leaves and umbels of white flowers. The bases of the leaves where they attach to the root crowns have a reddish tint which is unique, and the roots are fibrous, with a dark, chocolate-brown, wrinkled outer skin. When this skin is removed, the inner root tissue is fibrous and yellowish-white with an overpowering, pleasant “spicy celery” fragrance that resembles lovage (Levisticumofficinale).

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Osha roots have a collar of dead leaf material surrounding the root crowns which is hairlike in appearance. The roots dry very quickly and are very astringent when fresh, and can cause blistering of the mouth and mucous membranes in humans if ingested fresh. The dried roots do not have this astringent affect. Roots of older plants are far stronger and bitter than those of younger plants.[citation needed]

Osha plants form large clumps over time, and can grow to be very large. In areas of New Mexico, Colorado, and Utah, osha can reach heights of 6 to 7 feet and produce circular colonies with dozens of root crowns growing from a central root mass. Osha is best harvested in the afternoon as the plants are relished by bears, which are known to visit the plants during the morning.

Uses and toxicity:
Osha root or Ligusticum wallichii (Ligusticum) root can be steeped in ethanol (whisky, vodka, etc.) for at least a month. The resulting tincture is an effective, albeit pungent, liniment for sore muscles that can be stored (in a cool place) indefinitely.

Osha root can “treat almost everything.”

Osha has been clinically verifiedTemplate:By who or what to possess anti-viral properties (what and is very effective for treating cold and flu systems of the upper respiratory tract, and other viral infections of the respiratory system.[citation needed] The plant is also a powerful stimulant if consumed to excess. Osha root is typically chewed, then spit out after the medicinal components have been extracted by the chewing action. Osha root is also used internally in small amounts to treat fever, stomach ache, and heartburn. Osha root can be made into a poultice to treat brown recluse spider bites.

Osha has been sensationalized as an herbal remedy to the extent that the plants are seriously threatened in many areas due to overharvesting. Since osha defies cultivation outside of its habitat, commercial osha root is almost entirely harvested from wild stands of the plant.

Osha is commonly used by the Apaches and other native tribes. According to White Mountain Apache elders, they would use it as a snake and insect repellent: It has a strong smell. Apaches use this herb to aid in the curing of common colds, sore throats, cough, sinusitis, and other side effects of the winter season.

Medicinal Uses:
American Indians used this herb to treat all manner of respiratory ailments: pneumonia, influenza, colds, bronchitis, tuberculosis, hay fever and asthma.  Oshas are emmenagogues.  Not recommended for pregnant women.  It is used to treat colds, flu, fevers, cough, cold phlegm diseases, indigestion, gas, delayed menses and rheumatic complaints.  This is one of the most important herbs of the Rocky Mountains, considered sacred by the Native Americans and widely esteemed by them for its broad and effective warm healing power.  Many tribes burned it as incense for purification, to ward off gross pathogenic factors and subtle negative influences.

Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Osha
http://www.herbnet.com/Herb%20Uses_OPQ.htm

http://swbiodiversity.org/seinet/imagelib/imgdetails.php?imgid=19749

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Categories
Herbs & Plants

Cymopterus fendleri

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Botanical Name : Cymopterus fendleri
Family : Apiaceae – Carrot family
Genus : Cymopterus Raf. – springparsley
Species: Cymopterus acaulis (Pursh) Raf. – plains springparsley
Variety :Cymopterus acaulis (Pursh) Raf. var. fendleri (A. Gray) Goodrich – Fendler’s springparsley
Kingdom : Plantae – Plants
Subkingdom : Tracheobionta – Vascular plants
Superdivision:  Spermatophyta – Seed plants
Division : Magnoliophyta – Flowering plants
Class: Magnoliopsida – Dicotyledons
Subclass: Rosidae
Order: Apiales

Synonyms: Cymopterus fendleri,  Cymopterus acaulis variety fendleri.  Cymopterus glomeratus.  (Biscuitroot)

Common Name:Chimaja

Habitat : Found at an altitude of 1500 – 1800 metres in Arizona.Western states of North America.

Description:
Cymopterus fendleri is a perennial hearb.It is hardy to zone 0. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Insects. The plant is self-fertile.The root is spindle-shaped, parsnip-like but much softer, sweeter and more tender than the parsnip.

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Edible Uses:
Leaves – cooked. The plant has a particularly strong and pleasant odour, it is used as a flavouring in soups and stews. Root – raw or cooked. Used as a flavouring. An aromatic flavour.

The root is also edible.This root is collected largely by the Mexicans and also by the Ute and Piute Indians.

Propagation : Seed – we have no information on this species but suggest sowing the seed in a cold frame as soon as it is ripe if this is possible. Sow stored seed as early in the year as possible in a greenhouse. As soon as they are large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on in the greenhouse for at least their first winter. Plant them out into their permanent positions in late spring or early summer, after the last expected frosts. Division in spring or autumn might be possible.

Cultivation:Found at an altitude of 1500 – 1800 metres in Arizona.

Medicinal Uses:
The leaves and seeds are brewed as a tea for weak stomach and indigestion with gas. Steeped in whiskey or tequila, a sip serves the same purpose. Simple tea of leaves and seeds.

Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://digedibles.com/database/plants.php?Cymopterus+fendleri
http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=CYACF&photoID=cyfe_2v.jpg
http://www.herbnet.com/Herb%20Uses_C.htm
http://www.henriettesherbal.com/eclectic/sturtevant/cymopterus.html

Categories
Herbs & Plants

Indian Dill (Anethum sowa)/Anethum graveolens

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Botanical Name:Anethum sowa
Family: Apiaceae (ay-pee-AY-see-ee) (Info)
Genus: Anethum (uh-NAY-thum) (Info)
Species: sowa
Synonyms: Peucedanum graveolens ((L.)C.B.Clarke.), Anethum sowa (Roxb. ex Fleming.) A. graveloens[E] Lomatium graveolens var. graveolens[B,P] Lomatium kingii[B,P] Peucedanum kingii[B,P]

Sanskrit Name :Satahva

Other Common Names: From various places around the Web, may not be correct. See below.
Baston Do Diale [E], Catahva [E], Datli Boyana [E], Dereotu [E], Dill [L,B,H,S,P], Dille [D], East Indian Dill [E], Eneldo [E], Habbat Helwah [E], Hinojo [E], Indian Dill [H,E], Inojo [E], Inondo [E], King Desertparsley [P], Sadhab Al Barr [E], Surva [H],

Habitat :India, Pakisthan, Burma, Bangladesh and some other Asian Countries.(Surva) Pungent, somewhat more bitter variety extensively grown in India and Japan.Range: W. Asia. Naturalized in Europe in the Mediterranean.

Description:Annual growing to 0.75m by 0.15m . It is in leaf from May to November, in flower from April to July, and the seeds ripen from July to August. The scented flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Bees. The plant is self-fertile. It is noted for attracting wildlife.

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Cultivation details:
An easily grown plant, it prefers a moderately rich loose soil and full sun. Requires a well-drained soil and shelter from the wind. Tolerates a pH in the range 5.3 to 7.8.

Dill is a commonly cultivated herb, especially in warm temperate and tropical zones. It is grown mainly for its edible leaves and seeds, though it is also used medicinally. There are many named varieties. ‘Bouquet’ is an American cultivar that has a prolific production of seeds. The sub-species A. graveolens sowa from India has a slightly different flavour to the type species. The plant quickly runs to seed in dry weather. It often self-sows when growing in a suitable position.

A good companion for corn and cabbages, also in moderation for cucumbers, lettuce and onions, but it inhibits the growth of carrots. Dill reduces a carrot crop if it is grown to maturity near them. However, the young plant will help to deter carrot root fly.

The plant prefers light (sandy) and medium (loamy) soils and requires well-drained soil. The plant prefers acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It cannot grow in the shade. It requires moist soil.

Propagation
Seed – sow April to early summer in situ and only just cover. The seed germinates in 2 weeks if the soil is warm. A regular supply of leaves can be obtained if successional sowings are made from May to the end of June. Autumn sowings can succeed if the winters are mild. Dill is very intolerant of root disturbance and should not be transplanted because it will then quickly run to seed.

Other details:This plant is attractive to bees, butterflies and/or birds
Average Water Needs; Water regularly; do not overwater
Flowers are good for cutting.

Edible Uses
Condiment; Leaves; Seed; Tea.
Leaves – raw or cooked. Used as a flavouring in salads etc. The leaves lose their flavour if the are cooked for any length of time and so are best used raw or added to cooked dishes only a few minutes before the cooking is complete. The leaves can be harvested at any time the plant is growing, but are best just before the plant flowers. Per 100g, the plant contains 253 calories, 7.2g water, 20g protein, 4.4g fat, 55.8g carbohydrate, 11.9g fibre, 12.6g ash, 1784mg calcium, 543mg phosphorus, 48.8mg iron, 451mg magnesium, 208mg sodium, 3,308mg potassium, 3.3mg zinc, 0.42mg thiamine, 0.28mg riboflavin, 2.8mg niacin and 1.5mg vitamin B6.

Seed – raw or cooked. Very pungent and bitter in taste. It is used as a flavouring in salads, preserves etc, its chief uses being perhaps in making dill vinegar and as a flavouring in pickled gherkins. It can also be sprouted and used in breads, soups and salad dressings. Per 100g, the seed contains 305 calories, 7.7g water, 14.5g fat (0.73g saturated, 124mg phytosterol and no cholesterol), 55.2g carbohydrate, 21g fibre, 6.7g ash, 1,516mg calcium, 277mg phosphorus, 16.3mg iron, 256mg magnesium, 20mg sodium, 1,186mg potassium, 5.2mg zinc, 53IU vitamin A, 0.42mg thiamine and 0.28mg riboflavin.

An essential oil from the seed is used as a flavouring in the food industry.

A tea is made from the leaves and/or the seeds.

Composition
Seed (Fresh weight)
In grammes per 100g weight of food:
Water: 7.7 Calories: 305 Fat: 14.5 Carbohydrate: 55.2 Fibre: 21.1 Ash: 6.7
In milligrammes per 100g weight of food:
Calcium: 1516 Phosphorus: 277 Iron: 16.3 Magnesium: 256 Sodium: 20 Potassium: 1186 Zinc: 5.2 VitaminA: 53 Thiamine: 0.42 Riboflavin: 0.28

Leaves (Fresh weight)
In grammes per 100g weight of food:
Water: 7.2 Calories: 253 Protein: 20 Fat: 4.4 Carbohydrate: 55.8 Fibre: 11.9 Ash: 12.6
In milligrammes per 100g weight of food:
Calcium: 1784 Phosphorus: 543 Iron: 48.8 Magnesium: 451 Sodium: 208 Potassium: 3308 Zinc: 3.3 Thiamine: 0.42 Riboflavin: 0.28 Niacin: 2.8 VitaminB6: 1.5

Medicinal Uses:
Antihalitosis; Aromatic; Carminative; Diuretic; Galactogogue; Stimulant; Stomachic.

Dill has a very long history of herbal use going back more than 2,000 years. The seeds are a common and very effective household remedy for a wide range of digestive problems. An infusion is especially efficacious in treating gripe in babies and flatulence in young children.

The seed is aromatic, carminative, mildly diuretic, galactogogue, stimulant and stomachic. It is also used in the form of an extracted essential oil. Used either in an infusion, or by eating the seed whole, the essential oil in the seed relieves intestinal spasms and griping, helping to settle colic. Chewing the seed improves bad breath. Dill is also a useful addition to cough, cold and flu remedies, it can be used with antispasmodics such as Viburnum opulus to relieve period pains. Dill will also help to increase the flow of milk in nursing mothers and will then be taken by the baby in the milk to help prevent colic.

Claimed Therapeutic Use
(According to Ayurveda): For improving hunger, appetiser, anti-febric, vermifugal, digestive, abdominal colic, intestinal colic, ophthalmic disorders, pelvic inflammatory disease conditions, analgesic, body pain .

Other Uses
Essential; Insecticide.
The seed contains up to 4% essential oils. It is used in perfuming soaps, medicines and as a food flavouring.
Some compounds of dill (d-carvone is mentioned as one of them), when added to insecticides, have greatly increased the effectiveness of the insecticides.

Fresh foliage is eaten with steamed rice and used to flavour soup. Essential ingredient in curry powders. Fruits are carminative, stomachic and stimulant; and so are used chiefly for flatulence. Oil is used in the pharmaceutical and perfumery industries.

Disclaimer:The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider

Resources:
http://davesgarden.com/guides/pf/go/62272/index.html
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_herbs_and_minerals_in_Ayurveda
http://www.sacredseed.com/ricanes.htm
http://www.ibiblio.org/pfaf/cgi-bin/arr_html?Anethum+graveolens