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Herbs & Plants

Sweetbay Magnolia

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Botanical Name : Sweetbay Magnolia
Family: Magnoliaceae
Genus: Magnolia
Subgenus: M. subg. Magnolia
Section: M. sect. Magnolia
Species: M. virginiana
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Magnoliales

Common Names: Swampbay, Swamp magnolia, Whitebay,  Beaver tree,Sweetbay magnolia, Merely sweetbay

Habitat : Sweetbay Magnolia is native to the southeastern United States.It is found from New York to Florida and west to Texas, Arkansas, and Tennessee at elevations up to 500′. It is most commonly found in South Carolina, Alabama, Georgia, and Florida. It grows  in swamps, wet soils, and along borders of streams and ponds.

Description:
Sweetbay Magnolia was the first magnolia to be scientifically described under modern rules of botanical nomenclature, and is the type species of the genus Magnolia; as Magnolia is also the type genus of all flowering plants (magnoliophytes), this species in a sense typifies all flowering

plants…….

Click to see the pictures:–>.

1)Sweetbay Mangolia

2)Sweetbay Magnolia Magnolia virginiana Leaf

3) Magnolia virginiana flower

4) Sweetbay Magnolia Magnolia virginiana Dried Berry Cluster

 

Magnolia virginiana is a deciduous or evergreen tree to 30 m tall, Whether it is deciduous or evergreen depends on climate; it is evergreen in areas with milder winters in the south of its range, and is semi-evergreen or deciduous further north. The leaves are alternate, simple (not lobed or pinnate), with entire margins, 6-12 cm long, and 3-5 cm wide. The bark is smooth and gray, with the inner bark mildly scented, the scent reminiscent of the bay laurel spice.

The flowers are creamy white, 8-14 cm diameter, with 6-15 petal-like tepals. The flowers carry a very strong vanilla scent that can sometimes be noticed several hundred yards away. The fruit is a fused aggregate of follicles, 3-5 cm long, pinkish-red when mature, with the follicles splitting open to release the 1 cm long seeds. The seeds are black but covered by a thinly fleshy red coat, which is attractive to some fruit-eating birds; these swallow the seeds, digest the red coating, and disperse the seeds in their droppings.

Cultivation:
Magnolia virginiana is often grown as an ornamental tree in gardens, and used in horticultural applications to give an architectural feel to landscape designs. It is an attractive tree for parks and large gardens, grown for its large, conspicuous, scented flowers, for its clean, attractive foliage, and for its fast growth. These handsome plants are not often damaged by ice storms.

The English botanist and missionary John Banister collected Magnolia virginiana in 1678 and sent it to England, where it flowered for Bishop Henry Compton. This species was the first magnolia to be cultivated in England, although it was soon overshadowed by the evergreen, larger-flowered southern magnolia (M. grandiflora.)

The sweetbay magnolia has been hybridized horticulturally with a number of species within subgenus Magnolia. These species include M. globosa, M. grandiflora, M. insignis, M. macrophylla, M. obovata, M. sieboldii and M. tripetala. Some of these hybrids have been given cultivar names and registered by the Magnolia Society.

Medicinal Uses:
Indians drank a warm infusion of the bark, cones and seeds for rheumatism.  In colonial times, the root bark was used in place of quinine bark to treat malaria.  A drink made of an infusion of bark and brandy was used to treat lung and chest diseases, dysentery, and fever.  A tea made of young branches boiled in water was a treatment for colds.  The bark and fruit are aromatic and have been used as a tonic.  A tincture of the fresh leaves has been used to treat rheumatism and gout, and as a laxative. A tea made from the bark is taken internally in the treatment of colds, bronchial diseases, upper respiratory tract infections, rheumatism and gout. The bark has been chewed by people trying to break the tobacco habit. A tea made from the fruit is a tonic, used in the treatment of general debility and was formerly esteemed in the treatment of stomach ailments. The leaves or bark have been placed in cupped hands over the nose and inhaled as a mild hallucinogen.

Disclaimer:The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider

Resources:
http://www.sfrc.ufl.edu/4h/Sweetbay_magnolia/sweemagn.htm
Sweetbay Magnolia Magnolia virginiana Leaves
http://www.herbnet.com/Herb%20Uses_RST.htm

Sweetbay Magnolia Tree

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Herbs & Plants

Magnolia acuminate

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Botanical Name :Magnolia acuminate
Family: Magnoliaceae
Genus: Magnolia
Subgenus: M. subg. Yulania
Section: M. sect. Yulania subsect. Tulipastrum
Species: M. acuminata
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Magnoliales

Common Names : Cucumber tree (often spelled as a single word “cucumbertree”),cucumber magnolia or blue magnolia

Habitat : The cucumber tree is native primarily within the Appalachian belt, including the Allegheny Plateau and Cumberland Plateau, up to western Pennsylvania and New York. There are also numerous disconnected outlying populations through much of the southeastern U.S., and a few small populations in Southern Ontario. In Canada, the cucumber tree is listed as an endangered species and is protected under the Canadian Species at Risk Act. In 1993 The North American Native Plant Society purchased Shining Tree Woods to preserve a stand of Magnolia acuminata, which is also known as “The Shining Tree”.

Description:
Cucumber-Tree is a deciduous medium-sized tree common in the Mountains, rare in the Piedmont of North Carolina. The leaves are similar to other deciduous Magnolias, particularly the Umbrella-Tree (Magnolia tripetala), but are a bit shorter, more broadly ovate, thicker, and are not clustered at the ends of branches.

.CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES
It is one of the cold-hardiest. The leaves are  simple and alternate, oval to oblong, 12-25 cm long and 6-12 cm wide, with smooth margins and downy on the underside. They come in two forms, acuminate at both ends, or moderately cordate at the base (these are usually only formed high in the tree).

Unlike most magnolias, the flowers are not showy. They are typically small, yellow-green, and borne high in the tree in April through June. The name Cucumber tree comes from the unripe fruit, which is green and often shaped like a small cucumber; the fruit matures to a dark red color and is 6-8 cm long and 4 cm broad, with the individual carpels splitting open to release the bright red seeds, 10-60 per fruit. The ripe fruit is a striking reddish orange color.

Cultivation: They grow best in deep, moist, well-drained soils that are slightly acidic although they are tolerant of alkaline soils.
They are tricky to transplant due to their coarse, fleshy root system and should be planted shallow and moved in early spring with a good soil ball.

Medicinal Uses:
A mild diaphoretic, tonic, and aromatic stimulant. It is used in rheumatism and is contra-indicated in inflammatory symptoms. In the Alleghany districts the cones are steeped in spirits to make a tonic tincture. A warm infusion is laxative and sudorific, a cold one being antiperiodic and mildly tonic. It has historically been used as a substitute for quinine in the treatment of malaria. An infusion has been used in the treatment of stomach ache and cramps. The bark has been chewed by people trying to break the tobacco habit. A hot infusion of the bark has been snuffed to treat sinus problems and has also been held in the mouth to treat toothaches. The bark is harvested in the autumn and dried for later use. It does not store well so stocks should be renewed annually. A tea made from the fruit is a tonic, used in the treatment of general debility and was formerly esteemed in the treatment of stomach ailments. In Louisiana, the bark of the root and the fruit was used in herbal treatments.  The powdered root bark dosage was about a teaspoonful.  The tincture was most often used.  It was made by placing the fruit in weak alcohol for a given time.  The rural herbal users have used the fruit of the cucumber tree to treat dyspepsia and general debility for many years.  Herbalists used the bark and fruit prepared in the required form to give relief from the pains of rheumatism.  Midwives gave a tonic of the cucumber tree for treatment in obstinate cases of suppressed menstruation.

Other Uses;
Cucumber trees are excellent shade trees for parks and gardens, though they are not recommended for use as street trees. In cultivation, they typically only grow 15-20 m (50-75 feet) tall, although they reach over 30 m (100 feet) in ideal forest situations. They can become quite massive: the United States national champion in Stark County, Ohio measures more than seven feet (2 m) in diameter (although only 79 ft or 24 m tall). They grow best in deep, moist, well-drained soils that are slightly acidic although they are tolerant of alkaline soils.

In the timber trade, this tree is interchangeable with that of the related tuliptree (Liriodendron tulipifera).

Magnolia acuminata has been used in hybridizing new varieties that share its yellow flower color and cold hardiness

Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Magnolia_acuminata
http://www.herbnet.com/Herb%20Uses_C.htm
http://www.duke.edu/~cwcook/trees/maac.html

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Magnolia

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Botanical Name: Magnolia acuminata, Magnolia virginiana
Family: Magnoliaceae
Genus: Magnolia
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Magnoliales

Synonyms: CucumberTree. Magnoliae cortex. Blue Magnolia. Swamp Sassafras. Magnolia Tripetata.

Parts Used: Bark of stem and root.

Habitat: North America. The natural range of Magnolia species is rather scattered and includes eastern North America, Central America and the West Indies and east and southeast Asia. Some species are found in South America. Today many species of Magnolia and an ever increasing number of hybrids can also be found as ornamental trees in large parts of North America, Europe, Australia and New Zealand. The genus is named after French botanist Pierre Magnol, from Montpellier. See Origin of the name Magnolia.

Description :The genus is named in commemoration of Pierre Magnol, a famous professor of medicine and botany of Montpellier in the early eighteenth century. All its members are handsome, with luxuriant foliage and rich flowers. The leaves of Magnolia acuminata are oval, about 6 inches long by 3 broad, and slightly hairy below, with a diameter of 6 inches, and the fruit or cone, about 3 inches long, resembles a small cucumber.
It is a large tree, reaching a height of 80 or more feet and a diameter of 3 to 5 feet, but only grows to about 16 feet in England. The wood is finely grained, taking a brilliant polish, and in its colour resembles that of the tulip or poplar, but it is less durable. It is sometimes used for large canoes and house interiors.

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The bark of the young wood is curved or quilled, fissured outside, with occasional warts, and orange-brown in colour, being whitish and smooth within and the fracture short except for inner fibres. The older bark without the corky layer is brownish or whitish and fibrous. Drying and age cause the loss of its volatile, aromatic property.

Magnolia is an ancient genus. Having evolved before bees appeared, the flowers developed to encourage pollination by beetles. As a result, the carpels of Magnolia flowers are tough, to avoid damage by eating and crawling beetles. Fossilised specimens of M. acuminata have been found dating to 20 million years ago, and of plants identifiably belonging to the Magnoliaceae dating back to 95 million years ago. Another primitive aspect of Magnolias is their lack of distinct sepals or petals. The term tepal has been coined to refer to the intermediate element that Magnolia has instead. Magnolias are used as food plants by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species including Giant Leopard Moth.

Magnolia grandiflora is the official state flower of both Mississippi and Louisiana. The flower’s abundance in Mississippi is reflected in its state nickname, “Magnolia State”. The magnolia is also the official state tree of Mississippi.

One of the oldest nicknames for Houston, Texas Is “The Magnolia City” due to the abundance of Magnolia Trees growing along Buffalo Bayou.

Magnolia flowers may be white, pink or purple. Size ranges from 3 to 5 inch in diameter. Some species of mangolia have strap – shaped petals depending on the species.Mangolia seeds may remain dormant for many years (15 to 20 years).Mangolia flowers are protogynous ,apearing with or before the leaves.The tapals of mangolias are 9-15.Stems are present on elongate torus.early decidous; filemants white or purple,very short: another introrse or latrorse.

Origin of the name Magnolia
In 1703 Charles Plumier (1646-1704) described a flowering tree from the island of Martinique in his Genera. He gave the species, known locally as ‘Talauma’, the genus name Magnolia, after Pierre Magnol. The English botanist William Sherard, who studied botany in Paris under Joseph Pitton de Tournefort, a pupil of Magnol, was most probably the first after Plumier to adopt the genus name Magnolia. He was at least responsible for the taxonomic part of Johann Jacob Dillenius‘s Hortus Elthamensis and of Mark Catesby’s famous Natural history of Carolina. These were the first works after Plumier’s Genera that used the name Magnolia, this time for some species of flowering trees from temperate North America.

Carolus Linnaeus, who was familiar with Plumier’s Genera, adopted the genus name Magnolia in 1735 in his first edition of Systema naturae, without a description but with a reference to Plumier’s work. In 1753, he took up Plumier’s Magnolia in the first edition of Species plantarum. Since Linnaeus never saw a herbarium specimen (if there has ever been one) of Plumier’s Magnolia and had only his description and a rather poor picture at hand, he must have taken it for the same plant which was described by Catesby in his 1730 ‘Natural History of Carolina, and placed it in the synonymy of Magnolia virginiana variety foetida, the taxon now known as Magnolia grandiflora.

The species that Plumier originally named Magnolia was later described as Annona dodecapetala by Lamarck, and has since been named Magnolia plumieri and Talauma plumieri (and still a number of other names) but is now known as Magnolia dodecapetala.

Constituents: The bark has no astringency. The tonic properties are found in varying degree in several species.

Medicinal Action and Uses:
The bark from M. officinalis has long been used in traditional Chinese medicine, where it is known as houpu. In Japan, M. obovata has been used in a similar manner. The aromatic bark contains magnolol and honokiol, two polyphenolic compounds that have demonstrated anti-anxiety and anti-angiogenic properties. Magnolia bark also has been shown to reduce allergic and asthmatic reactions.

Magnolia has attracted the interest of the dental research community because magnolia bark extract inhibits many of the bacteria responsible for caries and periodontal disease. In addition, the constituent magnolol interferes with the action of glucosyltransferase, an enzyme needed for the formation of bacterial plaque.

A mild diaphoretic, tonic, and aromatic stimulant. It is used in rheumatism and malaria and is contra-indicated in inflammatory symptoms. In the Alleghany districts the cones are steeped in spirits to make a tonic tincture.

A warm infusion is laxative and sudorific, a cold one being antiperiodic and mildly tonic.

Dosage: Fluid Extract. Frequent doses of 1/2 to 1 drachm, or the infusion in wineglassful doses.

Other Species:
Both M. virginiana and M. tripetala were recognized as official with M. acuminata.

M. virginiana, or M. glauca, White Laurel, Beaver Tree, Swamp Sassafras, White Bay, Sweet Bay, Small or Laurel Magnolia, or Sweet Magnolia, is much used by beavers, who favour it both as food and building material. The light wood has no commercial use.

The bark and seed cones are bitter and aromatic, used as tonics, and in similar ways to M. acuminata. The leaves yield a green, volatile oil with a more pleasant odour than fennel or anise. There is probably also a bitter glucosidal principle.
Other Uses:
In general, Magnolia is a genus which has attracted a lot of horticultural interest. Hybridisation has been immensely successful in combining the best aspects of different species to give plants which flower at an earlier age than the species themselves, as well as having more impressive flowers. One of the most popular garden magnolias is a hybrid, M. x soulangeana (Saucer magnolia; hybrid M. liliiflora x M. denudata).

M. tripetala, Umbrella Tree or Umbrella Magnolia. The fruit yields a neutral crystalline principle, Magnolin.

The bark, if chewed as a substitute for tobacco, is said to cure the habit.

Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://botanical.com/botanical/mgmh/m/magnol03.html
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Magnolia
http://www.theflowerexpert.com/content/giftflowers/flowersandfragrances/magnolia

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