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Malva rotundifolia

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Botanical Name : Malva rotundifolia
Family: Malvaceae
Subfamily: Malvoideae
Tribe: Malveae
Genus: Malva
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Malvales

Synonyms.: Malva pusilla Sm.

Common Name : Dwarf Mallow, low mallow, cheese mallow, cheeses, round-mallow.

Habitat :The genus is widespread throughout the temperate, subtropical and tropical regions of Africa, Asia and Europe.

Description:
This plant has a perennial root, and a juicy, annual stem two to three feet high; sometimes cultivated in gardens, but common by road-sides in the East. Leaves large, broadly heart-shaped, soft, plaited, and slightly seven-lobed. Flowers resembling the well-known holly-hock, but more tubular, an inch in diameter, shiny, light purple, veined, on hairy peduncles in the axils of the leaves.
CLICK TO SEE THE PICTURES
Medicinal Uses:
These plants are very demulcent, with slight nervine tonic properties. An infusion may be used freely in irritation of the bowels, kidneys and bladder, and in dysentery and acute nephritic complaints. They make a desirable soothing remedy, and may be used to advantage with agrimony. They are also of much service as an outward application to inflamed surfaces.

Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://www.henriettes-herb.com/eclectic/cook/MALVA_SYLVESTRIS.htm
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Malva
http://www.botanical.com/botanical/mgmh/m/mallow07.html

 

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Malva meschata

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Botanical Name :Malva meschata
Family: Malvaceae
Subfamily: Malvoideae
Genus: Malva
Species: M. moschata
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Malvales

Common Names : Musk-mallow

Habitat :Malva meschata is native to Europe and southwestern Asia, from Spain north to the British Isles and Poland, and east to southern Russia and Turkey.It has been introduced to and become naturalised in several areas with temperate climates away from its native range, including Scandinavia, New Zealand, and North America.It occurs on dry, but fertile soils at altitudes from sea level up to 1,500 m. Natural hybrids with the closely related Malva alcea are occasionally found.

Description:
Malva meschata is a herbaceous perennial plant growing to 80 cm tall, with hairy stems and foliage. The leaves are alternate, 2–8 cm long and 2–8 cm broad, palmately lobed with five to seven lobes; basal leaves on the lower stem are very shallowly lobed, those higher on the stems are deeply divided, with narrow, acuminate lobes. The flowers are produced in clusters in the leaf axils, each flower 3.2–5 cm diameter, with five bright pink petals with a truncated to notched apex; they have a distinctive musky odour. The fruit is a disc-shaped schizocarp 3–6 mm diameter, containing 10–16 seeds, the seeds individually enclosed in a mericarp covered in whitish hairs. It has a chromosome count of 2n=42.The flowers are usually pollinated by bees. CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES

Cultivation:   
A very easily grown plant, succeeding in ordinary garden soil, though it prefers a reasonably well-drained and moderately fertile soil in a sunny position. Hardy to about -25°c. A very ornamental plant. It is very variable in form, especially with regard to the degree of laciniation of the leaves. The crushed leaves have a musk-like smell. Plants are generally quite short-lived though they can self-sow freely when in a suitable position and usually more than maintain themselves. If the plant is pruned back to the main branches as it comes into flower, then it will produce a fresh flush of leaves in late summer for salad use. A good plant for the summer meadow. Plants seem to be immune to the predations of rabbits. Prone to infestation by rust fungus.

Propagation:                                            
Seed – best sown in early spring in a cold frame. The seed germinates quickly and easily. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle and plant them out in their permanent positions in the early summer. If you have sufficient seed then it can be sown outdoors in situ in the middle to late spring. Basal cuttings in late spring. Harvest the shoots with plenty of underground stem when they are about 8 – 10cm above the ground. Pot them up into individual pots and keep them in light shade in a cold frame or greenhouse until they are rooting well. Plant them out in the summer. Cuttings of side shoots, July/August in a cold frame

Edible Uses:

Leaves – raw or cooked. A mild pleasant flavour. The leaves are mucilaginous and fairly bland, we use them in bulk in summer salads. They make a very good perennial substitute for lettuce in a salad, producing fresh leaves from spring until the middle of summer, or until the autumn from spring germinating plants. Flowers – raw. A very decorative addition to the salad bowl, they have a very mild flavour. Seed – raw. Best used before it is fully mature, the seed has a pleasant nutty taste but it is rather small and fiddly to harvest.

Medicinal Uses:

Antiphlogistic;  Astringent;  Demulcent;  Diuretic;  Emollient;  Expectorant;  Laxative;  Poultice;  Salve.

All parts of the plant are antiphlogistic, astringent, demulcent, diuretic, emollient, expectorant, laxative, salve. The leaves and flowers can be eaten as part of the diet, or a tea can be made from the leaves, flowers or roots. The leaves and flowers are the main part used, their demulcent properties making them valuable as a poultice for bruise, inflammations, insect bites etc, or taken internally in the treatment of respiratory system diseases or inflammation of the digestive or urinary systems. They have similar properties, but are considered to be inferior, to the common mallow (M. sylvestris) and the marsh mallow (Althaea officinalis) and are seldom used internally. The plant is an excellent laxative for young children.

Other Uses  :
Dye;  Fibre.

Cream, yellow and green dyes can be obtained from the plant and the seed heads. A fibre obtained from the stems is used for cordage, textiles and paper making.

It is often grown as an ornamental plant for its attractive scented flowers, produced for a long period through the summer. Several cultivars have been selected for variation on flower colour, including ‘Rosea’ with dark pink flowers. The form ‘Alba’ (white flowered) has gained the Royal Horticultural Society‘s Award of Garden Merit.

Known Hazards :When grown on nitrogen rich soils (and particularly when these are used inorganically), the plant tends to concentrate high levels of nitrates in its leaves. The leaves are perfectly wholesome at all other times.

Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://www.pfaf.org/user/plant.aspx?LatinName=Malva+moschata
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Malva_moschata
http://www.botanical.com/botanical/mgmh/m/mallow07.html

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Malva sylvestris

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Botanical NameMalva sylvestris
Family: Malvaceae
Subfamily: Malvoideae
Genus: Malva
Species: M. sylvestris
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Malvales

Synonym: Common Mallow.Althaea godronii. Althaea mauritiana. Malva ambigua. Malva erecta. Malva mauritiana,   Malva ambigua. Malva erecta. Malva mauritiana.

Common names:  Mallow, High mallow, French Hollyhock, Common Mallow, Tree Mallow, Tall Mallow .
Albanian: Mëllaga
Bulgarian:Gorski slez
English: Blue Mallow, Tall mallow, common mallow, high mallow,  cheese-cake,
pick-cheese, round dock, country-mallow, wild mallow, wood mallow
Catalan: Malva, Vauma, malva de cementiri
Corsican: Malba
Welsh: Hocysen Gyffredin
Czech: sléz lesní
Danish: Almindelig Katost
German: Kultur-käsepappel
Esperanto: Malvo granda
Greek:Molocha
Spanish: Malva común, Malva silvestre
Basque: ziga, zigiña
Estonian: mets-kassinaeris
French: Grande mauve, mauve sylvestre, mauve des bois
Finnish: Kiiltomalva
Croatian: Sljez crni, Sljez divlji
Hungarian: Erdei mályva, mályva, Papsajt
– Georgian:Balba

Italian: Malva, méiba, nalba, riondella
Kashmiri: Sotsal
Malayalam: Hobbejza tar-raba
Dutch: Groot Kaasjeskruid
Norwegian: Apotekerkattost
Polish: Slaz dziki
Portuguese: Malva silvestre
Sardinian: mamarutza, marmaredda, marva, Narbedda
Slovak: slez lesný
Slovene: Gozdni slezenovec
Serbian: crni slez
Swedish: rödmalva
Romanian: Nalba de culturä, nalba de padure
Turkish: Büyük ebegümeci

Habitat ; Malva sylvestris is native to England, Wales and Channel Islands, Siberia and scattered elsewhere. It  spreads itself on waste and rough ground, by roads and railways throughout lowland of England. It has been introduced to and has become naturalised in eastern Australia, in the United States, Canada and Mexico probably escaped from cultivation.

Description:
Malva sylvestris is a spreading herb, which is an annual in North Africa, biennial in the Mediterranean and a perennial elsewhere Three feet (one meter) tall, (3 meters has been observed in a wild or escaped from cultivation setting, and several cultivated plants of 2 meter or more in height) with a growth habit which can be straight or decumbent, branched and covered with fine soft hairs or none at all, M. sylvestris is pleasing in appearance when it first starts to flower, but as the summer advances, “the leaves lose their deep green color and the stems assume a ragged appearance”.

CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES

Stems and leaves:
A thick, round and strong stem.
The leaves are borne upon the stem, are roundish, and have three or five to seven  or five to nine[8] shallow  lobes, each 2 to 4 centimeters (1 to 2 inches) long, 2 to 5 centimeters wide (1 to 2 inches) and 5 to 10 centimeters (2 to 4 inches) in diameter. Downy, with hairs radiating from a common center and prominent veins on the underside.

Petiole either 2 to 6 centimeters (1 to 3 inches) or 2 to 13 centimeters (1 to 5 or 6 inches) long

Cattle do not appear to be fond of this plant, every part of which abounds with a mild mucilage.

Flowers:
Described as reddish-purple, bright pinkish-purple with dark stripes and bright mauve-purple, the flowers of Malva sylvestris appear in axillary clusters of 2 to 4 and form irregularly and elongated along the main stem with the flowers at the base opening first.

M. sylvestris has an epicalyx (or false calyx) with oblong segments, two-thirds as long as calyx or 2–3 millimeters long and 1.5 millimeters wide. Its calyx is free to the middle, 3–6 millimeters long, with broadly triangular lobes or ovate mostly 5–7 millimeters long.The flowers are 2–4 times as long as the calyx;

Petals are wrinkly to veined on the backs, more than 20 millimeters long or 15 to 25 millimeters long  and 1 centimeter wide, eggshaped, margin notched with a fringe of hairlike projections.

Slender flower stalks  that are either 2 centimeters long or 1 to 3 centimeters long.
Ten broad carpels in axillary clusters; stamen about 3 millimters long, radiating from the center with short soft hairs.

Fruits:
Nutlets strongly reticulate (10–12 mericarps, usually without hair, with sharp angle between dorsal and lateral surfaces, 5–6 millimters in diameter.
Seeds or ‘cheeses,’ are brown to brownish green when ripe, about 2.5 millimeters long and wide 5 to 7 millimeters in diameter and are shaped like a cheese wheel which is where several of its common names came from.

Cultivation:
A very easily grown plant, succeeding in ordinary garden soil and in poor soils. It prefers a reasonably well-drained and moderately fertile soil in a sunny position, where it will produce a better crop of salad leaves. Plants are hardy to about -20°c. There are some named forms, selected for their ornamental value. ‘Mauritiana’ is larger than the type with much more ornamental flowers. The flavour of the leaves and flowers is considered by many to be superior to the type species. Plants seem to be immune to the predations of rabbits. Prone to infestation by rust fungus.

Propagation:
Seed – sow early spring in situ. Germination should take place within 2 weeks.

Edible Uses:
Leaves – raw or cooked. Mucilaginous with a mild pleasant flavour, they are nice in soups where they act as a thickener. The young leaves also make a very acceptable substitute for lettuce in a salad. Immature seed – raw. Used as a nibble, the seeds have a nice nutty flavour but are too fiddly for most people to want to gather in quantity. Flowers – raw. Added to salads or used as a garnish. A pleasant mild flavour, with a similar texture to the leaves, they make a pleasant and pretty addition to the salad bowl. The leaves are a tea substitute.

Medicinal Uses:
Parts Used: Flowers, leaves.

All parts of the plant are antiphlogistic, astringent, demulcent, diuretic, emollient, expectorant, laxative, salve. The leaves and flowers can be eaten as part of the diet, or a tea can be made from the leaves, flowers or roots. The leaves and flowers are the main part used, their demulcent properties making them valuable as a poultice for bruise, inflammations, insect bites etc, or they can be taken internally in the treatment of respiratory system diseases and problems with the digestive tract. When combined with eucalyptus it makes a god remedy for coughs and other chest ailments. Mallow has similar properties, but is considered to be inferior to the marsh mallow (Althaea officinalis) and are seldom used internally. The plant is an excellent laxative for young children. The leaves can be used fresh whenever they are available or can be harvested in the spring and dried for later use. The flowers are harvested in the summer and can be dried for later use. The German Commission E Monographs, a therapeutic guide to herbal medicine, approve Malva sylvestris for cough, bronchitis, inflammation of the mouth and pharynx.

Other Uses:
The species has long been used as a natural yellow dye, perhaps more recently, cream color, yellow and green dyes can be obtained from the plant and the seeds. A tincture of the flowers can make a very sensitive test for alkalis.

Decoration:
In the past, the flowers were spread on doorways and woven into garlands or chaplets for celebrating May Day.

Known Hazards : When grown on nitrogen rich soils (and particularly when these are cultivated inorganically), the plant tends to concentrate high levels of nitrates in its leaves. The leaves are perfectly wholesome at all other times. Avoid with gallstones.

Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://www.botanical.com/botanical/mgmh/m/mallow07.html
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Malva_sylvestris
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Malva+sylvestris

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Malva neglecta

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Botanical Name : Malva neglecta
Family: Malvaceae
Genus: Malva
Species: M. neglecta
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Malvales

Common Name:Common mallow,  Buttonweed, Cheeseplant, Cheeseweed, Dwarf mallow and Roundleaf mallow.

Habitat :  Malva neglecta is native to the following Palearctic Countries:

Macaronesia: Canary Islands
Northern Africa: Algeria, Morocco
Arabian Peninsula: Saudi Arabia
Western Asia: Afghanistan, Cyprus, Sinai, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Occupied Palestinian Territories, Syria, Turkey
Caucasus: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia
Soviet Middle Asia: Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan
Mongolia: Mongolia
China: Xinjiang
Indian Subcontinent: India, Pakistan
Northern Europe: Denmark, Ireland, Norway, Sweden, United Kingdom
Middle Europe: Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Germany, Hungary, Netherlands, Poland, Slovakia, Switzerland
Southeastern Europe: Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Greece, Italy, Macedonia, Montenegro, Sardinia, Serbia, Slovenia, Romania,
Southwestern Europe: France, Portugal, Spain

This weed grows on waste and cultivated ground, usually on dry soils, frequently in coastal habitats, on dry walls or as a weed of cultivated ground

Description:
Malva neglecta is an annual plant  growing to 0.6 m (2ft).
It is hardy to zone 5 and is not frost tender. It is in flower from Jun to September, and the seeds ripen from Jul to October. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Bees, flies, self.The plant is self-fertile.

CLICK TO SEE THE PICTURES

Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and prefers well-drained soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers dry or moist soil.

Cultivation:    
A very easily grown plant, succeeding in ordinary garden soil, though it prefers a reasonably well-drained and moderately fertile soil in a sunny position. It also succeeds in dry soils. At one time this plant was often cultivated for its edible leaves. Plants seem to be immune to the predations of rabbits[233]. Prone to infestation by rust fungus.

Propagation:   
Seed – sow early spring or autumn in situ. Germination should take place within 2 weeks. The seed germinates in the autumn in the wild.

Edible Uses:
Leaves and young shoots – raw or cooked. A mild pleasant flavour, they are said to be highly nutritious. They can be added in quantity to salads, and make an excellent lettuce substitute, they can also be cooked as greens. The leaves are mucilaginous, when cooked in soups etc they tend to thicken it in much the same way as okra (Abelmoschatus esculenta). Some people find this mucilaginous texture unpleasant, especially if the leaves are cooked[K]. Immature seeds – raw or cooked. A pleasant nutty flavour, they are nice as a nibble but too small for most people to want to collect in quantity. A decoction of the roots is used as an egg-white substitute for making meringue. The roots are brought to the boil in water and then simmered until the water becomes quite thick. This liquid can then be whisked in much the same way as egg whites. A tea can be made from the dried leaves

Medicinal Uses:
Antiinflammatory;  Antiphlogistic;  Astringent;  Demulcent;  Diuretic;  Emollient;  Expectorant;  Laxative;  Poultice;  Purgative;  Salve.

All parts of the plant are antiphlogistic, astringent, demulcent, diuretic, emollient, expectorant, laxative, salve. The leaves and flowers can be eaten as part of the diet, or a tea can be made from the leaves, flowers or roots. The leaves and flowers are the main part used, their demulcent properties making them valuable as a poultice for bruise, inflammations, insect bites etc, or taken internally in the treatment of respiratory system diseases or inflammation of the digestive or urinary systems. They have similar properties, but are considered to be inferior to the marsh mallow (Althaea officinalis), though they are stronger acting than the common mallow (M. sylvestris). They are seldom used internally.

Mallow root is highly regarded by herbalists as an effective demulcent and emollient.  Both of these actions are attributed to the plant’s mucilaginous qualities.  Roundleaf mallow is used as a lotion or internal medication for an injury or swelling (Navajo). All parts of the plant are astringent, laxative, urine-inducing, and have agents that counteract inflammation, that soften and soothe the skin when applied locally, and that induce the removal (coughing up) of mucous secretions from the lungs. The leaves and flowers are the main part used, their demulcent properties making them valuable as a poultice for bruise, inflammations, insect bites etc, or taken internally in the treatment of respiratory system diseases or inflammation of the digestive or urinary systems. They have similar properties, but are considered to be inferior to the marsh mallow (Althaea officinalis), though they are stronger acting than the common mallow (M. sylvestris). The plant is an excellent laxative for young children.

Other Uses  :
Dye;  Teeth.

Cream, yellow and green dyes can be obtained from the plant and the seed heads. The root is used as a toothbrush

Known Hazards :  When grown on nitrogen rich soils (and particularly when these are inorganic), the plant tends to concentrate high levels of nitrates in its leaves. The leaves are perfectly wholesome at all other times.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider

Resources:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Malva_neglecta
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Malva+neglecta
http://www.herbnet.com/Herb%20Uses_LMN.htm

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Malva parviflora

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Botanical Name :Malva parviflora
Family: Malvaceae
Genus: Malva
Species: M. parviflora
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Malvales

Common Names: Cheeseweed, Cheeseweed mallow, Egyptian mallow, Least mallow, Little mallow, Mallow, Marshmallow, Small-flowered mallow, Small-flowered marshmallow and Smallflower mallow

Habitat :Malva parviflora is native to Northern Africa, Europe and Asia and is widely naturalised elsewhere.  Grows in desert, Upland, Mountain, Riparian. It often grows in disturbed areas like vacant lots and drainage ditches, and in the desert, it can be found growing in mesquite bosques.

Description:
Malva parviflora is an annual, biennial or Perennial herbiculas plant, growing up to 40 inch.  The flowers emerge from the base of the leaf stalks. The individual flowers are 1/4 inch (6 mm) wide and have 5 petals that are similar in length to the green sepals. The flowers are followed by wrinkled, disk-like, fruits that are sectioned into lobes that look like slices from a wheel of cheese. The leaves are dark green and have 5 to 7 toothed, rounded lobes.

CLICK TO SEE THE PICTURES

The similar Common Mallow (Malva neglecta) has flowers with petals longer than the sepals.

Flower Color: White, Lavender pink, Lavender

Flowering Season: Spring, Summer

The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Insects.

It is hardy to zone 0 and is not frost tender.

The plant prefers light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and requires well-drained soil. The plant prefers acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It requires moist soil.

Cultivation :
A very easily grown plant, succeeding in ordinary garden soil, though it prefers a reasonably well-drained and moderately fertile soil in a sunny position. Plants seem to be immune to the predations of rabbits. Plants are prone to infestation by rust fungus

Propagation:
Seed – sow early spring in situ. Germination should take place within 2 weeks.

Edible Uses
Edible Parts: Leaves; Seed.

Leaves – raw or cooked as a potherb. A mild pleasant flavour, they make a very acceptable alternative to lettuce in salads. Immature seeds – raw or cooked. They are used to make a creamed vegetable soup that resembles pea soup. A few leaves are also added for colouring. The seeds have a pleasant nutty flavour, though they are too small for most people to want to collect in quantity.

Medicinal Uses:
Antidandruff; Demulcent; Emollient; Pectoral; Skin.

The whole plant is emollient and pectoral. It can be used as a poultice on swellings, running sores and boils. The seeds are demulcent. They are used in the treatment of coughs and ulcers in the bladder. A decoction of the roots or leaves has been used as a hair rinse to remove dandruff and to soften the hair.

The bruised leaves have been rubbed on the skin to treat skin irritations.  A strained tea of the boiled leaves has been administered after childbirth to clean out the mother’s system.  As a headache remedy, the leaves or the whole plant have been mashed and placed on the forehead.  Powdered leaves have been blown into the throat to treat swollen glands.  The leaves have been used to induce perspiration and menstrual flow, reduce fever, and treat pneumonia. The whole plant can be used as a poultice on swellings, running sores and boils.  The seeds are used in the treatment of coughs and ulcers in the bladder.  A decoction of the roots or leaves has been used as a hair rinse to remove dandruff and to soften the hair.

Other Uses
Dye; Hair; Oil.

The seed contains up to 18% of a fatty oil. No more details are given, though the oil is likely to be edible. Cream, yellow and green dyes can be obtained from the plant and the seed heads. A decoction of the roots or leaves has been used as a hair rinse to soften the hair.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider

Resources:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Malva_parviflora
http://digedibles.com/database/plants.php?Malva+parviflora

Malva parviflora – Cheeseweed Mallow

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