Tag Archives: Manchuria

Yuan Zhi

Botanical Name : Polygala tenuifolia
Family: Polygalaceae
Genus: Polygala
Species: P. tenuifolia
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Fabales

Common Names : Chinese Senega, Yuan Zhi,polygala, Chinese senega root,Thinleaf Milkwort Root,Polygala root,thin-leaf milkwort root

Other Names:Chinese Senega, Flax, Klapperschlangen, Milkwort, Mountain Polygala, Polygalae radix, Rattlesnake Root, Senaga Snakeroot, Seneca, Seneca Snakeroot, Senega, Senega Snakeroot, Seneka, Snake Root. Polygala glomerata; Polygala japonica; Polygala reinii; Polygala senega, synonym Polygala senega latifolia; Polygala tenuifolia.

Habitat : Polygala tenuifolia is native to  E. Asia – Korea, Mongolia, Manchuria. Grows in the  Hillsides, roadsides and meadows. Dry meadows and stony slopes.

Description:
Polygala tenuifolia is a perennial herb,  growing to 0.2 m (0ft 8in) by 0.2 m (0ft 8in).  It is hardy to zone 6. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs)

CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES

The plant prefers light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and requires well-drained soil.The plant prefers acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils..It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade.It requires moist soil.

Cultivation:
Prefers a moderately fertile moisture-retentive well-drained soil, succeeding in full sun if the soil remains moist throughout the growing season, otherwise it is best in semi-shade. Dislikes shade according to another report. Plants are hardy to at least -15°c.

Propagation  :
Seed – sow spring or autumn in a cold frame. When they are large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on in the greenhouse for their first winter. Plant them out into their permanent positions in late spring or early summer, after the last expected frosts. Division. Cuttings of young shoots in a frame in late spring.

Edible Uses
Edible Parts: Leaves;  Root.

Young leaves – cooked. Root – cooked. The core is removed and the root is boiled in several changes of water.

Medicinal Uses :
Cardiotonic;  ExpectorantHaemolytic;  Kidney;  Sedative;  Tonic.

Yuan Zhi is used primarily as an expectorant. It is one of the 50 fundamental herbs used in traditional Chinese medicine, where it is called yuan zhi .

Yuan Zhi contains triterpenoid saponins, these promote the clearing of phlegm from the bronchial tubes. The plant is used mainly as an expectorant and stimulant to treat bronchial asthma, chronic bronchitis and whooping cough. The root is antibacterial, cardiotonic, cerebrotonic, expectorant, haemolytic, hypotensive, sedative and tonic. It acts mainly as a tonic for the heart and kidney energies. It is taken internally in the treatment of coughs with profuse phlegm, bronchitis, insomnia, palpitations, poor memory, anxiety, depression and nervous tension. Externally it is used to treat boils and carbuncles. The root is harvested in the autumn and dried for later use. The leaves are used as a tonic for the kidneys.

Medical study:
A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study of the extract of dried roots of Polygala tenuifolia in healthy adults produced memory-enhancing effects. A similar trial with elderly humans also found significant cognitive improvement.

A number of in vitro experiments have examined the use of the herb in Alzheimer’s disease, memory disorder, depression, amnesia, cognitive defects, neurotoxicity, degenerative disease,and dementia among others. Results have been encouraging

Known Hazards : Although no specific mention has been seen for this species, at least one member of this genus is said to be poisonous in large quantities.

Disclaimer:The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider

Resources:
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Polygala+tenuifolia
http://www.plantsystematics.org/imgs/mmy8/r/Polygalaceae_Polygala_tenuifolia_25750.html
http://www.mdidea.com/products/new/new09801.html
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Polygala_tenuifolia

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Artemisia capillaries

 

Botanical Name : Artemisia capillaries
Family: Asteraceae
Genus: Artemisia
Species: A. scoparia
Order: Asterales

Common Names : Yin Chen Hao
English Name:Capillary Wormwood Herb
Pin Yin Name:Yin Chen

Other Pin Yin Name:Mian Yin Chen,Bai Hao,Rong Hao,Song Mao Ai,Ma Xian,Po Po Hao,Ye Lan Hao

Habitat :Artemisia capillaries  is native to E. Asia – China, Japan, Korea, Manchuria. It  grows on  the grassy thickets, and along rivers and seashores, C. and S. Japan. Humid slopes, hills, terraces, roadsides and river banks at elevations of 100 – 2700 metres in China.

Description:
Artemisia capillaris is a deciduous perennial herb or subshrub.Stem erect height 0.5 to 1 m,root woody,surface color yellow brown,vertical stripin,branches;seedling covered with brown silk hair,hairless when grow up.Bottom Leaf split wide and short,covered with short silky foliage;middle leaf split long and slim as hair,1mm width;top leaf split into 3 parts or no split,no hair.capitulum small and numerous,flower color yellow,pipe like,outer layer 3 to 5 bud,female,fertible,inner layer bisexual 5 to 7,infertility.Fruit long round shape width 0.8mm,hairless.Flowering during September to October.The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Wind.and the seeds ripen from Sep to October.

Click to see the pictures.

The plant prefers light (sandy) and medium (loamy) soils and requires well-drained soil.The plant prefers neutral and basic (alkaline) soils..It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade.It requires dry or moist soil and can tolerate drought.The plant can tolerates strong winds but not maritime exposure.

Cultivation:
An easily grown plant, succeeding in a well-drained circumneutral or slightly alkaline loamy soil, preferring a sunny position. Established plants are drought tolerant. Plants are longer lived, more hardy and more aromatic when they are grown in a poor dry soil. This species is probably not hardy in all parts of Britain, it tolerates temperatures down to at least -5°c. Plants in this genus are notably resistant to honey fungus. Members of this genus are rarely if ever troubled by browsing deer.

Propagation :
Seed – surface sow from late winter to early summer in a greenhouse. When large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and plant them out in the summer. Cuttings of half-ripe wood, July/August in a frame. Division in spring or autumn.

Edible Uses :
Edible Parts: Leaves.

Leaves and stems – soaked and boiled

Medicinal Uses:
Antibacterial;  Anticholesterolemic;  Antiviral;  CholagogueDiureticFebrifugeHepatic;  Vasodilator.

Yin Chen Hao has been used in Chinese herbal medicine for over 2,000 years. It is considered to be a bitter and cooling herb, clearing “damp heat” from the liver and gall ducts and relieving fevers. It is an effective remedy for liver problems, being specifically helpful in treating hepatitis with jaundice. Modern research has confirmed that the plant has a tonic and strengthening effect upon the liver, gallbladder and digestive system. The leaves and young shoots are antibacterial, anticholesterolemic, antiviral, cholagogue, diuretic, febrifuge and vasodilator. An infusion is used internally in the treatment of jaundice, hepatitis, gall bladder complaints and feverish illnesses. Externally it has been applied in the form of a plaster for treating headaches. The plant is harvested in late spring and can be dried for later use. Yin Chen Hao is contraindicated for pregnant women

Yin chen hao is an effective remedy for liver problems, being specifically helpful for treating hepatitis with jaundice.  Traditional Chinese medicine holds that it is bitter and cooling, clearing “damp heat” from the liver and gall ducts and relieving fevers.  Yin chen hao is also anti-inflammatory and diuretic.  It was formerly used in a plaster for headaches.  Research indicates that yin chen hao has a tonic and strengthening effect on the liver and gallbladder and digestive system.  It is an effective remedy for liver problems, being specifically helpful in treating hepatitis with jaundice.    An infusion of the young shoots is used internally in the treatment of jaundice, hepatitis, gall bladder complaints and feverish illnesses. Externally it has been applied in the form of a plaster for treating headaches.

Known Hazards : Although no reports of toxicity have been seen for this species, skin contact with some members of this genus can cause dermatitis or other allergic reactions in some people.

Disclaimer:The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider

Resources:
http://www.mdidea.com/products/proper/proper05203.html
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Artemisia+capillaris
http://www.herbnet.com/Herb%20Uses_UZ.htm

http://library.thinkquest.org/25983/4.%20Capillaris.htm

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Asarum sieboldii

Botanical  Name : Asarum sieboldii
Family: Aristolochiaceae
Subfamily: Asaroideae
Genus: Asarum
Species: Asarum sieboldii
Order: Piperales

Synonyms: Asarum heterotropoides

Common Names:Wild Ginger, Xi Xin

Habitat :Native to E. Asia – China, Japan, Manchuria. Grows in coniferous and mixed woods, dense shrub thickets. Forests in moist humus-rich soils at elevations of 1200 – 2100 metres in China.

Description:
Asarum sieboldii is a perennial herb, growing to 0.2 m (0ft 6in). It is in flower from Apr to May. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Flies.

CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES

Rhizomes vertical or horizontal, 2-3 mm in diam., internodes 1-2 cm. Leaves paired; petiole 8-18 cm, glabrous or pubescent; leaf blade uniformly colored, cordate or ovate-cordate, 4-11 × 4.5-13.5 cm, abaxial surface pubescent only along veins or densely pubescent, adaxial surface sparsely puberulent, base deeply cordate, lateral lobes 1.5-4 × 2-2.5 cm, apex shortly acuminate or acute; cataphylls reniform-rounded, ca. 1.3 × 1.3 cm. Peduncle declinate, 2-4 cm. Calyx dark purple, urceolate to campanulate, 1-1.5 × 1-1.5 cm; sepals connate beyond attachment to ovary, abaxially glabrous; tube subglobose, 6-8 × 1-1.5 cm, adaxially longitudinally ribbed; lobes erect or spreading, triangular-ovate, ca. 0.7 × 1 cm. Stamens 12; filaments slightly longer than anthers; connectives shortly extended beyond anthers, awl-shaped. Ovary superior. Styles free, short, apex shallowly 2-cleft; stigmas lateral.

The plant prefers light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and requires well-drained soil.The plant prefers acid and neutral soils..It can grow in full shade (deep woodland) or semi-shade (light woodland).It requires moist soil.

Cultivation :
We have very little information on this species and do not know if it will be hardy in Britain, though judging by its native range it should succeed outdoors in many parts of this country. The following notes are based on the general needs of the genus. Prefers a rich moist neutral to acid soil in woodland or a shady position in the rock garden. Plants are hardy to at least -15°c. The flowers are malodorous and are pollinated by flies. Plants often self-sow when growing in a suitable position.

Propagation :
Seed – best sown in a cold frame as soon as it is ripe in the summer. Stored seed will require 3 weeks cold stratification and should be sown in late winter. The seed usually germinates in the spring in 1 – 4 or more weeks at 18°c. When large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on in light shade in the greenhouse for at least their first winter. Plant them out when large enough in late spring. Division in spring or autumn. Plants are slow to increase. It is best to pot the divisions up and keep them in light shade in the greenhouse until they are growing away strongly.

Medicinal Uses  :
Anaesthetic;  Analgesic;  Antibacterial;  AntipyreticDiaphoreticDiuretic;  Emetic;  ExpectorantHypotensive;  Odontalgic;  Purgative;
Sedative;  Sternutatory.

Odontalgic, sternutatory. The entire plant is anaesthetic, analgesic, antibacterial, antipyretic, antitussive, diaphoretic, diuretic and hypotensive. It is used in the treatment of colds, severe toothache, rheumatic pain and chronic bronchitis with copious and thin phlegm. This remedy should be used with caution, large doses of the essential oil can lead to death. The root is analgesic, expectorant, sedative, diaphoretic, diuretic, emetic and purgative. A decoction is used in the treatment of stuffy nose, toothache, headache, rheumatic aches and pains, productive coughing and wheezing. It is harvested in the autumn and dried for later use.

A decoction is used in the treatment of colds, severe toothache, rheumatic pain and chronic bronchitis with copious and thin phlegm. It is particularly effective as an analgesic remedy for all types of aches and pains in the head.  It is used for congestion in the Eustachian tubes and upper sinus cavities.

Known Hazards :  One report says that this plant should be used with caution, a reason is not given.

Disclaimer:The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider

Resources:
http://species.wikimedia.org/wiki/Asarum_sieboldii
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Asarum+sieboldii
asarum sieboldii Miq. var. seoulense Nakai
http://ja.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E3%83%95%E3%82%A1%E3%82%A4%E3%83%AB:%E3%82%A6%E3%82%B9%E3%83%90%E3%82%B5%E3%82%A4%E3%82%B7%E3%83%B3_Asarum_sieboldii.JPG
http://www.greenmilenursery.be/photo_others.html
http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=2&taxon_id=200006671

http://www.herbnet.com/Herb%20Uses_UZ.htm

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Aristolochia contorta

 

Botanical Name : Aristolochia contorta
Family: Aristolochiaceae
Subfamily: Aristolochioideae
Genus: Aristolochia
Species : Aristolochia contorta
Order: Piperales

Synonyms : A. nipponica.

Common Name: Ma Dou Ling

Habitat : E. Asia – China, Japan, Korea, Manchuria. .-Aug. Grows in edges of mountain woods.

Description:
Aristolochia contorta is a  perennial  herb, growing to 1.5 m (5ft). It is in flower from May to July, and the seeds ripen from Sep to October. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Flies.

…...CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES

The shrub  has  stout elongated rhizomes. Stem slender, glabrous. Leaves alternate, cordate or broadly ovate-cordate, 4-10 cm long, 3.5-8 cm wide, acute or obtuse at tip, cordate at base, entire, petioles 1-7 cm long.(CLICK & SEE) Peduncles axillary, 1-4 cm long, with prominent bracts at base. Flowers few in axils, fascicled, the pedicels 1-4 cm long; the calyx tubular, inflated and globose at base, loosely pilose inside; the limb dilated, obliquely truncate, narrowly deltoid, long-acuminate to a filiform point; stamens 6, ovary inferior. Fruit a capsule,globose, 3 cm in diameter, 6 valved. Jul.-Aug……...CLICK & SEE

The plant prefers light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and requires well-drained soil.The plant prefers acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils..It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade.It requires moist soil.

Cultivation:
We have very little information on this species and do not know if it will be hardy in Britain, though judging by its native range it should succeed outdoors in many parts of this country. The following notes are based on the general needs of the genus. Prefers a well-drained loamy soil, rich in organic matter, in sun or semi-shade. Succeeds in ordinary garden soil. Most species in this genus have malodorous flowers that are pollinated by flies.

Propagation
Seed – best sown in a greenhouse as soon as it is ripe in the autumn. Pre-soak stored seed for 48 hours in hand-hot water and surface sow in a greenhouse. Germination usually takes place within 1 – 3 months at 20°c. Stored seed germinates better if it is given 3 months cold stratification at 5°c. When large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on in the greenhouse for their first winter. Plant out in late spring or early summer after the last expected frosts. Division in autumn. Root cuttings in winter.

Edible Uses :
Edible Parts: Leaves.

Medicinal Uses;
Antiasthmatic;  Antiseptic;  Antitussive;  Cancer;  Expectorant;  Sedative.

The fruit and its capsule are antiasthmatic, antiseptic, antitussive and expectorant. A decoction of the fruit is used in the treatment of cancer, coughs, inflammation of the respiratory organs, haemorrhoids and hypertension. It is also used to resolve phlegm and lower blood pressure. It has an antibacterial action, effective against Staphylococcus aureus, Pneumococci, bacillus dysentericae etc. The root contains aristolochic acid. This has anti-cancer properties and can be used in conjunction with chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Aristolochic acid can also be used in the treatment of acute and serious infections such as TB, hepatitis, liver cirrhosis and infantile pneumonia. It also increases the cellular immunity and phagocytosis function of the phagocytic cells. Aristolochic acid is said to be too toxic for clinical use. The root is used as a purgative in the treatment of rabies and also has sedative properties.

A decoction of the fruit is used in the treatment of cancer, coughs, inflammation of the respiratory organs, hemorrhoids and hypertension. It is also used to resolve phlegm and lower blood pressure. It has an antibacterial action, effective against Staphylococcus aureus, Pneumococci, bacillus dysentericae etc. The root contains aristolochic acid. This has anti-cancer properties and can be used in conjunction with chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Aristolochic acid can also be used in the treatment of acute and serious infections such as TB, hepatitis, liver cirrhosis and infantile pneumonia. It also increases the cellular immunity and phagocytosis function of the phagocytic cells. Aristolochic acid is said to be too toxic for clinical use. The root is used as a purgative in the treatment of rabies and also has sedative properties.

Known Hazards:  No specific details for this species is found but most members of this genus have poisonous roots and stems. The plant contains aristolochic acid, this has received rather mixed reports on its toxicity. According to one report aristolochic acid stimulates white blood cell activity and speeds the healing of wounds, but is also carcinogenic and damaging to the kidneys. Another report says that it is an active antitumour agent but is too toxic for clinical use. Another report says that aristolochic acid has anti-cancer properties and can be used in conjunction with chemotherapy and radiotherapy and that it also increases the cellular immunity and phagocytosis function of the phagocytic cells.

Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Aristolochia+contorta
http://species.wikimedia.org/wiki/Aristolochia_contorta
http://www.herbnet.com/Herb%20Uses_LMN.htm

http://www.wpro.who.int/internet/files/pub/97/33.pdf

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