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Desmodium triflorum

Botanical Name : Desmodium triflorum
Family: Fabaceae
Genus: Desmodium
Species: D. triflorum
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Fabales

Synonyms:
*Desmodium parvifolium Blanco
*Desmodium granulatum (Schumach. and Thonn.) Walp.
*Hedysarum triflorum L.
*Meibomia triflora (L.) Kuntze

Common Names ;  
Creeping tick trefoil, Three-flower beggarweed (English);  Amor-do-campo (Portuguese);  Hierba cuartillo (Spanish);  Daun mules, Jukut jarem, Delilan (Indonesia);  Rumput barek putih, Sisek tenggiling (Malaysia);  Kaliskis-dalag, Himbispuyo, Gumadep (Philippines);  Smau hae lolook (Cambodia);  Ya-klethoi, Ya-tanhoi, Ya-tansai (Thailand);  Trang qua ba hoa (Vietnam);  Kuddalia (India);  Olmud (Palau);  Konikoni, Vakathengu (Fiji);  Kihikihi (Tonga).

Habitat : Desmodium triflorum is native to tropical countries  of the world.

Description:
A small prostrate annual or perennial legume with a woody taproot.  Strongly branched stems to 50 cm frequently rooting at the nodes to form a mat.  Trifoliate leaves with leaflets up to 12 mm long and 10 mm wide.  Inflorescence with a cluster of 1–3 pink to purple flowers in leaf axils.  Pods flat, segmented, 6–18 mm long and 2–3.5 mm wide with 3–5 articles, and covered with minute hooked hairs.  The upper suture straight and the lower suture constricted between the articles.  Pods break up into segments when ripe.  Seed quadrangular to orbicular ca1.2 x 1.7 mm..

Click to see the pictures….>...(01).....(1).…...(2)……(3).….

Medicinal Uses:

The plant is used in traditional medicine, in order to treat various health problems. A decoction made with the roots of Desmodium triflorum can help treat respiratory problems, such as asthma and coughing. This decoction can also be consumed in order to treat stomach aches or rheumatism.

The leaves are known to help with dysentery, indigestion, and diarrhea. They can even be used to treat children who are having these problems. The plant has antiseptic properties. Therefore, by using the leaves, you can also treat skin problems. A leaf paste can help with wounds, sores, itches, abscesses, ulcers, and skin eruptions.

Side Effects:      There are no known side effects when it comes to Desmodium triflorum. Although not much is known about this, watch out of symptoms of allergic reactions if you’re using the plant for the first time.

Other Uses;
A naturalised component of short (grazed) native and sown pastures, where it can form up to 50% of the herbage.  Creeping mat can provide good ground cover during the wet season, especially in mown or closely cut uses such as under plantation crops and in lawns.

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://www.tropicalforages.info/key/Forages/Media/Html/Desmodium_triflorum.htm
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Desmodium_triflorum
http://www.herbnet.com/Herb%20Uses_C.htm

http://www.liveandfeel.com/articles/desmodium-triflorum-is-a-good-remedy-for-asthma-and-cough-3342

Mañgoñgot

Botanical Name :Clerodendrum inerme (Linn.) Gaertn
Family : Verbenaceae

Other Scientific Names:  Clerodendrum commersonii Spreng.,Clerodendrum nerifolium Wall. ,Volkameria commersonii Poir.,Volkameria inermis Linn. ,Volkameria nereifolia Roxb.,Clerodendrum capsulare Blanco,

Common Names: Gaertn. Ang-angri (Ilk.),Baliseng (Bis.),Busel-busel (Ilk.),Mañgoñgot (Tag.),Samin-añga (Sul.),Tabang-oñgong (P. Bis.),Seaside clerodendron (Engl.) ,Garden quinine (Engl.) ,Sorcerer’s bush (Engl.),Wild jasmine (Engl.) ,Ku lang shu (Chin.)

Habitat : Mañgoñgot is found along the seashore and beside tidal streams throughout the Philippines. It also occurs in India to Formosa, and through Malaya to tropical Australia and Polynesia.

Description:
This plant is an erect or somewhat straggling shrub 1 to 4 meters high. The leaves are ovate, oblong-ovate, or elliptic-ovate, 4 to 8 centimeters long, 2 to 5 centimeters wide, shinning, smooth, entire, and pointed at the tip. The inflorescence (cyme) is usually composed of three flowers and is borne in the axils of the leaves. The calyx is green, narrowly funnel-shaped, and furnished with 5 very short teeth. The corolla is about 3 centimeters long and comprises a slender, white tube spreading, purple-tinged lobes which are about 7 millimeters long. The stamens are long-exserted, and purple. The fruit is obovoid, about 1.5 centimeters long, and splitting into 4 pyrenes. The calyx in the fruit is about 1 centimeter in diameter.

click & see the pictures

Medicinal Uses:
Parts used: Root, leaves.

Constituents:
* Leaves yield a bitter principle that is entirely removed by ether; and treatment with alcohol and water yields extracts free from bitterness. The bitter principle shows a resemblance to Chiretta (Swertia chirata), a gentianaceous plant.
* Leaves also yield a fragrant stearoptin with an apple-like odor; resin; gum; brown coloring matter; and ash containing a large amount of sodium chloride (24.01% of the ash).
* Study of hexane extract of the aerial parts isolated an aliphatic glucoside characterized as pentadecanoic acid-ß-D-glucoside. A butanol extract yielded acacetin and apigenin.

Properties:
*Leaves are mucilaginous and fragrant.
*Considered alterative, febrifuge and resolvent.

Folkloric
*In the Philippines, root decoction is used as febrifuge and alterative.
*Leaves are used in poultices as resolvent.
*Elsewhere, the root, boiled in oil, is applied like a liniment for rheumatism.
*In Guam, the bitter root, leaves and wood are used by natives as a remedy for intermittent fevers.
*Poultices of leaves used for swellings to prevent suppuration.
*Leaves and roots, in tincture and decoction, used as substitute for quinine.
*Juice of leaves and root used as alterative in scrofulous and venereal diseases.
*Poultices of leaves applied to resolve buboes.
*Leaf bath recommended for mani and for itches.
*At one time, sailors of Macassar were reported to take the fruit, seeds and roots to sea, and a decoction or pounded seeds were ingested when taken sick by ingestion of poisonous fish and crabs.
*Leaves, eaten with rice, used to increase the appetite.
*In Java, fruit used as medicine for dysentery.
*In Africa, used to treat hypertension.
*In traditional Indian medicine, leaves used for treating fever, cough, skin rahses, boils; also, for treating umbilical cord infection and cleaning the uterus.

Studies :
• Megastigmane / Iridoid Glucosides: Study of aerial parts of C. inerme yielded two megastimane glucosides (sammangaosides A and B) and an iridoid glucoside (sammangaoside C) with 15 known compounds.
Hepatoprotective: Study of ethanolic extract of C. inerme leaves in CCl4-induced liver damage in Swiss albino rats showed hepatoprotective activity with significant reduction of liver enzymes ALT, AST and alkaline phosphatase, with significant increase in glutathione level.
Hypotensive Activity: Study of aqueous extract of Clerodendrum inerme leaves showed a hypotensive effect attributted to the presence of chemical elements such as alkaloids and polyphenols. Results support its traditional use for its hypotensive effect.
• Antifungal: Study of the ethyl acetate and hexane extracts of leaves and stems of C. inerme and C. phlomidis showed both inhibited inhibition of all plant and human pathogenic fungi. The leaf extract of C. inerme inhibited plant pathogenic fungi better than the human dermatophytes.
• Antioxidant / Free Radical Scavenging Activity: Study of methanolic extract of leaves of C. inerme showed free radical scavenging activity increasing with concentration, with maximum activity at 2500 mg/mL. Antioxidant activity may be due to phenolic compounds.
• Antibacterial / Wound Healing: Study of methanol, ethyl acetate and aqueous extracts showed significant inhibition against 15 of 18 bacterial tested. Results clearly showed the leaves were effective in controlling bacterial pathogens, particular gram positive bacteria. Results also confirmed its utility as a wound-healing agent.
• Anti-Inflammatory / Analgesic: Study of the methanol extract of C. inerme in animal models exhibited anti-inflammatory activty. In addition, it showed significant analgesic activity in acetic acid induced-writhing model. The effects were attributed largely to its antioxidant and lysosomal membrane stabilizing effects.

Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://www.bpi.da.gov.ph/Publications/mp/pdf/m/mangongot.pdf
http://www.stuartxchange.com/Mangongot.html

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Bauhinia malabarica

 

Botanical name: Bauhinia malabarica
Family: Caesalpiniaceae (Gulmohar family)
Subfamily :       Caesalpinioideae
Genus : Bauhinia
Other scientifric names: Piliostigma acidum  ,Bauhinia tomentosa ,Bauhinia purpurea

Common Names : Almosa, Asmantaka
Vernacular Names :
Malabar: Bauhinia • Assamese: kotra • Bengali: karmai or kanchan• Garo: bakbakhol, beolphiu, migong thak • Hindi: amli,  Amlosa • Kannada:  basavanapaada, Mandara, Kudugulu, Cheppura • Konkani: korat • Malayalam: aarampuli • Marathi:  amli, koral • Nepali:  tanki • Oriya: gumbati • Sanskrit:  amlapatrah,ashmantaka,  ashmayukta,  yamalapatrah • Tamil:malai-y-atti,  puli-y-atti, Vellathi, Mantharai • Telugu: Pedda-ari, Pul-ari, Puli chinta, Pul-dondra

Local names: Alambangbang (Tag.); alibangbang (Tag., Bis., Pamp.); balibamban (Pamp.); kalibanbang (Pang., Tag.); kalibangbang (Ilk.).

Habitat : Bauhinia malabarica    is very common on open, dry slopes in regions subject to a long dry season in Luzon (Ilocos Norte to Laguna). It also occurs in India to Indo-China, Java, and Timor. In open, dry slopes, in long dry seasons in Luzon.


Description:

Malabar Bauhinia is a small or moderate sized deciduous tree. Bark is rough brown, peeling in linear flakes, fibrous, red inside. Leaves are broader than long, 1.5-4 inches long, 2-5 inches broad, divided through 1/3 of the length, 7-9 nerved, slightly heart-shaped at base, rigidly leathery, glaucous and smooth beneath. Flowers are borne in stalkless racemes in leaf axils, 1.5-2 inches long, often 2-3 together. Flowers are 1/2 inch long, dull-white, often uni-sexual, on very slender stalks, which are 1 in. long. Male and female flowers are usually on different stems. Sepal cup has 5 equal triangular teeth. Petals are spade-shaped, equal. Pod is 7-12 inches long, 2-2.5 cm broad, on a stalk 1 in. long, flat flexible, many-seeded, more or less straight reticulate veins, which starting diagonally from both sutures meet in the middle. Seeds are 20-30.

You may click to see the pictures

Other informations:
There are many species of Bauhinia. They share the ‘butterfly’ configuration of the leaves.
Alibangbang is an Ilongo word for butterfly.


Chemical  constituents
:
• Bark contains a tannin, 9.5 %.
• From the methanol extract of leaves: 6,8-di-C-methylkaempferol 3-methy ether, kaempferol, afzelin, quercetin, isoquercitrin, quercitrin, and hyperoside. source
• Oil extracted from the seeds was 16%, with linolenic 0.81%, linoleic, 47.26%, oleic 15.26%, stearic 19.29%, palmitic 17.18%, myristic 0.02%.


Culinary / nutritional Uses:

Leaves are sour, commonly used as flavoring for meat and fish (sinigang and sinampalukan dishes).
Excellent source of calcium; good source of iron.


Medicinal Uses:

Parts used: Bark, leaves, flowers.
Digestive, emmenagogue, antibacterial, antioxidant, antifungal, pectoral, stomachic, anthelmintic, antiperiodic.

Folkloric
Infusion of fresh flowers for dysentery.
Decoction of root bark used for liver problems.
Bark also used for dystentery.
Leaves, externally, to the forehead for fevers.
The roots of Desmodium elegans, combined with the bark juice of Bauhinia malabarica has been used for the treatment of cholera. source
In traditional Thai medicine, used for wound healing, diuretic, emmenagogue, and for dysentery.

Studies
:
Flavonols from Bauhinia malabarica: Seven flavanols were isolated from the methanol extract of leaves. Of the isolated compounds, isoquercetin showed the highest scavenging activity.
• Antinociceptive / Antiinflammatory / Antipyretic
: A study of aqueous extract of Bauhinia purpurea leaves on animal models showed significant antiinflammatory, antinociceptive and antipyretic activities and confirms the folkloric use of the plant for pain and inflammation.
• Antioxidant: An extract study for the antioxidant activity of six Thai medicinal plants showed Bauhinia malabarica leaves
to have potent inhibitory effect in inhibition of hemoglobin precipitation caused by oxidants.

Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

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Resources::
http://www.flowersofindia.net/catalog/slides/Malabar%20Bauhinia.html
http://www.stuartxchange.org/Alibangbang.html
http://vaniindia.org.whbus12.onlyfordemo.com/herbal/plantdir.asp
http://zipcodezoo.com/Plants/B/Bauhinia_malabarica/
http://www.bpi.da.gov.ph/Publications/mp/pdf/a/alibangbang.pdf

http://www.indi-journal.info/archives/588

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Allemanda cathartica

Botanical Name :Allemanda cathartica Linn
Family: Apocynaceae
Genus: Allamanda
Species: A. cathartica
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Gentianales

Syn.:  Allamanda cathartica Linn, Allamanda hendersonii Bull, Allamanda augustifolia Pohl

Common Names: :Golden trumpet, Harkakra, Campenilla, The cup of gold, Willow leaved Allamanda, Haladilu, Kolaambi, Jaharisontakka,.Kampanero (Tag.),Campanilla (Span., Tag.) Kampanero (Tag.) ,Kampanilya (Tag.) ,Kompanaria (Tag.), Yellow allamanda (Engl.) ,Yellow bell (Engl.) ,Golden trumpet (Engl.)  Cherries jubilee allamanda (Engl.) Huang ying (Chin.)

Local names: Campanilla (Sp., Tag.); kampanero (Tag.); kompanaria (Tag.); golden trumpet (Engl.).

Habitat :Native from Brazil.   Allemanda cathartica  was introduced from tropical America and is now cultivated for ornamental purposes. It is occasionally semi-established in thickets near dwellings or settlements.

Description:
This plant is a smooth or somewhat hairy shrub 2 to 4 meters in height. The leaves grow in whorls of three or four, though the uppermost ones may be scattered, and are lanceolate or oblanceolate, 8 to 12 centimeters long, 2.5 to 4 centimeters wide, and pointed at both ends. The yellow flowers are shortly stalked. The calyx-teeth are green, somewhat spreading, lanceolate, and 1 to 1.5 centimeters long. The corolla is about 7 centimeters long; the slender part os the tube being 3 centimeters long; the tube is then inflated up to 2 centimeters in diameter; the lobes are ovate or oblong-ovate, spreading, rounded, and about 2 centimeters long.
Its large flowers are very fragrant. This South American plant is thought to blossom best in full sunshine, and well drained soil.
CLICK & SEE THE PICTURES

Constituents: Phytochemical studies revealed the main constituents to be alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins and carbohydrates.
The whole plant is reported to be poisonous.Contains allamandin, a toxic iridoid lactone.As the name implies, the leaves, roots and flowers may be used in preparing a powerful cathartic. Milky sap is considered antibacterial, possibly anticancer.

Medicinal Uses:
Parts utilized: Leaves and bark.

Purgative, cathartic with hydrogogue effect, healing, diuretic.
In the Philippines, whole plant is considered poisonous.

Folkloric
*The plant draws its name from Allamand, who made the plant known a century and a half ago, who used a cathartic infusion of the leaves for colic.
*Infusion of leaves in moderate doses is an excellent cathartic; in considerable doses, it is purgative and a violent emetic.
*The bark and latex in small doses are considered cathartic; in large doses, poisonous.
*Decoction of the bark is a hydragogue; infusion of leaves is cathartic.
*Decoction of leaves in small doses used as antidote for poisoning.
*Extract of leaves used for colic and as laxative; in large doses causes diarrhea and vomiting.
*In Trinidad, used for treating malaria and jaundice.
*In Guiana, the latex is used as a purgative and employed for colics.
*In Surinam, the plant is used as a cathartic.

This plant is cited in Flora Brasiliensis by Carl Friedrich Philipp von Martius.It is mainly used to treat malaria.

Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Studies
:
• Purgative Effect: Findings suggest AC leaf extracts can elicit a purgative effect by increasing intestinal motility, in part, via muscarinic receptor activaton.
Wound Healing: The study of aqueous extract showed significant wound healing activity in wound models studies with decrease epithelialisation time, high skin breaking strength, and increase in granulation tissue weight and hydroxyproliing content. The Allamanda leaf extract possesses better wound healing activity than the Laurus nobilis.
• Reversible Antifertility Effect: The study on the oral administration of aqueous leaf extract of AC showed reversible suppression of fertility in male mice – organ weight,, testosterone levels, sperm parameters among others – without detectable toxic effects.
• Antidermatophytic: Plumeride, an active principle isolated from the leaves of AC showed strong fungitoxicity against some dermatophytes causing dermatomycosis to both humans and animals.
• Purgative Effect : Study showed the aqueous extract of leaves of Ac could produce a purgative effect by increasing intestinal motility, partly through muscarinic receptor activation.
Anti-Proliferative / Cytotoxic: Study evaluated the anti-proliferative effect of A. blanchetti and A. schottii on K562 leukemic cells. Results showed both plants exhibited cytostatic and cytotoxic activity, the most active were located in the roots.
• Antimicrobial: Study of leaf extract of A. cathartic showed antimicrobial activity – the chloroform extract showed significant activity against Shigella dysenteriae, moderate activity against B subtilis, P aeruginosa and a niger.
Bioactive Iridoids / Cytotoxic: Study of ethanol extract of A cathartica and H fallax isolated a weakly cytotoxic isoplumericin and plumericin.

Resources:
http://www.bpi.da.gov.ph/Publications/mp/pdf/c/campanilla.pdf
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Allamanda_cathartica
http://www.stuartxchange.org/Kampanilya.html
:

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