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Ailmemts & Remedies Pediatric

Mastitis

Definition
Mastitis is an infection of the breast tissue that results in breast pain, swelling, warmth and redness of the breast. If you have mastitis, you might also experience fever and chills. Mastitis most commonly affects women who are breast-feeding (lactation mastitis), although in rare circumstances this condition can occur outside of lactation.

click to see the pictures

The term mastitis is from the Greek word mastos, for breast, and itis, for inflammation of. The response to injury to the udder of sheep is called inflammation. Mastitis is the reaction of milk -secreting tissue to injury produced by physical force, chemicals introduced into the gland or most commonly from bacteria and their toxins.

Click to see the picture   :Udder of a of a Roux du Valais sheep after a healed mastitis, one teat was lost due to the disease.

In most cases, lactation mastitis occurs within the first three months after giving birth (postpartum), but it can happen later during breast-feeding. The condition can leave you feeling exhausted and rundown, making it difficult to care for your baby.

Sometimes mastitis leads a mother mistakenly to wean her baby before she intends to. But you can continue breast-feeding while you have mastitis.

Types:
It is called puerperal mastitis when it occurs in lactating mothers and non-puerperal otherwise. Mastitis can occur in men, albeit rarely. Inflammatory breast cancer has symptoms very similar to mastitis and must be ruled out.

The popular misconception that mastitis in humans is an infection is highly misleading and in many cases incorrect. Infections play only a minor role in the pathogenesis of both puerperal and nonpuerperal mastitis in humans and many cases of mastitis are completely aseptic under normal hygienic conditions. Infection as primary cause of mastitis is presumed to be more prevalent in veterinary mastitis and poor hygienic conditions.

The symptoms are similar for puerperal and nonpuerperal mastitis but predisposing factors and treatment can be very different.

Click to see the picture    Serous exudate from bovine udder in E. coli mastitis at left. Normal milk at right.

Puerperal:
Puerperal mastitis is the inflammation of breast in connection with pregnancy, breastfeeding or weaning. Since one of the most prominent symptoms is tension and engourgement of the breast, it is thought to be caused by blocked milk ducts or milk excess. It is relatively common, estimates range depending on methodology between 5-33%. However only about 0.4-0.5% of breastfeeding mothers develop an abscess.

Nonpuerperal:
The term nonpuerperal mastitis describes inflammatory lesions of the breast occurring unrelated to pregnancy and breastfeeding. This article includes description of mastitis as well as various kinds of mammary abscesses. Skin related conditions like dermatitis and foliculitis are a separate entity.

Names for non-puerperal mastitis are not used very consistently and include Mastitis, Subareolar Abscess, Duct Ectasia, Periductal Inflammation, Zuska’s Disease and others.

Symptoms:
Lactation mastitis usually affects only one breast and the symptoms can develop quickly.[3] The signs and symptoms usually appear suddenly and they include:

Click to see the pictures..…….
*Breast tenderness or warmth to the touch
*General malaise or feeling ill
*Swelling of the breast
*Pain or a burning sensation continuously or while breast-feeding
*Skin redness, often in a wedge-shaped pattern
*Fever of 101 F (38.3 C) or greater [4]
*The affected breast can then start to appear lumpy and red.

Click to see the picture

Some women may also experience flu-like symptoms such as:

*Aches
*Shivering and chills
*Feeling anxious or stressed
*Fatigue
*Breast engorgement

Contact should be made with a health care provider with special breastfeeding competence as soon as the patient recognizes the combination of signs and symptoms. Most of the women first experience the flu-like symptoms and just after they may notice a sore red area on the breast. Also, women should seek medical care if they notice any abnormal discharge from the nipples, if breast pain is making it difficult to function each day or they have prolonged, unexplained breast pain.

Causes:
Since the 1980s mastitis has often been divided into non-infectious and infectious sub-groups. However, recent research [6] suggests that it may not be feasible to make divisions in this way. It has been shown that types and amounts of potentially pathogenic bacteria in breast milk are not correlated to the severity of symptoms. Moreover, although only 15% of women with mastitis in Kvist et al.’s study were given antibiotics, all recovered and few had recurring symptoms. Many healthy breastfeeding women wishing to donate breast milk have potentially pathogenic bacteria in their milk but have no symptoms of mastitis.

Mastitis typically develops when the milk is not properly removed from the breast. Milk stasis can lead to the milk ducts in the breasts becoming blocked, as the breast milk not being properly and regularly expressed.  It has also been suggested that blocked milk ducts can occur as a result of pressure on the breast, such as tight-fitting clothing or an over-restrictive bra, although there is sparse evidence for this supposition . Mastitis may occur when the baby is not appropriately attached to the breast while feeding, when the baby has infrequent feeds or has problems suckling the milk out of the breast.

Experts are still unsure why breast milk can cause the breast tissue to become inflamed. One theory is that it may be due to the presence of cytokines in breast milk. Cytokines are special proteins that are used by the immune system and are passed on to the baby in order to help them resist infection. It may be the case that the woman’s immune system mistakes these cytokines for a bacterial or viral infection and responds by inflaming the breast tissue in an attempt to stop the spread of what the body perceives as an infection.

Some women (approximately 15% in Kvist et al. study) will require antibiotic treatment for infection which is usually caused by bacteria from the skin or the baby’s mouth that entering the milk ducts through skin lesions of the nipple or through the opening of the nipple.[8] Infection is usually caused by staphylococcus aureus.

Mastitis is quite common among breastfeeding women. The WHO estimates that although incidences vary between 2.6% and 33%, the prevalence globally is approximately 10% of breastfeeding women. Most mothers who develop mastitis usually do so within the first few weeks after delivery. Most breast infections occur within the first or second month after delivery or at the time of weaning.  However, in rare cases it affects women who are not breastfeeding.

Mastitis can also develop after nipple piercing. In some rare cases, however, Mastitis can occur in men.

Risk Factors:
Women who are breastfeeding are at risk for developing mastitis especially if they have sore or cracked nipples or have had mastitis before while breastfeeding another baby. Also, the chances of getting mastitis increases if women use only one position to breastfeed or wear a tight-fitting bra, which may restrict milk flow

Women with diabetes, chronic illness, AIDS, or an impaired immune system may be more susceptible to the development of mastitis.

Complications:
Complications that may arise from mastitis include recurrence, milk stasis and abscess. The abscess is the most severe complication that women can get from this condition. Also, women who have had mastitis once are likely to develop it again with a future child or with the same infant. Recurrence appears especially in cases of delayed or inadequate treatment.

Milk stasis is another complication that may arise from mastitis and it occurs when the milk is not completely drained from the breast. This causes increased pressure on the ducts and leakage of milk into surrounding breast tissue, which can lead to pain and inflammation.

Delayed treatment or inadequate treatment, especially in mastitis related to milk stasis, may lead to the formation of an abscess within the breast tissue. An abscess is a collection of pus that develops into the breast which ultimately requires surgical drainage.

Diagnosis:
The diagnosis of mastitis and breast abscess can usually be made based on a physical examination. The doctor will also take into account the signs and symptoms of the condition.

However, if the doctor is not sure whether the mass is an abscess or a tumor, an ultrasound may be performed. The ultrasound provides a clear image of the breast tissue and may be helpful in distinguishing between simple mastitis and abscess or in diagnosing an abscess deep in the breast. The test consists of placing an ultrasound probe over the breast.

In cases of infectious mastitis, cultures may be needed in order to determine what type of organism is causing the infection. Cultures are helpful in deciding the specific type of antibiotics that will be used in curing the disease. These cultures may be taken either from the breast milk or of the material aspirated from an abscess.

Mammograms or breast biopsies are normally performed on women who do not respond to treatment or on non-breastfeeding women. This type of tests is sometimes ordered to exclude the possibility of a rare type of breast cancer which causes symptoms similar to those of mastitis.

Treatment:
If you develop a painful, red or swollen breast, and especially if you have generalized symptoms such as a fever, it’s important to see your doctor because there may be infection that needs treatment with antibiotics.

You should try to continue breastfeeding. Although mastitis may interfere with breastfeeding – because the breasts become distorted in shape, for example – it is often the best treatment because it empties the breast.

In fact it’s important to persevere, because otherwise engorged breasts rapidly lead to a fall in milk production, as the body sees it as a signal that more milk is being produced than is needed.

With engorgement, if the affected area is not drained there’s a risk of infection developing. Try to give frequent feeds varying the position of the baby (many recommend a position where the baby’s chin points towards the affected area). Offer the affected breast first for the best chance of good drainage.

You can also try massaging the affected area of the breast as you feed, and applying warmth to the area.

There’s no risk to the baby from infection being passed on in the milk, so this is not a reason to stop feeding.

You can try to relieve the symptoms with cooling treatments – everything from cabbage leaves to cold flannels to gel-filled cool packs. Gentle breast massage can also help. If there is no infection, medicines are often not very effective in resolving the mastitis but may help with symptoms.

Paracetamol or ibuprofen may ease pain and reduce fever for example. These are usually safe although ibuprofen can get through into breast milk in small amounts – this doesn’t usually do any harm but you should check with your GP if your baby was born prematurely, had a low birth weight or any other medical problems. Paracetamol can also pass through into breast milk in tiny amounts but is thought to be even less likely to do harm.

Lifestyle and home remedies :
If you have mastitis, it’s safe to continue breast-feeding. Continuing breast-feeding offers the added benefit of helping clear the infection in your breast.

To relieve your discomfort:

*Maintain your breast-feeding routine.
*Get as much rest as possible.
*Avoid prolonged engorgement before breast-feeding.
*Use varied positions to breast-feed.
*Drink plenty of fluids.
*If you have trouble emptying a portion of your breast, apply warm compresses to the breast or take a warm shower before breast-feeding or pumping milk.
*Wear a supportive bra.
*While waiting for the antibiotics to take effect, take a mild pain reliever, such as acetaminophen (Tylenol, others) or ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin, others).

If breast-feeding on the infected breast is too painful or your infant refuses to nurse on that breast, try pumping or hand-expressing milk.

Prevention :
To get your breast-feeding relationship with your infant off to its best possible start — and to avoid complications such as mastitis — consider making an appointment with a lactation consultant. A lactation consultant can give you tips and provide invaluable advice for proper breast-feeding technique.

Minimize your chances of getting mastitis by fully draining the milk from your breasts while breast-feeding. Allow your baby to completely empty one breast before switching to the other breast during feeding. If your baby nurses for only a few minutes on the second breast — or not at all — start breast-feeding on that breast the next time you feed your baby.

Alternate the breast you offer first at each breast-feeding, and change the position you use to breast-feed from one feeding to the next. Make sure your baby latches on properly during feedings. Finally, don’t let your baby use your breast as a pacifier. Babies enjoy sucking and often find comfort in suckling at the breast even when they’re not hungry

Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.This is purely for educational purpose
Resources:
http://www.bbc.co.uk/health/physical_health/conditions/mastitis1.shtml
http://www.riversideonline.com/health_reference/Womens-Health/DS00678.cfm
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mastitis
http://www.breastfeedingbasics.com/html/breast_infections.shtml
http://glamomamas.com/2011/05/breastfeeding-it%E2%80%99s-choice/

http://melancoholismo.blogspot.com/2009/12/humor-patologico-5-muestra-del-extrano.html

http://www.righthealth.com/topic/mastitis/overview/adam_images?img=4

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Ailmemts & Remedies

Amenorrhea

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There are two types of amenorrhea, primary and secondary. Primary amenorrhea is the term used to describe menstruation that as not started at all by age 16. once menstruation has started at puberty, it is normal for it to stop during pregnancy, for a few months following childbirth, while breast-feeding, after ceasing to take oral contraceptive pills, and permanently at menopause. If menstrual periods stop at any other time for at least 3 continuous months, the condition is known as secondary amenorrhea.

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What are the causes?
Amenorrhea is often caused by disturbance in the female sex hormones, which may be brought on by factors such as stress or depression. Excessive exercise and extreme or sudden weight loss may also lead to such hormonal disturbances and are common causes of amenorrhea in athletes, gymnasts, and ballot dancers. Hormonal changes may lead to primary or secondary amenorrhea, depending on when they occur.

Primary amenorrhea is a characteristic feature of delayed puberty, and may be caused by a chromosomal abnormality. The failure of menstrual periods to start at puberty may also be due to a condition in which the hymen (the thin membrane over the vagina) has no opening, and menstrual blood cannot leave the body. in rare cases, the uterus is absent from birth, and therefore no menstruation can occur.

Secondary amenorrhea may be due to a pituitary gland disorder, such as pituitary tumor, or it may be due to a premature menopause, in which menstrual periods cease before age 35. Other possible causes are disorders of the ovaries, such as polycystic ovary syndrome, and treatments such as chemotherapy and radiation therapy, that can result in damage to the ovaries.

What might be done?
Treatment is not needed if amenorrhea occurs for a few months after stopping oral contraceptives or during pregnancy or breast-feeding. Enstruation usually resumes within a few months of giving birth if you are not breast-feeding or within a month of stopping breast-feeding. If you are near menopause, amenorrhea will be permanent.

Amenorrhea that occurs at any other time should be investigated. Your doctor will examine you and may do a pregnancy test. You may also need to have blood tests to measure hormone levels, ultrasound scanning of the ovaries and uterus, and ct scanning of the pituitary gland.

treatment of the underlying disorder induces menstruation in most cases. if the cause cannot be treated, hormonal treatment may be used to start menstruation. amenorrhea due to weight loss, stress, or excessive exercise should clear up once the problem is overcome.

Recommended Ayurvedic Therapy: Virechan , Basti

Click to learn more about Amenorrhea……(1).……(2).……(3)…….(4)

Homeopathic treatment of Amenorrhea ………………………………..(1).(2)…..(3)

Herbal Home Remedy of Amenorrhea ………………………….(1).……..(2)

Parsley is the most beneficial herb for the treatment of Amenorrhea

Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.This is purely for educational purpose.

Sources: http://www.charak.com/DiseasePage.asp?thx=1&id=278

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Ailmemts & Remedies

Woman Breast Pain

click & seeBreast pain can range from mild tenderness to a dull ache to a stabbing sensation in the breasts (milk-producing glands composed of fat and other tissue). According to the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services  Office on Women’s Health, approximately 50 percent of all women experience breast pain at some point in their lives.

In most cases, breast pain is caused by hormonal changes, such as those associated with the onset of puberty, menstruation, menopause, pregnancy and breastfeeding. In addition, certain medications, such as antidepressants, cardiovascular agents or oral contraceptives (birth control pills), can cause breast pain. However, women should notify their physician immediately if they experience breast pain that is persistent, more intense than usual or recurrent, especially if it is exhibited in only one breast…..click & see

Diagnosis of breast pain typically begins with a complete medical history and physical examination. Treatment for breast pain is directly related to the cause of the pain. For less serious causes of breast pain, treatment may be as simple as wearing a support bra or taking a pain reliever. For more severe cases of breast pain, there are medications that can relieve the discomfort. For women who are pregnant or breastfeeding, all drugs should be approved by a physician prior to use to avoid possible harm to the baby.
About breast pain
Breasts are milk-producing glands that are made up of fat and other tissue, including nerves, blood vessels and milk ducts (small tube-like paths). Breast pain can occur in a variety of forms – from a slight tenderness to a dull ache to a stabbing pain. Approximately half of all women experience breast pain at some point in their lives, according to the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services  Office on Women’s Health.

The medical terms for breast pain include mastalgia, mastodynia and mammalgia. It is usually caused by normal hormonal changes in a woman’s body, such as those associated with menstruation. Because of its strong association with hormones, breast pain or tenderness is more common in premenopausal women than in postmenopausal women. Some experts believe that stress can be another factor that affects the development and severity of breast pain. Other conditions that commonly cause breast pain include:

Pregnancy
Breastfeeding
Fibrocystic breast changes
Breast cysts (fluid-filled sacs inside the breast)
Breast infection (mastitis)
Injury or trauma to the breast
Hormone replacement therapy (HRT)
Water retention (common during menstruation)
Surgery to the breast (e.g., breast implants)


Other, less common conditions that can cause breast pain include:

Poorly fitting bra or uncomfortable clothing
Medications, such as antidepressants, cardiovascular agents or oral contraceptives
Excessive caffeine consumption
Breast cancer
Nipple piercing that becomes infected
Mondor’s disease (a blood clot in the breast)
Liver damage from alcoholism
Shingles
Arthritis or a pinched nerve in the neck area
Inflammation of a rib joint
Muscle pulls or strains
Source:www.healthline.com