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Herbs & Plants

Brassica cernua

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Botanical Name : Brassica cernua
Family: Brassicaceae
Genus: Brassica
Species: B. juncea
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Brassicales

Synonym :Brassica juncea (L.) Czern. subsp. juncea

Common Name : Chinese cabbage, pak choi, pakchoi, Pe-tsai, petsai, wong bok, wongbok, Chinese salad, Chou chinois (Fr), kapisi, kapeti ni jaina (Fiji), kapisi siaina (Tonga, Tuvalu),
Mustard greens, Indian mustard, Chinese mustard, Jie Cai (in Mandarin) or Kai Choi (in Cantonese), or leaf mustard is a species of mustard plant.

Habitat :Brassica cernua is native to Eastern Asia. Places in India where it grows are  Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Karnataka, Kerala, Chhattisgarh, Gujarat, Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Meghalaya, Sikkim, Arunachal Pradesh, Orissa, Rajasthan, Tamilnadu, Punjab, Haryana, West Bengal, Uttarakhand and Uttar Pradesh.

Description:
Brassica cernua is a  perennial, biennial, often grown as an annual herb.It is a succulent herb forming rosettes, of open or tight vegetative heads followed by flowering stalks reaching 20-50 cm in height. Leaves are succulent and light green.May be harvested after 40-60 or 50-90 days, depending on variety. (Eswaran) 25-45 days for leaves and 100-110 days for seeds.

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Edible Uses:
The leaves are eaten fresh, boiled, fried, or fermented. Some varieties produce seeds that can be pressed for oil.

Cultivation:
It can in the tropics be grown at elevations up to 1500 m, but at elevations below 500 m heading is less likely to occur. A difference of 5-6°C in day and night temperatures appears to increase the vigour of the plant. Temperatures below 16°C promote flowering, particularly in daylengths of 13 hours or more. Drought stress in the heading stage prevents head formation. It is easely damaged by high winds. Leaf yields between 5 and 70 t/ha or 0.5-7 kg/m? may be obtained depending on length of growing period, plant desity, environmental conditions and cultivars. Photosynthesis pathway C3.

Medicinal Uses:
The seeds treat pain in nerves, arthritis, pneumonia

Disclaimer : The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplement, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider

Resources:

http://ecocrop.fao.org/ecocrop/srv/en/cropView?id=547
http://www.herbnet.com/Herb%20Uses_LMN.htm
http://www.tuinkrant.com/plantengids/groenten/29947.htm

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brassica_juncea

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Herbs & Plants

Chaerophyllum villosum

Botanical Name : Chaerophyllum villosum
Family  : Umbelliferae/Apiaceae
Subfamily: Apioideae
Genus    : Chaerophyllum
Order: Apiales
Tribus: Scandiceae
Species: Chaerophyllum villosum
Common name:Mithi patis, Hairy Chervil , Hindi: Khelti , Nepali:  Chyaum


Habitat  :
E. Asia – Himalayas from India to Bhutan, Nepal and China.   Moist shady places at elevations of 2100 – 3500 metres in Nepal. Forests, road sides or open grassy places at elevations of 2100 – 2800 metres in southwestern China.

This species is globally distributed in Afghanistan, Pakistan, India, Nepal and Bhutan between an altitude range of 2100-3600 m. Within India, it has been recorded in Jammu & Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh (Lahaul – Spiti Frequent on moist slopes. Jispa), Uttar Pradesh, Sikkim and in Arunachal Pradesh and Meghalaya between an altitude range of 1200-1800 m.


Description :

Hairy Chervil is a perennial herb up to 60 cm tall, velvety.
Roots are elongated, fusiform. Lower stem is densely hairy, hairs white, deflexed. Leaves are 2-3-pinnate, velvety; pinnae finely divided; leaf sheaths of the upper leaves inflated. Involucral bracts are absent. White or pale pink flowers are borne in umbels. Rays are 6-10, smooth to velvety. Involucel of 5-6 linear to lanceolate bractlets; margins white, ciliate or entire. Fruit is cylindrical, 6-9 mm long, narrowed at the tip – 2-6 fruits are borne in an umbellet.

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It is hardy to zone 0. It is in flower from July to August, and the seeds ripen from July to August. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs)
The plant prefers light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils. The plant prefers acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It requires moist soil.

Cultivation:
We have very little information on this species and do not know if it will be hardy in Britain, though judging by its native range it could succeed outdoors in many parts of this country. One report says this is an annual plant. The following notes are based on the general needs of the genus. An easily grown plant, it succeeds in almost any soil, though it prefers a moist soil.

Propagation
:
Seed – these notes are based on C. bulbosum, they might not apply to this species. Best sown in the autumn in situ. The seed has a very short viability or, according to another report, the seed becomes dormant if allowed to dry out and will not germinate for a year. If stored for a spring sowing it should be kept in damp sand in a cold but frost-free place and then sown in situ in March. Another alternative is to sow the seed in the autumn in a seed tray in a cold frame and then to sow the seed, soil and all, in early April in situ.

Edible Uses
Edible Parts: Leaves.  Tender young leaves and shoots – cooked.

Medicinal Uses
Not known

Resources:
http://server9.web-mania.com/users/pfafardea/database/plants.php?Chaerophyllum+villosum
http://species.wikimedia.org/wiki/Chaerophyllum_villosum
http://www.flowersofindia.net/catalog/slides/Hairy%20Chervil.html
http://vaniindia.org.whbus12.onlyfordemo.com/herbal/plantdir.asp

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Herbs & Plants

Baliospermum montanum

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Botanical Name : Baliospermum montanum (WILLD.) MUELL.-ARG.
Family :        Euphorbiaceae
Common Name : Danti, Dantika, Rachani, Vishodhini, Lowly marketing nut.

Vernacular names in different languages:
Arabic : habbussalatine-sahrai, habbussalatine-barri
Garo : phan-thap
Hindi: danti, hakum, hakun, dante, dantt, jangli jamalghota
Kannada:  danti, kaduharalu, dantika, kaadu haralu, naaga danti, danthi, naagadanthi
Malayalam : danti, dantika, katalavanakku, nagadanti, nakadanti, nervalam, niratimuttu
Marathi : danti, buktumbo
Oriya :  dumajoda
Persian :  bedanjire khatai
Sanskrit:  anukheti, anukula, artagala, bhadra, danti, dantika, erandapatri, erandaphala, gunapriya, jayapala, kakubha, kumbhachitra, kumbhi, kurantaka, madhupushpa, makulaka, makunaka, mukulaka, nagadanti, nagasphota, nepala, nikumba, nikumbha, nikumbhah, nikumbhi, nishalya, nishkumbha, pratyakparni, pratyaksreni, raktadanti, rechani, ruksha, shighra, shwetaghanta, shyenaghanta, sighra, taruni, udumbaraparni, varahangi, vishalya, vishodhini, a, upachitra, upakulya
Tamil : kattamanakku, nirettimuttu, nakatanti, niradimuttu, peyamanakku, cimai amanakku, nir adimuttu, appaiccevakacceti, appaiccevakam, cimaiyamanakku@, ilantanamanakku, irancani1, kanniyucari, kanniyucaricceti, kattamanakku2, kumpam2, maniyamanakku 2, maniyamanakkucceti, nirvetti2, parankiyamanakku 2, tanti3, timpalai, turuvati, nepalam2, niratimuttu2
Telugu : ettadundiga, kanakapata, kondamudamu, nelajidi, kanaka pata, nela jidi, erradundiga, kanakapaata, neelajidi
Tibetan : da nti, da-nti

Habitat : This species in globally distributed in Indo-Malesia. Within India, it is distributed throughout from Kashmir eastwards to Meghalaya, up to an elevation of 1000 m. and southwards into Peninsular India, ascending to an altitude of 1800 m. in the Western Ghats.

Description:A perennial and woody undershrub grows up to 1.5 meters in height. Leaves simple, sinuate-toothed, upper ones small, lower ones are large, flowers are numerous, in axillary recemes with male flowers above and female below. Fruits capsule, 12 mm long, obovoid, seeds ellipsoid and smooth.

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Medicinal Uses:
Plant pacifies vitiated vata, dropsy, constipation, flatulence, jaundice, hemorrhoids, skin diseases, calculi, wounds, splenomeg

The root, leaves, seed and seed oil is used in the form of powder, seed and oil to treat piles, anaemia, jaundice, skin diseases, cyst, as purgative, wound and conjunctivitis.Piles(arasa):Leaves of trivrt(ipomoea turpethum), danti(Baliospermum montanum), cangeri(oxalis corniculata) and citraka(Plumbago indica) fried in oil and ghee (mixed) and added with fatty layer of curd should be given as vegetable (10-15 gms) (CS.Ci.14.122).Skin diseases (Kustha)Danti (Baliospermum montanum), trivrt (ipomoea turpethum)and brahmi (Bacopa monnieri) powder together should be taken with honey and ghee. It is beneficial for skin diseases, diabetes and numbness (10-15 gms) (AH.Ci.19.34)

The seeds of Baliospermum montanum are described as drastic. Like croton seeds they are boiled in milk before use. The root of the plant is considered cathartic. Both are much used in diseases where purgatives are indicated. The following are a few examples of prescriptions containing these medicines.

Naracha rasa.1 Take of mercury, borax and black pepper, one part each, sulphur, ginger and long pepper two parts each, seeds of Baliospermum montanum nine parts; powder the ingredients and make into two-grain pills with water. These are given in constipation and tympanites.

Danti haritaki.2 Take twenty-five large chebulic myrobalans and enclose them in a piece of cloth; then take of the roots of Baliospermum montanum and Ipomosa Turpethum (trivrit), each two hundred tolas, water sixty-four seers, boil them together till the water is reduced to eight seers. Strain the decoction, take out the chebulic myrobalans and fry them in thirty-two tolas of sesa-mum oil. To the strained decoction add two hundred tolas of old treacle; then boil till reduced to the proper consistence for a confection. Now add to the mass the following substances, namely powdered root of Ipomcea Turpethum (trivrit) thirty-two tol?s, long pepper and ginger, each eight tolas, and stir them well; when cool add thirty-two tolas of honey, cinnamon, cardamom, leaves called tejapatra, and the flowers of Mesua ferrea (nagakesara) each eight tolas, and prepare a confection. The chebulic myrobalans should be kept imbedded in the medicine. Two tolas of the confection and one of the chebulic myrobalans are to be taken every morning.

Gud  shtaka.1 Take of danti, triwit and plumbago roots, black pepper, long pepper, ginger and long pepper root, equal parts in fine powder; treacle, equal in weight to all the other ingredients and mix. Dose, about a tola every morning in flatulence and retained secretions, anasarca, jaundice, etc.

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(3) :

Threat Status Vulnerable / Regional
: Used In Ayurveda, Folk, Tibetian, Unani and Sidha

Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://envis.frlht.org.in/junclist.php?txtbtname=&gesp=277%7CBaliospermum+montanum+(WILLD.)+MUELL.-ARG.
http://vaniindia.org.whbus12.onlyfordemo.com/herbal/plantdir.asp
http://chestofbooks.com/health/materia-medica-drugs/Hindus-Materia-Medica/Baliospermum-Montanum-Mull-Sans.html
http://dhaarrii.blogspot.com/2009_09_10_archive.html

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Fruits & Vegetables Herbs & Plants

Passionfruit

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Botanical Name:Passiflora edulis
Family:Passifloraceae
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Order: Malpighiales
Genus: Passiflora
Species: P. edulis

Other Names: Passiflora edulis, passion fruit.It is locally called Sohbrab in Meghalaya in India
Habitat: It is native to South America and widely grown in India, New Zealand, the Caribbean, Brazil, Ecuador, California, southern Florida, Hawaii, Australia, East Africa, Israel and South Africa. It’s cultivation has been extended to some areas of North-eastern region like Mizoram, Manipur, Nagaland and Sikkim.

Description:
The purple passion fruit (P. edulis) is a woody perennial vine with robust climber. The stems, tendrils and leaves are clear green without any trace of reddish or pinkish colour. The fruit is round or oval, 3 to 5 cm in diameter and deep purple when ripe. The yellow passion fruit (P. edulis f. flavicarpa) vine is much like that of the purple variety but is a more vigorous grower. It is distinguished by the suffusion of reddish, pinkish or purplish colour in stems, leaves and tendrils.The flowers have the scent of heliotropes.

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The passion fruit is round to oval, yellow or dark purple at maturity, with a soft to firm, juicy interior filled with numerous seeds. The fruit can be grown to eat or for its juice, which is often added to other fruit juices to enhance aroma.

The two types of passion fruit have greatly different exterior appearances. The bright yellow variety of passion fruit, which is also known as the Golden Passionfruit, can grow up to the size of a grapefruit, has a smooth, glossy, light and airy rind, and has been used as a rootstock for the purple passion fruit in Australia. The dark purple passion fruit (for example, in Kenya) is smaller than a lemon, with a dry, wrinkled rind at maturity.

The purple varieties of the fruit reportedly have traces of cyanogenic glycosides in the skin, and hence are mildly poisonous. However, the thick, hard skin is hardly edible, and if boiled (to make jam), the cyanide molecules are destroyed at high temperatures.

Cultivation details:
Requires a well-drained soil with plenty of moisture in the growing season, otherwise it is not fussy.

Plants are not very frost tolerant and are best grown in a greenhouse. However, the roots are somewhat hardier and can survive the winter outdoors in many areas of Britain if the soil is prevented from freezing. If plants are cut down to the ground by frost they can regenerate from the base. There is also the possibility of growing plants on rootstocks of P. caerulea which might make them hardier.

This species is often cultivated in warmer climes than Britain for its edible fruit, there are some named varieties. The fruit can be freely produced in Britain in hot summers.

Roots of outdoor grown plants should be restricted to encourage fruiting.

Any pruning is best carried out in the spring.

If fruit is required it is best to hand pollinate, using pollen from a flower that has been open for 12 hours to pollinate a newly opened flower before midday. The flowers open in sunny weather and do not open on dull cloudy days. The flowers have the scent of heliotropes.

A climbing plant, attaching itself to other plants by means of tendrils that are produced at the leaf axils.

Plants in this genus are notably resistant to honey fungus.
Propagation:
Pre-soak the seed for 12 hours in warm water and then sow late winter or early spring in a warm greenhouse. If sown in January and grown on fast it can flower and fruit in its first year[88]. The seed germinates in 1 – 12 months at 20°c. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle. It you are intending to grow the plants outdoors, it is probably best to keep them in the greenhouse for their first winter and plant them out into their permanent positions in late spring or early summer, after the last expected frosts. Mulch the roots well in late autumn to protect them from the cold.

Cuttings of young shoots, 15cm with a heel, in spring.

Leaf bud cuttings in spring.

Cuttings of fully mature wood in early summer. Takes 3 months. High percentage.

Uses
*A glass of passion fruit juiceIn Australia, it is available commercially fresh and canned. In addition to being added to fruit salads, passion fruit is commonly used in desserts, such as the topping for the pavlova (a meringue cake), cheesecake, and vanilla slice. It is also used to flavour soft drinks such as Passiona and cordials.

*In the Dominican Republic, it is used to make juice, jams, the chinola flavoured syrup is used on shaved ice and it is also eaten raw sprinkled with sugar.

*In Puerto Rico, where its called Parcha, it is widely believed to lower blood pressure. This is probably because it contains harmala alkaloids and is a mild RIMA.

*In Brazil, passion fruit mousse is a common dessert, and passion fruit seeds are routinely used to decorate the tops of certain cakes. Passion fruit juice is also very common.

*In Indonesia it is eaten straight as a fruit. Nevertheless, it is common to strain the passionfruit for its juice and cook it with sugar to make some sort of thick syrup. It is then mixed with water and ice to be drunk.

*In Hawaii, where it is called lilikoi, it is normally eaten raw. Hawaiians usually crack the rind of the lilikoi either with their hands or teeth and suck out the flavorful pulp and seeds. Lilikoi can also be cut in half and the pulp can easily be scooped out with a spoon. Lilikoi flavoured syrup is a popular topping for shave ice. Ice cream and mochi are also flavoured with lilikoi, as well as many other desserts such as cookies, cakes, and ice cream. Lilikoi is also favored as a jam, jelly, as well as a butter. Lilikoi fruits are not widely available in stores, so most of the fruit eaten comes from backyard gardens or wild groves. They however can be found in farmers markets sprinkled throughout the islands.

*Passion fruit juice or syrup is an essential ingredient of some cocktails, particularly the hurricane and the Peruvian maracuya sour.

*In South Africa passion fruit is used to flavor yogurt. It is also used to flavour soft drinks such as Schweppes Sparkling Granadilla and numerous cordial drinks.

Passion fruit juice can be boiled down to a syrup, which is used in making sauce, gelatin desserts, candy, ice cream, sharbat, cake icing, cake filling, etc. There is a preference for the purple variety as fresh fruit and the yellow one for juice-making.

Nutrition
Fresh Passion Fruit is known to be high in vitamin A, Potassium and dietary fibre. The Yellow variety is used for juice processing, while the Purple variety is sold in fresh fruit markets. Passion fruit juice is a good source of ascorbic acid (vitamin C).
Medicinal Uses: There is currently a revival of interest in the pharmaceutical industry, especially in Europe, in the use of the glycoside, passiflorine, especially from P. incarnata L., as a sedative or tranquilizer. Italian chemists have extracted passiflorine from the air-dried leaves of P. edulis.

The pulp of the fruit is stimulant and tonic.
In Madeira, the juice of passionfruits is given as a digestive stimulant and treatment for gastric cancer.

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Details of Passion fruit

Growing Passion Fruit, Flowers In Phoenix Arizona

Passionfruit PlantFiles: Passionfruit, Granadilla, Qarandila, Maracuja
Giant granadilla
Sweet granadilla

Granadilla

Passion Fruit

Resources:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Passion_fruit
http://gbpihed.gov.in/envis/HTML/vol13_1/nrai.htm
http://www.ibiblio.org/pfaf/cgi-bin/arr_html?Passiflora+edulis
http://www.tradewindsfruit.com/passionfruit.htm

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Herbs & Plants

Tamala (Garcinia xanthochymus )

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Botanical Name:Garcinia xanthochymus
Genus: Garcinia
Family: Clusiaceae (alt. Guttiferae).
Syn : Xanthochymus tinctorius DC., Garcinia tinctoria Dunn.

English name: Egg tree.

Sanskrit names: Tamala, Tapinjha.

Vernacular names: Ben: Tamal,; Hin : Dampel, Tamal, Tumul; Guj : Kasamala, Ota;Kan:Deva-garige; Mal: Anavaya; Man: Heilbung; Mar: Jharambi, Dampel, Ota; Nep : Chunyel; Ori : Cheoro, Sitambu; Tam: Kulavi, Malaippachai, Mukki, Tamalam; Tel: Sitakamraku, Evarumidi, Tamalamu.

Trade name: Tamala.

Trade name: Tamala.

Habitat:Native to India and Myanmar; distributed widely in the lower hill forests of eastern Himalaya, Meghalaya, Sikkim, West Bengal, Maharashtra, Gujarat, Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Andhra Pradesh, the Andamans; Bangladesh, Myanmar.

Description: Evergreen tree, trunk straight; branches arising in tiers, drooping, angular; leaves opposite, coriaceous, bright green, shining, 22.5-45.0 cm by 5-10 cm; flowers polygamous, male flowers from axils of fallen leaves, fascicled with 4-8 flowers, white, thick, rough, hermaphrodites like male flowers, ovary ovoid, usually 5:chambered; fruits subglobose, pointed, dark yellow; seeds 1-4, oblong, yields a large quantity of gamboge.

click to see the pictures

Flowering: Spring; Fruiting: Summer.

Ecology and cultivation: Tropical forest; wild.

Chemical contents: Fruit: xanthochymol, isoxanthochymol, maclurin, euxanthone, 1,5-dihydroxy- and 1,3,5-trihydroxy-xanthones, methoxyxanthones, cambogin, volkensiflavone, morello-flavone, biflavones.

Medicinal Uses:

Traditional use: Fruit: antiscorbutic, cooling, digestive, emollient, demulcent and cholagogue. Sherbet made from dried fruit is used in billiousness.

AYURVEOA :
Young branch: paste as ointment on boils; Bark: astringent; Leaf: decoction useful in diarrhoea; Young leaves (roasted in a special method) : used in dysentery; Seed: butter made from seeds useful in pulmonary affections, dysentery, goitre.

Modern use: Xanthochymol : antibacterial against Streptococcus faecallis and Klebsiella pneumoniae.

Remark: In South India, fruits of this species are used in lieu of tamarind.

Reources:

http://www.bsienvis.org/medi.htm#Euphorbia%20tirucalli
http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/taxon.pl?423797
http://www.henriettesherbal.com/pictures/p06/pages/garcinia-xanthochymus-1.htm

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