Tag Archives: Mindoro

Palutan

 

Botanical Name :Flacourtia indica (Burm. f.) Merr.
Family: Flacourtiaceae
Genus: Flacourtia
Species: F. indica
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Violales

Other Scientific Names : Gmelina indica Burm. f.,Mespilus sylvestris Burm.,Flacourtia sepiaria Roxb.,Flacourtia ranibtcgu L’ Herit. ,Myroxylon decline Blanco ,Flacourtia cataphracta Rolfe

Common Names :  Bitangol (Sbl.),Bitunogo (Tag.),Bolong (Mang.), Palutan (Ibn.), Saua-saua (Bis.),Many spiked Flacourtia (Engl.)

Habitat : Palutan is found in dry thickets at low altitude in Cagayan, Isabela, Zambales, Tarlac, Bataan, Rizal, and Batangas Provinces in Luzon; and in Mindoro. It also occurs in India to tropical Africa and Malaya.

Description:
The plant is an erect, branched, more or less spiny shrub of small tree, growing to a height of 3 meters. Spines are slender and scattered, up to 2 cm long. Leaves are obovate to oblong-ovate, 2.5 to 5 cm long, with toothed margins and rounded lobes, the based pointed with the tip rounded. Flowers are white, about 5 mm in diameter, borne on axillary or terminating short branchlets, solitary or in pairs. Fruit is rounded, about 1 cm in diameter, fleshy when fresh, smooth and purple or nearly black. The pulp is edible, fleshy and sweet, enclosing 6 to 10 small and flattened seeds.

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Edible Uses: In India, fruits consumed as food by local people.

Medicinal Uses:
Parts Used: Bark and leaves.

Properties:
*Bark is astringent.
*Dried leaves considered carminative, expectorant, tonic and astringent.

Folkloric
*Infusion of the bark used for hoarseness and as a gargle.

*In Madagascar, the bark is titurated in oil and used as a rheumatic liniment.

*The ashes of the roots are used for kidney ailments.

*Dried leaves are used in asthma, bronchitis, phthisis and catarrh of the bladder.

*Juice of fresh leaves and tender stalks used for fevers.

*As an antiperiodic for infants, 5 to 10 drops are placed in water or in mother’s milk.

*Also used in phthisical coughs, dysentery, diarrhea and indigestion during dentition.

*In Bengal, used as a tonic during parturition.

*The fruit is used for bilious disorders and to relieve nausea and vomiting.

*In India, used as an antiviral.

*In Sabah, roots used for headaches, leaves for colic.

*In Tanzania, fruit used for jaundice and enlarged spleens; leaves and roots for schistosomiasis, malaria and diarrhea. Also, the roots are used for hoarseness, pneumonia, intestinal worms; and as astringent, diuretic and analgesic.

Studies :-
Hepatoprotective / Paracetamol-Induced Hepatotoxicity: Study of extracts of aerial parts of F indica in paracetamol-induced hepatic necrosis in rat models exhibited hepatoprotective effects probably mediated through the inhibition of the microsomal metabolizing enzymes.
• Hepatoprotective / CCL4-Induced Hepatotoxicity: Study results conclude that aqueous extract of leaves of F indica protects the liver against oxidative damages and can be used as an effective protector against CCl4-induced hepatic damage.
• Antimalarial: Study reports on the antiplasmodial activity of the AcOEt extract and three major constituents of Flacourtia indica.

Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://www.stuartxchange.com/Palutan.html
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flacourtia_indica
http://www.bpi.da.gov.ph/Publications/mp/pdf/p/palutan.pdf

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Borreria hispida

Botanical Name :Borreria hispida
Family : Rubiaceae
Synonyms: Spermacoce hispida Linn.
Spermacoce muriculata Blanco
Spermacoce mutilata Blanco
Spermacoce scaberrima F.-Vill.
Local names: Landrina (Tag.); ligad-ligad (Sul.); shaggy button weed (Engl.).
Common Name : Thaarthaaval

Habitat : The plant  is found from the Batan Islands to Batangas and Laguna in Luzon, and in Mindoro, Panay, and Basilan, in open, dry places at low and medium altitudes. It occurs also in India to China and Malaya.

Description:
Borreria hispida (BHE), a weed  is a procumbent, branched, hairy or rough herb 10 to 14 centimeters in length. The branches are greenish or purplish, ascending, stout, 4-angled. The leaves are ovate, spatulate, or elliptic, 1 to 3.5 centimeters long, 0.8 to 1.7 centimeters wide, and pointed or rounded at the tip. The flowers are 4 to 6, and occur in a whorl in the axils of the leaves. The calyx-teeth are linear-lanceolate. The corolla is pale blue or white, and is 5 to 10 millimeters in length. The fruit is a hairy capsule about 5 millimeters in length. The seeds are oblong, granulate, opaque, usually variable, and 3 millimeters or less in length.

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Medicinal Uses:
In the Philippines Guerrero reports that the leaves brewed in decoction are used as an astringent in haemorrhoids.
Dymock, Warden, and Hooper state that in the Konkan the plant is eaten with other herbs as a vegetable. It is used as a tonic and stimulant in Martinique. The plant is also prescribed to cure haemorrhoids.
According to Drury and Dymock the roots possess properties similar to those of sarsaparilla. They are prescribed in decoction as an alternative.
Ridley reports that the leaves are applied to the head in cases of headache. They appear to merely cool off the head and so allay the pain somewhat.
Nadkarni says that the seeds, as a confection, are cooling and demulcent, and are given in diarrhea and dysentery. The seeds have been recommended as a substitute for coffee. Dymock, Warden, and Hooper state that the seeds are thought to be aphrodisiac.

Borreria hispida (BHE), a weed of Rubiaceae family, is being used from time immemorial as an alternative therapy for diabetes. To evaluate the scientific background of using BHE as therapy to reduce cardiovascular risk, a group of rats were given BHE for a period of 30 days, whereas control animals were given the vehicle only. The animals were sacrificed, the hearts were isolated, and perfused with buffer. All the hearts were subjected to 30-minute ischemia followed by 2-hour reperfusion. Compared with vehicle-treated rats, BHE-treated rat hearts showed improved post-ischemic ventricular function and exhibited reduced myocardial infarct size and cardiomyocyte apoptosis. The level of cytochrome c expression and caspase 3 activation was also reduced. BHE elevated antiapoptotic proteins Bcl-2 and heme oxygenase-1 and stimulated the phosphorylation of survival protein Akt simultaneously decreasing the apoptotic proteins Bax and Src. In addition, BHE enhanced the protein expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-delta, and Glut-4, probably revealing the antiobese and antidiabetic potential of BHE. These results indicate that treatment with BHE improves cardiac function and ameliorates various risk factors associated with cardiac disease, suggesting that BHE can be considered as a potential plant-based nutraceutical and pharmaceutical agent for the management of cardiovascular diseases.

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*Activity of various extracts of Borreria hispida

Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://www.bpi.da.gov.ph/Publications/mp/pdf/l/landrina.pdf
http://vaniindia.org.whbus12.onlyfordemo.com/herbal/plantdir.asp
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/194550http://www.discoverlife.org/mp/20p?see=I_PAO8841

 

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Elephant Yam (Bengali Ol)

Botanical name: Amorphophallus Campanulatus
Family: Araceae
Subfamily: Aroideae
Tribe: Thomsonieae
Genus: Amorphophallus
Species: A. paeoniifolius
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Alismatales

 

Subfamily: Aroideae
Tribe:
Thomsonieae
Genus:
Amorphophallus
Species:
A. paeoniifolius
Kingdom:
Plantae
Order:
Alismatales

Synonyms: Amorphophallus campanulatus (Decne.)
Sanskrit name
: Soorana
English name:
Elephant Yam
Tamil name:
Pidikarunai kizhangu
Bengali Name: Ole,OOL  OR OL
Other Names:
Dragon Arum , Kembang Bangah , Saranah , Soeweg , Whitespot Giant Arum ,
Habitat: Loose leafy detritus in moist shady habitats.Common throughout the Luzon provinces and in Mindoro, in thickets and secondary forests, at low and medium altitudes in settled areas. India, Bangla Desh,Burma, Sri Lanka,Thailand, Philippines
Parts Used:
Corm, roots.

Description:
The plant had three leaves, with one that was smaller and yellowing. The other two healthy and sturdier ones are rather pretty and the leaflets that emerge from each petiole may lead those who are unfamiliar with the plant to think that it is a papaya plant instead. The petioles are also beautifully mottled. The whole plant looks quite ornamental in a strange way.

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· A perennial growing to 0.75m. It is hardy to zone 10. The scented flowers are monoecious (individual flowers are either male or female, but both sexes can be found on the same plant) and are pollinated by Flies. We rate it 2 out of 5 for usefulness.The plant prefers light (sandy) and medium (loamy) soils. The plant prefers acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It requires moist soil. stemless herb.Corm is globose, up to 30 cm in diameter.The leaf stalk develops from the corm, usually about 1 meter high.Leaves are solitary, blades up to 1 meter in diameter, trisected with dichotomous segments. Spathe is sessile, campanulate, purplish up to 30 cm in diameter.The spadix (a spike of flowers contained in the spathe) sulcate and depressed, up to 15 cms long, are malodorous when flowering.

Flowers: When ripe for pollination, the flowers have a foetid smell to attract carrion flies and midges. This smell disappears once the flower has been pollinated.

Cultivation details:
Requires shade and a rich soil in its native habitats, but it probably requires a position with at least moderate sun in Britain.Cultivated for its edible tuber in Asia, plants are not winter hardy outdoors in Britain but are sometimes grown outdoors in this country as part of a sub-tropical bedding display.

The tuber is harvested in the autumn after top growth has been cut back by frost and it must be kept quite dry and frost-free over winter. It is then potted up in a warm greenhouse in spring ready to be planted out after the last expected frosts. The tubers are planted 15cm deep. It is unclear from the reports that we have seen whether or not this root can be divided, it is quite possible that seed is the only means of increase[K].

The plant has one enormous leaf and one spadix annually. It requires hand pollination in Britain. When ripe for pollination, the flowers have a foetid smell to attract carrion flies and midges. This smell disappears once the flower has been pollinated.
Propagation
Seed – best sown in a pot in a warm greenhouse as soon as it is ripe and the pot sealed in a plastic bag to retain moisture. It usually germinates in 1 – 8 months at 24°c. When large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on in the greenhouse for at least a couple of years. Plant them out in late spring or early summer, after the last expected frosts, and give them some protection such as a cloche until they are growing away strongly.

Chemical constituents and nutritional value:Corm is 74% moisture; 0.73% ash; 5.1% protein; 18% carbohydrate providing about 1,000 calories per kilo; comparable in food value to kalabasa, superior to singkamas.Petioles of young unexpanded leaves are edible when thoroughly cooked.

Medicinal Uses: Corms are Carminative; Expectorant; Restorative; Caustic, Stomachic and Tonic. Roots are emmenagogue.Poultices of corm are antirheumatic. Also used for hemorrhoids.Roots are used for boils and hemorrhoids. Tubers are also used for hemorrhoids.

The Root is dried and used in the treatment of piles and dysentery. The fresh root acts as an acrid stimulant and expectorant, it is much used in India in the treatment of acute rheumatism. Some caution is advised.

Click to see more medicinal uses of Elephant Yam ( Amorphophallus Campanulatus)

Edible Uses: Leaves; Root, Rhizome – cooked. Acrid raw, it must be thoroughly boiled or baked. A very large root, it can be up to 25cm in diameter. Caution is advised, see notes above on probable toxicity.
Leaves and petioles – they must be thoroughly cooked. Caution is advised, see notes above on possible toxicity.

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• Leaves and roots.
• Rhizomes preferably cooked, acrid when raw. May cause perioral burning and itching.
Folkloric
· Poultices of corm are antirheumatic. Also used for hemorrhoids.
· Roots are used for boils and hemorrhoids.
· Tubers are also used for hemorrhoids.
• In India, tuberous roots are used for treatment of piles, abdominal pains, tumors, spleen enlargement, asthma and rheumatism. source

Studies
• Antibacterial / Cytotoxic: Amblyone, a triterpenoid isolated from A campanulatus showed to have good antibacterial activity and moderate cytotoxic activity.
Hepatoprotective: Study on the hepatoprotective activity of AC corm on carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in rats.
• Antioxidant / Hepatoprotective: Study on ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Amorphophallus campanulatus showed antioxidant activity. Results showed potent hepatoprotective action against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic damage. The possible mechanism of antioxidant activity may be due to the free radical scavenging potential from the flavonoids in the extracts.
• Analgesic: Study on the methanol extract of A campanulatus tuber showed significant analgesic activity.

Known Hazards: Although no specific mention has been seen for this species, it belongs to a family where most of the members contain calcium oxalate crystals. This substance is toxic fresh and, if eaten, makes the mouth, tongue and throat feel as if hundreds of small needles are digging in to them. However, calcium oxalate is easily broken down either by thoroughly cooking the plant or by fully drying it and, in either of these states, it is safe to eat the plant. People with a tendency to rheumatism, arthritis, gout, kidney stones and hyperacidity should take especial caution if including this plant in their diet.

Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://gardeningwithwilson.com/2008/06/05/elephant-foot-yam-the-singapore-botanic-gardens/
http://stuartxchange.org/Pungapung.html
http://www.ibiblio.org/pfaf/cgi-bin/arr_html?Amorphophallus+paeoniifolius

http://www.stuartxchange.com/Pungapung.html