Herbs & Plants

Dorstenia Contrayerva

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Botanical Name : Dorstenia Contrayerva
Family: Moraceae
Tribe:     Dorstenieae
Genus:     Dorstenia
Species: D. contrajerva
Kingdom: Plantae
Order:     Rosales

Synonyms: Dorstenia Houstoni (LINN.).

Common Name :contrayerva, carapia, carapá, chupa-chupa, conta-de-cobra, bezoar, bezoard, contraerva, contra-erva, contrayerba de las Antillas, figueirinha, liga-liga, liga-osso, tarope, tiu

Habitat:Dorstenia Contrayerva is native of Mexico, West Indies and Peru.It may be found in Brazil, Peru, Bolivia, Colombia, Uruguay, Paraquay, Venezuela and the three Guianas. It  grows wild throughout the Amazon rainforest.

Dorstenia Contrayerva is a small herb growing about 8 or 10 inches high with distinctly veined leaves and small basket-shaped flowers. Dorstenia is one of the few genuses in the large Moraceae family that produces small herbaceous plants.It produces a reddish-brown cylindrical rhizome that is 2-4 cm long and about 1 cm thick with many small roots.

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Name derived from a Spanish-American word signifying counterpoison or antidote. It is probable that the root sold as Contrayerva is derived from several species of Dorstenia, others being Dorstenia Houstoni and D. Drabena, the former growing near Campeachy, the latter near Vera Cruz. The official root is the product of D. Brasiliensis and comes from Brazil. The commercial root is oblong, 1 or 2 inches long, thickness varies, hard rough solid, outside reddish brown, paler inside, odour aromatic, taste warm, bitter, pungent, rootlets notas strong as main tubes. The root properties are extracted by alcohol and boiling water, and makes a very mucilaginous decoction.

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Medicinal Uses:

Part Used: Root.

Chemical Constituents: Cajupine and contrayerbine.

The root is used medicinally and it is considered in herbal medicine systems. It is stimulant, tonic, and diaphoretic.It is herbal remedy for fevers, typhoid, dysentery, diarrhoea, diarrhea and dysentery, skin problems, ear aches and ear infections, anemia, menstrual problems, high blood pressure, cystitis, malaria, upper respiratory problems, and digestive disorders. and other illnesses needing a stimulant.

The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider


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Herbs & Plants

Dumur (Ficus racemosa)

Botanical Name :Ficus racemosa
Family: Moraceae
Genus: Ficus
Species: F. racemosa
Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Rosales

syn.: Ficus glomerata

Common Names:Cluster Fig Tree, Indian Fig Tree or Goolar (Gular) Fig]

Names in regional languages:-
Attikka in Sinhala
Atti in Kannada
Medi Pandu in Telugu
Malaiyin munivan in Tamil
Aththi in Tamil
Aththi in Malayalam.
Umbar)  or Oudumbar in Marathi.
Dumur in Bengali
Dumri in Nepal

Habitat :Ficus racemosa grows Moist areas, beside rivers and streams, occasionally in streams; 100-1700 m. S Guangxi, Guizhou, Yunnan  This tree is found in India, Indonesia, Myanmar, Nepal, New Guinea, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Vietnam; Australia.

Ficus racemosa Trees are  25-30 m tall, d.b.h. 60-90 cm; monoecious. Bark grayish brown, smooth. Branchlets, young leaf blades, and figs with bent hairs or densely covered with white soft pubescence. Branchlets brown. Stipules ovate-lanceolate, 1.5-2 cm, membranous, pubescent. Leaves alternate; petiole 2-3 cm; leaf blade elliptic-obovate, elliptic, or narrowly elliptic, 10-14 × 3-4.5(-7) cm, ± leathery, abaxially pale green, pubescent when young, glabrescent, and ± scabrous, adaxially dark green and glabrous, base cuneate to obtuse, margin entire, apex acuminate to obtuse; basal lateral veins 2, secondary veins 4-8 on each side of midvein. Figs in a tumorlike aggregate on short branchlets of old stem, occasionally axillary on leafy shoot or on older leafless branchlets, paired, reddish orange when mature, pear-shaped, 2-2.5 cm in diam., basally attenuated into a stalk, apical pore navel-like, flat; peduncle ca. 1 cm; involucral bracts triangular-ovate. Male, gall, and female flowers within same fig. Male flowers: near apical pore, sessile; calyx lobes 3 or 4; stamens 2. Gall and female flowers: pedicellate; calyx lobes linear, apex 3- or 4-toothed; style lateral; stigma clavate. Fl. May-Jul.

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Edible Uses:
In India particularly in Bengal the fruits are eaten as vegitable.

Medicinal Uses:
Ficus racemosa Linn. (Moraceae) is a popular medicinal plant in India, which has long been used in Ayurveda, the ancient system of Indian medicine, for various diseases/disorders including diabetes, liver disorders, diarrhea, inflammatory conditions, hemorrhoids, respiratory, and urinary diseases. F. racemosa is pharmacologically studied for various activities including antidiabetic, antipyretic, anti-inflammatory, antitussive, hepatoprotective, and antimicrobial activities. A wide range of phytochemical constituents have been identified and isolated from various parts of F. racemosa. In this review, a comprehensive account of its traditional uses, phytochemical constituents, and pharmacological effects is presented in view of the many recent findings of importance on this plant.

The bark of Audumbar/Oudumbar tree is said to have healing power. In countries like India, the bark is rubbed on a stone with water to make a paste and the paste is applied over the skin which is afflicted by boils or mosquito bites. Allow the paste to dry on the skin and reapply after a few hours. For people whose skin is especially sensitive to insect bites; this is a very simple.

Other Uses:
In ancient times both Hindu and Buddhist ascetics on their way to Taxila, (Original name is Taksha Sila) travelling through vast areas of Indian forests used to consume the fruit during their travels. One challenge to vegetarians were the many fig wasps that one finds when opening a gular fig. One way to get rid of them was to break the figs into halves or quarters, discard most of the seeds and then place the figs into the midday sun for an hour. Gular fruit are almost never sold commercially because of this problem.Fruits are very good food to birds.

The Ovambo people call the fruit of the Cluster Fig eenghwiyu and use it to distill Ombike, their traditional liquor.

The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.


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Herbs & Plants


Pipal tree (Ficus religiosa), a native tree of India, held sacred by the Buddhists, who believe that Gautama Buddha received enlightenment under a Bo tree at Bodh Gaya. The Bo tree attains great size and age; the leaves, which hang from long, flexible petioles, rustle in the slightest breeze. Pipal is also spelled peepul or pipul.

The botanical classification of the  tree is:

Botanical Name : Ficus religiosa Linn
Family Name: .
vernacular Name: Sans
ashvatthah ,Hindpippal , Eng – sacred tree , Bengali -Asotha

Habitat: Native to India, Grows in Bangladesh,Burma, Sreelankha and Thiland

Common Names: bodhi tree, pippala tree, peepul tree, peepal tree or ashwattha tree

Description of the Plant:

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Large tree. Flower color red. Flowers in February. Fruits in May / June. Widely found in uplands and plain area.The Sacred Fig Ficus religiosa, also known as Bo (from the Sinhalese Bo), Pipal (Peepul) or Ashwattha tree, is a species of banyan fig native to India, southwest China and Indochina east to Vietnam. It is a large dry season-deciduous or semi-evergreen tree up to 30 m tall and with a trunk diameter of up to 3 m
The leaves are cordate in shape with a distinctive extended tip; they are 10-17 cm long and 8-12 cm broad, with a 6-10 cm petiole. The fruit is a small fig 1-1.5 cm diameter, green ripening purple
The peepal is one of the best known trees of India. The peepal is considered very sacred and venerated by the Hindus & the Buddhists. It is mentioned in the Vedas & Epics. The saints (rishis) of yore meditated under it. It was under the peepal tree that Gautam Buddha attained enlightenment & that particular tree came to be called “Bodhi”, the “Tree of wisdom”. In the popular Indian fold core, the peepal is considered as a female to the male Banyan. Peepal tree grows to large proportions. The tree is found wild in the forests on the lower slopes of the Himalayas, Orissa & in central India. It also grows in most parts of India, especially on the banks of rivers & lakes.

Plant Parts Used: All parts of the Pipal tree, including roots, bark, leaf and fruit, are useful

Healing & curative properties: –
The leaves of peepal tree are useful in many common ailments. Its leaves are laxative and a tonic. They relieve feverish feeling of coolness. They are also useful in arresting secretion or bleeding. In such cases, about 50 ml of raw juice of the leaves or 1 teaspoon of powdered dried leaves can be taken with water.

Heart diseases:
The leaves of the peepal are used in the treatment of heart diseases. The leaves are infused in water at night. Distilled the following morning & then stored in white bottles. About 15 mg of this infusion is administered thrice daily. It is highly effective in relieving palpitation of the heart & cardiac weakness.

The leaves of peepal should be dried in the shade & powdered. Pills are made by adding the required quantity of a solution of anise & jaggery with water. One pill taken with warm milk at bedtime ensures proper bowl movement, the following morning. In the same way, the fruits can be dried in shade, powdered & mixed with an equal quantity of sugar. This compound in doses of 4 to 6 GMS, taken at bedtime with milk, serves the same function.

Dysentery: –
Equal parts of tender leave, coriander leaves & sugars are chewed slowly to relieve the condition.

The leaves of peepal ground fine, mixed 25 gms of jaggery and made into 8 pills. One pill taken daily with milk can also relieve pain due to injury.

Mumps: –

Peepal leaves smeared with ghee, warmed over a fire & bandaged over the inflamed part (mumps) to get relieve.

Boils: –
A leaf of peepal smeard with ghee can be banged like worm on the boil. If there is any pus formation, it will burst, if it is in preliminary stages, the growth will subside in initial stage itself.

Other uses: –

In Ayurveda a peepal grown on a cemented wall , with its roots still not reaching the ground, is a specific treatment for serious disease of the neck.A plaster- like paste prepared by rubbing its roots with water can be applied on the affected glands. A popular remedy for excessive urine output amongst jaundice patience is to soak a piece of tender bark of the peepal in water overnight & allow the water to be taken the following morning. According to Hakeem Hashmi, peepal fruits dried in shade & powdered are helpful in sexual disorders such as spermatorrhoea, nocturnal emissions & premature ejaculation.

As per Ayurveda:
Sacred fig is madhura, kasaya and sheetaveerya; subdues deranged function of kapha and pitta; useful in the treatment of dyscrasia and burning sensation of the body. The ripe fruits exert immediate action in the diseases of female genital organs

Parts used: bark, leaves, tender shoots, fruits, seeds, latex

Properties and uses:
The bark is astringent, sweet, cooling and aphrodisiac. and an aqueous extract of it has an antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aurells and Escherichia coli. It is used in the treatment of gonorrhoea, diarrhoea, dysentery, haemorrhoids and gastrohelcosis.

Bark is found efficacious in gonorrhoea; pulverised bark is applied externally on unhealthy ulcer and wounds to promote granulation; efficacious when rubbed with honey and applied to aphthous sores of children. Infusion of the bark is astringent.

The bark has an acrid bad taste; useful in inflammations and glandular swelling of the neck.

A paste of the powdered bark is a good absorbent for inflammatory swellings and good for burns.
Leaves and tender shoots have purgative properties and are also recommended for wounds and skin diseases.

Tender and fresh leaves found beneficial when used along with butter-fat to cover the inflammatory areas of ulcer; oil, medicated with the leaves, cures earache when used as eardrops

The old leaves soaked in water stop vomiting.

Fruits are laxative and digestive; the dried fruit pulverised and taken in water cure, asthma: seeds are refrigerant and laxative.

The fruit is purgative, aphrodisiac; checks vomiting

The latex is good for neuralgia,. inflammations and haemorrhages.

All the parts are bitter, sweetish, acrid, cooling; useful in diseases, of the blood, vagina, uterus; given in leucorrhoea, burning sensation, biliousness, ulcers.-

The ripe fruit is cooling; alexipharmic; good for burning sensation, foul taste, thirst, biliousness, diseases of the blood and heart.-

The root is good for gout; the root bark is useful in stomatitis, to cleanse ulcers, as an astringent in leucorrhoea, to promote granulatlons.-The young bark is useful in bone fracture.-
The root bark is aphrodisiac and good for lumbago.-
The seeds are said to be cooling and alterative. The seeds are useful in urinary discharges

The leaves and young shoots are used as a purgative, and an infusion of the bark is given internally in scabies.
A paste of the powdered bark is used. as an absorbent in inflammatory swellings.

The dried fruit, pulverized and taken in water for a fortnight, removes asthma, and produces fruitfulness in women. Water in which the freshly.burnt bark has been ,steeped is said to cure cases of obstinate hiccup.

In cracked foot the juice is employed.
The powder of the dried bark is used in fistula in ano;
The juice of the bark is used as a mouth wash for toothache and for strengthening the gums.

Disclaimer:The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Miracles of Herbs