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Gestational Diabetes

Definition:
Gestational diabetes (or gestational diabetes mellitus, GDM) is a condition in which women without previously diagnosed diabetes exhibit high blood glucose levels during pregnancy (especially during their third trimester). Gestational diabetes is caused when insulin receptors do not function properly. This is likely due to pregnancy-related factors such as the presence of human placental lactogen that interferes with susceptible insulin receptors. This in turn causes inappropriately elevated blood sugar levels.

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Gestational diabetes generally has few symptoms and it is most commonly diagnosed by screening during pregnancy. Diagnostic tests detect inappropriately high levels of glucose in blood samples. Gestational diabetes affects 3-10% of pregnancies, depending on the population studied.

As with diabetes mellitus in pregnancy in general, babies born to mothers with untreated gestational diabetes are typically at increased risk of problems such as being large for gestational age (which may lead to delivery complications), low blood sugar, and jaundice. If untreated, it can also cause seizures or stillbirth. Gestational diabetes is a treatable condition and women who have adequate control of glucose levels can effectively decrease these risks. The food plan is often the first recommended target for strategic management of GDM.

Clasifications:
There are two subtypes of gestational diabetes:
Type A1: abnormal oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), but normal blood glucose levels during fasting and two hours after meals; diet modification is sufficient to control glucose levels

Type A2: abnormal OGTT compounded by abnormal glucose levels during fasting and/or after meals; additional therapy with insulin or other medications is required

Approximately 7% of all pregnancies are complicated by GDM, resulting in more than 200,000 cases annually. The prevalence may range from 1 to 14% of all pregnancies, depending on the population studied and the diagnostic tests employed.

Symptoms:
Because gestational diabetes does not cause much symptoms, the patient need to be tested for the condition. This is usually done between the 24th and 28th weeks of pregnancy. It is surprised if your test shows a high blood sugar level and is important for the patient to be tested for gestational diabetes, because high blood sugar can cause problems for both the pregnent woman and the baby.Sometimes, a pregnant woman has been living with diabetes without knowing it. If she has the  symptoms of diabetes  and that may include:

*Increased thirst.
*Increased urination.
*Increased hunger.
*Blurred vision.

Pregnancy causes most women to urinate more often and to feel more hungry, so having these symptoms doesn’t always mean that a woman has diabetes.Doctor should be consulted wheather  these symptoms are for diabetes  and then he can suggest for the test of diabetes.

*Infections:
Since diabetes interferes with the body’s ability to fight infections, the pregnant woman may experience frequent infections in areas such as the bladder, vagina and skin. White blood cells defend the body against bacteria, but these cells aren’t able to function normally when a person has a high blood sugar. A woman with gestational diabetes may also complain of a yeast infection in the vagina or on the skin. Yeast cells are normally present in the vaginal area in small amounts. The vaginal secretions and urine contain more glucose when a woman has gestational diabetes. The yeast cells use the glucose as food, which causes the cells to multiply. With the body’s immune system compromised by the high level of glucose in the blood, this increase in yeast cells turns into a yeast infection.

*High Blood Sugar:
Since a woman may not have any noticeable symptoms of gestational diabetes and symptoms can mimic regular pregnancy symptoms, screening for this condition is part of prenatal care for at-risk women between weeks 24 and 28 of pregnancy. The doctor will initially order a blood test called a glucose challenge test. If the glucose challenge test indicates a high blood sugar level, the doctor may order a glucose tolerance test to confirm the diagnosis of gestational diabetes. Both tests involve drinking a sweet glucose solution and having your blood drawn after a prescribed amount of time.

Causes:
Almost all women have some degree of impaired glucose intolerance as a result of hormonal changes that occur during pregnancy. That means that their blood sugar may be higher than normal, but not high enough to have diabetes. During the later part of pregnancy (the third trimester), these hormonal changes place pregnant woman at risk for gestational diabetes.

During pregnancy, increased levels of certain hormones made in the placenta (the organ that connects the baby by the umbilical cord to the uterus) help shift nutrients from the mother to the developing fetus. Other hormones are produced by the placenta to help prevent the mother from developing low blood sugar.

They work by resisting the actions of insulin.
Over the course of the pregnancy, these hormones lead to progressive impaired glucose intolerance (higher blood sugar levels). To try to decrease blood sugar levels, the body makes more insulin to get glucose into cells to be used for energy.
Usually, the mother’s pancreas is able to produce more insulin (about three times the normal amount) to overcome the effect of the pregnancy hormones on blood sugar levels. If, however, the pancreas cannot produce enough insulin, blood sugar levels will rise, resulting in gestational diabetes.

Risk factors:
Any woman can develop gestational diabetes, but some women are at greater risk. Risk factors for gestational diabetes include:

*Age greater than 25. Women older than age 25 are more likely to develop gestational diabetes.
*Family or personal health history. the risk of developing gestational diabetes increases if the woman has prediabetes — slightly elevated blood sugar that may be a precursor to type 2 diabetes — or if a close family member, such as a parent or sibling, has type 2 diabetes.the woman is also more likely to develop gestational diabetes if she had it during a previous pregnancy, if the woman delivered a baby who weighed more than 9 pounds (4.1 kilograms), or if she had an unexplained stillbirth.
*Excess weight. You’re more likely to develop gestational diabetes if you’re significantly overweight with a body mass index (BMI) of 30 or higher.
*Race factor. For reasons that aren’t clear, women who are black, Hispanic, American Indian or Asian are more likely to develop gestational diabetes.

Complications:
Most women who have gestational diabetes deliver healthy babies. However, gestational diabetes that’s not carefully managed can lead to uncontrolled blood

sugar levels and cause problems for patient and the baby, including an increased likelihood of needing a C-section to deliver.

Complications that may affect the baby are:
1.Excessive birth weight. Extra glucose in your bloodstream crosses the placenta, which triggers your baby’s pancreas to make extra insulin. This can cause the baby to grow too large (macrosomia). Very large babies — those that weigh 9 pounds or more — are more likely to become wedged in the birth canal, sustain birth injuries or require a C-section birth.

2.Early (preterm) birth and respiratory distress syndrome. A mother’s high blood sugar may increase her risk of early labor and delivering her baby before its due date. Or her doctor may recommend early delivery because the baby is large.

3.Babies born early may experience respiratory distress syndrome — a condition that makes breathing difficult. Babies with this syndrome may need help breathing until their lungs mature and become stronger. Babies of mothers with gestational diabetes may experience respiratory distress syndrome even if they’re not born early.

4.Low blood sugar (hypoglycemia). Sometimes babies of mothers with gestational diabetes develop low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) shortly after birth because their own insulin production is high. Severe episodes of hypoglycemia may provoke seizures in the baby. Prompt feedings and sometimes an intravenous glucose solution can return the baby’s blood sugar level to normal.

5.Type 2 diabetes later in life. Babies of mothers who have gestational diabetes have a higher risk of developing obesity and type 2 diabetes later in life.
Untreated gestational diabetes can result in a baby’s death either before or shortly after birth.

Complications that may affect the patient are:
1.High blood pressure and preeclampsia. Gestational diabetes raises your risk of high blood pressure, as well as, preeclampsia — a serious complication of pregnancy that causes high blood pressure and other symptoms that can threaten the lives of both mother and baby.

2.Future diabetes. If the pregnent woman has gestational diabetes, she is more likely to get it again during a future pregnancy and also more likely to develop type 2 diabetes as she gets older. However, making healthy lifestyle choices such as eating healthy foods and exercising can help reduce the risk of future type 2 diabetes.Of those women with a history of gestational diabetes who reach their ideal body weight after delivery, fewer than 1 in 4 eventually develops type 2 diabetes.

Diagnosis:
Gestational diabetes usually starts halfway through the pregnancy. All pregnant women should receive an oral glucose tolerance test between the 24th and 28th week of pregnancy to screen for the condition. Women who have risk factors for gestational diabetes may have this test earlier in the pregnancy.

Once the pregnent woman is diagnosed with gestational diabetes, she can see how well she is doing by testing the glucose level at home. The most common way involves pricking her finger and putting a drop of the blood on a machine that will give her the glucose reading.

Treatment:
The goals of treatment are to keep blood sugar (glucose) levels within normal limits during the pregnancy, and to make sure that the growing baby is healthy.

Watching the baby:
1.The health care provider should closely check both the patient  and the baby throughout the pregnancy. Fetal monitoring will check the size and health of the fetus.

2.A nonstress test is a very simple, painless test for the patient and the baby.

3.A machine that hears and displays the baby’s heartbeat (electronic fetal monitor) is placed on the abdomen.
The health care provider can compare the pattern of the baby’s heartbeat to movements and find out whether the baby  is doing well.

Diet and exercise:
The best way to improve the pregnent woman’s diet is by eating a variety of healthy foods.She should learn how to read food labels, and check them when making food decisions.The doctor or dietitian  should advice the diet chart and that should be strictly followed  during pregnancy.

In general, when the pregnent woman has gestational diabetes the diet should:
*Be moderate in fat and protein.

#Provide  carbohydrates through foods that include fruits, vegetables, and complex carbohydrates (such as bread, cereal, pasta, and rice)
Be low in foods that contain a lot of sugar, such as soft drinks, fruit juices, and pastries.

#If managing the diet does not control blood sugar (glucose) levels, she may be prescribed diabetes medicine by mouth or insulin therapy.
Most women who develop gestational diabetes will not need diabetes medicines or insulin, but some will.

Prevention:
Theoretically, smoking cessation may decrease the risk of gestational diabetes among smokers.Physical exercise has not been found to have a significant effect of primary prevention of gestational diabetes in randomized controlled trials. It may be effective as tertiary prevention for women who have already developed the condition.
Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advise or help. It is always best to consult with a Physician about serious health concerns. This information is in no way intended to diagnose or prescribe remedies.This is purely for educational purpose.

Resources:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gestational_diabetes
http://www.webmd.com/diabetes/guide/gestational-diabetes-symptoms
http://www.ehow.com/list_6080912_signs-symptoms-gestational-diabetes.html
http://www.webmd.com/diabetes/guide/gestational_diabetes
http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/gestational-diabetes/basics/risk-factors/CON-20014854
http://www.nytimes.com/health/guides/disease/gestational-diabetes/overview.html

Calluna

Botanical Name :Calluna vulgaris
Family: Ericaceae
Genus: Calluna
Salisb.
Species: C. vulgaris
Kingdom: Plantae
clade: Angiosperms
clade: Eudicots
clade: Asterids
Order: Ericales

Common Name:Common Heather, ling, or simply heather

Habitat :Calluna is found widely in Europe and Asia Minor on acidic soils in open sunny situations and in moderate shade. It is the dominant plant in most heathland and moorland in Europe, and in some bog vegetation and acidic pine and oak woodland. It is tolerant of grazing and regenerates following occasional burning, and is often managed in nature reserves and grouse moors by sheep or cattle grazing, and also by light burning.

Description:
It is a low-growing perennial shrub growing to 20 to 50 centimetres (7.9 to 20 in) tall, or rarely to 1 metre (39 in) and taller.Primary flower color  is red  that  blooms during late summer to fall. Zones 4, 5, 6, 7, 8
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Cultivation:
Despised until the 19th century for its associations with the most rugged rural poverty, heather’s growth in popularity may be paralleled with the vogue for alpine plants. It is a very popular ornamental plant in gardens and for landscaping, in lime-free areas where it will thrive, but has defeated many a gardener on less acid soil. There are many named cultivars, selected for variation in flower colour and for different foliage colour and growing habits.

Different cultivars have flower colours ranging from white, through pink and a wide range of purples, and including reds. The flowering season with different cultivars extends from late July to November in the northern hemisphere. The flowers may turn brown but still remain on the plants over winter, and this can lead to interesting decorative effects.

Cultivars with ornamental foliage are usually selected for reddish and golden leaf colour. A few forms can be silvery grey. Many of the ornamental foliage forms change colour with the onset of winter weather, usually increasing in intensity of colour. Some forms are grown for distinctive young spring foliage.

The plant was introduced to New Zealand and has become an invasive weed in some areas, notably the Tongariro National Park on the North Island and the Wilderness Reserve (Te Anau) on the South Island, overgrowing native plants. Heather beetles have been released to stop the heather, with preliminary trials successful to date.

Cultivars include ‘Beoley Crimson’ (Crimson red), ‘Boskoop’ (light purple), ‘Cuprea’ (copper), ‘Firefly’ (deep mauve),‘Long White’ (white).

Medicinal Uses:
It was used in baths for easing joint and muscle pain, and taken for urinary infections and to ease sleep. An infusion of the dried flowers helped to decrease nervousness, sleeplessness and the pains of rheumatism.  It was also recommended as a bath for babies who were failing to thrive. Today, heather makes a useful urinary antiseptic when taken internally due to the arbutin it contains, and can be taken for cystitis, urethritis and prostatitis.  It has a mild diuretic action, reducing fluid retention and hastening elimination of toxins via the kidneys.  It makes a good cleansing remedy for gout and arthritis as well as skin problems such as acne.  It has a mildly sedative action and can easy anxiety, muscle tension and insomnia.  A hot poultice of heather tips is a traditional remedy for chilblains.

Other Uses:
Hummingbirds & Butterflies, Fragrant, Borders, Rock Gardens, Showy Flowers
Heather is an important food source for various sheep and deer which can graze the tips of the plants when snow covers low-growing vegetation. Willow Grouse and Red Grouse feed on the young shoots and seeds of this plant. Both adult and larva of the Heather Beetle Lochmaea suturalis feed on it, and can cause extensive mortality in some instances. The larvae of a number of Lepidoptera species also feed on the plant.

Formerly heather was used to dye wool yellow and to tan leather. With malt heather is an ingredient in gruit, a mixture of flavourings used in the brewing of heather-beer during the Middle Ages before the use of hops. Thomas Pennant wrote in A Tour in Scotland (1769) that on the Scottish island of Islay “ale is frequently made of the young tops of heath, mixing two thirds of that plant with one of malt, sometimes adding hops”. The use of heather in the brewing of modern heather beer is carefully regulated. By law[specify] the heather must be cleaned carefully before brewing, as the undersides of the leaves may contain a dusting of an ergot-like fungus, which is a hallucinogenic intoxicant.[citation needed]

Heather honey is a highly valued product in moorland and heathland areas, with many beehives being moved there in late summer. Not always as valued as it is today, and dismissed as mel improbum by Dioscurides. Heather honey has a characteristic strong taste, and an unusual texture, for it is thixotropic, being a jelly until stirred, when it becomes a syrup like other honey, but then sets again to a jelly. This makes the extraction of the honey from the comb difficult, and it is therefore often sold as comb honey.

White heather is regarded in Scotland as being lucky, a tradition brought from Balmoral to England by Queen Victoria. and sprigs of it are often sold as a charm and worked into bridal bouquets.

Disclaimer:
The information presented herein is intended for educational purposes only. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Resources:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Calluna
http://www.americanmeadows.com/heather-lady-in-red
http://www.herbnet.com/Herb%20Uses_FGH.htm

http://www.types-of-flowers.org/heather.html

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Breastfeeding Cuts Breast Cancer Risk

Breastfeeding an infant

Image via Wikipedia

Moms-to-be, please note — if you want to cut the risk of developing breast cancer later in life, just make it a point to breastfeed your baby for a year, at least.

 

A new study has corroborated the popular theory that breastfeeding significantly reduces a mother‘s risk of breast cancer — in fact, researchers have found women who breastfeed for a year are five per cent less likely to have the disease.

“Reducing your breast cancer risk by about five per cent might not sound like a big difference but the longer you breastfeed for, the more you will reduce your risk.

“So if a woman breastfeeds two or more children for at least six months each over her lifetime, it is clear she can make a significant impact on the cancer risk, not to mention all the other benefits of breastfeeding,” Dr Rachel Thompson of the World Cancer Research Fund said.

A recent survey for the WCRF found that three out of four women were unaware that breastfeeding could cut their risk of developing breast cancer, the most common form of cancer in the fair sex, The Daily Telegraph reported.

Dr Thompson has urged mothers to breastfeed for as long as they could.

She said: “We want to get across the message that breastfeeding is something positive that women can do to reduce their risk of breast cancer.

“Because the evidence that breast-feeding reduces breast cancer risk is convincing, we recommend women should breastfeed exclusively for six months and then continue with complementary feeding after that.”

Sources: The Times Of India

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Sadness & Depression is Unhealthy

What contributes frowning to one’s face? Is it not sadness? This state of being is one of the many reasons why people who have emotional breakdown put their lives at risk. When deeper sadness or depression consumes the individual, illness and disturbance clog his mind and feelings.

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Most people who suffer from depression or extreme sadness are affected with the way they deal with their fellow man. Depressed people are sensitive and demand special attention. At times, depression swallows them and affects their relationship with other people, particularly their families and those who stay closer to them.

You have your ups and downs, but for the most part, you are moderately happy. There’s no burning desire to change your life. You’d probably have an uplifting effect on someone who is less happy than you, but at the same time, you could benefit if you associated with those happier than yourself.

Enthusiasm is a feeling similar to happiness but the emotion involved is intense. Enthusiasm is often associated with divine inspiration, an intense emotion deeper than happiness itself. However, our society’s status these days hinders people from being enthusiasts. Instead, many are grieving and saddened with what they see in the surroundings and in the whole world. Most people who were victimized by wars and social problems find enthusiasm impossible to feel. Why, even the richest people on earth feel sad at times. If this is the case, is it true that enthusiasm is elusive?

Many sigh because of sadness and bad experiences. We can say that indeed, happiness or enthusiasm is a relative state of being. This is the reason why many people resort to illicit drugs, thinking that they can escape the bitter experiences they are experiencing. They thought they can fake happiness for a few hours. Little did they know that no matter how difficult life is, happiness is still available and waiting to be rediscovered.

How can you promote and contribute to enthusiasm and happiness?

1. Set goals and seek life’s purpose. Happiness cannot be achieved overnight so starting early means experiencing happiness the soonest.

2. Take away all the bitterness you kept for years. Learn to say sorry and accept your limitations.

3. Keep your life simple by allotting time for you to relax and enjoy wholesome recreation.

4. Learn to develop self-worth. Love your deeds and do favors for yourself. Adopt changes if necessary and if you feel like you are bored in doing routines.

5. Humbly accept others support and appreciate small gifts from them.

6. Try rendering support or reciprocating the kindness shown to you.

7. Develop hobbies that will contribute to your self-worth. Some women and housewives, for instance, love gardening. They at times talk to their plants. They find this rewarding in most ways.

8. Read some inspirational books. Keep simple but inspiring messages and share these to others. Remember that giving brings joy to every person; learn the value of generosity at all times.

9. Constantly communicate to others your inspiring and up building stories. Learn to accept feedbacks from your listeners.

10. Learn to be flexible, accept the fact that everything does not just happen the way you think everything should be.

Keeping these simple things in mind, I can say that happiness and enthusiasm are not that difficult to find. Many people pay huge amounts of money just to have the opportunity to gain worthwhile experiences. In the end, these people are convinced that the real happiness they seek cannot be bought. It can be achieved in many ways; but to find it, they must be humble enough to compromise some wants in exchange of the need to be happy.Always try to get rid of GRID. Grid and desire are not same.Grid will make you unhappy but desire will encourage you to succeed and success will give you happiness.

DOING REGULAR YOGA EXERCISE & PRANAYAMA  UNDER THE GUIDELINES  OF AN EXPERT WILL BE THE BEST MEDICINE FOR GETTING OUT OF MENTAL DEPRESSION.